INguquko yeziMboni yesine

Mayelana Wikipedia
Inguquko yeziMboni yesiNe. Top-left: izithununu zisebenza ngohlakahlisombulu emtapho. Top-right: Isibhebhe esijotshelelwe esikhongca umdwebo nesibhalwa esiku-Wikipediaa. Bottom-left: umfanekiso woxhakaxholo lwezinto. Bottom-right: abakhozi basebenzisa i-Amazon Go, lapho beyothenga esitolo.

INguquko yesiNe yeziMboni, 4IR, noma Izimboni 4.0, [1] icabangisisa ushintsho olusheshayo kwezobuchwepheshe, izimboni, nezifanelo zomphakathi kanye nezinqubo ekhulwini lama-21 ngenxa yokwanda kokuxhumana kanye nehleleleko esithatha. Leli gama lisetshenziswa kabanzi ezincwadini zesayensi, futhi ngowezi-2015 ladunyiswa ngu-Klaus Schwab, umsunguli nosihlalo wesiDlangala sezoMnotho soMhlaba (The World Economic Forum). U-Schwab wagamela ngokuthi izinguquko esizibonayo zingaphezu kokuthuthukiswa ukuze sisebenze kahle, kodwa ziveza ukugudluka okuphawulekayo kwezobugombelakwesakhe bezemboni.


Ingxenye yalesigaba soshintsho lwezimboni ukuhlanganiswa kwezobuchwepheshe ezifana nohlakahlisombulu, ukuhlela izifuzisi (gene editing), kuya kwezubuthununu ezithuthukisiwe ezifiphaza umehluko phakathi kwezwe loqobo, lwezezibhangqiwe, nelemvelo.

Kukho konke lokhu, ukugudluka okuyisisekelo okwenzekayo endleleni uxhoxho lokukhiqiza nokuhlinzeka lomhlaba eligidinga ngayo ngokuhlelelekwa okuqhubekayo kwezindlela zokukhiqiza nokukhanda zakuqala, kusetshenziswa ezobuchwepheshe ezintwesi zanamuhla, ukuxhumana kwezinga elikhulu kwenguxa-nenguxa (M2M), kanye noxhakaxholo lwezinto (IoT). Lokhu kuhlayizwa kube nomphumela wukukhula kwenhleleleko, ukuthuthuka kwezokuxhumana nokuzalusa-siqu, kanye nokusetshenziswa kwezinguxa ezintwesi ezikwazi ukuhlaziya nokuxilonga izindaba ngaphandle kwesidingo sokungenela komuntu.

Kuphinde kumelele ugudluko lomphakathi, umbusazwe nomnotho kusuka enkathini yezezibhangqiwe yasekupheleni kweminyaka ye-1990 nasekuqaleni kweminyaka yezi-2000 kuya enkathini yoxhumano olufakelelwe oluhlukaniswa ukusebenza-ndawozonke (omni-use) nokufana kokusebenza kwezobuchwepheshe emphakathini wonke (e.g. a metaverse) okuguqula izindlela abantu abangcwetha ngayo futhi bazuze nolwazi lwezwe elibazungezile. Kuphakamisa ukuthi sesidale futhi sisengena kwinGempela lomphakathi elojotshelelwe (augmented social reality) uma liqhathaniswa nokuzwa okungokwemvelo namakhono wezimboni wabantu kukodwa.

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umushwana othi iNguquko yeziMboni yesine wangeniswa okokuqala ithimba labosonzululwazi ababethuthukisela uhulumeni waseJakimani iqhingasu lobunyonico obuphezulu. UKlaus Schwab, ongusihlalo wesigungu sesiDlangala sezoMnotho soMhlaba (World Economic Forum (WEF)), wangenisa lomushwana ezihlweleni ezibanzi ngonyaka ka- 2015 kwisibhalwa esashicilelwa uMnyango wezangaphandle. "Ukuhuqaza iNguquko yeziMboni yesine" ("Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution") kwakuyisihloko sango-2016 soMhlangano woNyaka wesiDlangala sezoMnotho soMhlaba (World Economic Forum Annual Meeting), e-Davos-Klosters, kwelase-Switzerland.

Mhla zili-10 Kumfumfu 2016, lesiDlangala samemezela ukuvulwa kwesiKhungo seNguquko yeziMboni yesine e-San Francisco. Lokhu kwabuye kwaba isihloko sencwadi kaSchwab yangowezi-2016. U-Schwab uhlanganisa kulenkathi yesine ezobuchwepheshe ezivuba ubuxhakansebenzo (hardware), izinhlelokusebenza (software), nomchazampilo (cyber-physical systems), futhi ugcizelela intuthuko kwezokuxhumana noxhumano. U-Schwab ulindela ukuba lenkathi iphawulwe ezobuchwepheshe ezisafufusa eziqopha umlando emikhakheni efana nezobuthununu, uhlakahlisombulu, ubuchwepheshenci (nanotechnology), ukuCikiza ngomngako (quantum computing), ubuchwepheshempilo (biotechnology), uxhakaxholo lwezinto, uxhakaxholo lwezinto lwezimboni, ukuvumelana okunyombonisiwe, ezobuchwepheshe ezingenantambo zohlobo lwesihlanu (5G), ukushicilela ngemiyinge emithathu (3D printing), nezithuthi zenhleleleko ngokugcwele.

Esiphakamisweni esithi "The Great Reset" se-WEF, iNguquko yeziMboni yesine ifakwe njengobuhlakani beqhingasu esixazululweni sokwakha kabusha umnotho uzolondolozeka ngemuva kobhadane lwe-COVID-19.

  1. Bai, Chunguang; Dallasega, Patrick; Orzes, Guido; Sarkis, Joseph (1 November 2020). "Industry 4.0 technologies assessment: A sustainability perspective" (in en). International Journal of Production Economics 229: 107776. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2020.107776. ISSN 0925-5273. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925527320301559.