Ikhaboni

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Ikhaboni Atom

Ikhaboni (from Latin: carbo "coal") yikhemikhali yesikhombisa.Akusiyona indimbi -okwenza ama-electron amane atholakale ukwakha ama-covalent bonds. Iqembu le-14 letafula lezikhathi ezithile. I-Carbon yakha kuphela amaphesenti ayi-0.025 woqweqwe lomhlaba. Ama-isotopu amathathu avela ngokwemvelo, i-12C ne-13C izinzile, kuyilapho i-14C iyi-radionuclide, ibola ngempilo yengxenye yeminyaka engaba ngu-5 730. ingenye yezinto ezimbalwa ezaziwa kusukela endulo.

Glassy_carbon_and_a_1cm3_graphite_cube_HP68-79

Ikhabhoni ingakha amaketanga amade kakhulu wokuxhuma amabhondi e-carbon-carbon, impahla ebizwa ngokuthi yi-catenation. Ama-Carbon-carbon bond aqinile futhi azinzile. Ngokudliwa komhlaba, i-carbon yakha inqwaba yamakhemikhali. Isibalo samakhemikhali ahlukile sikhombisa ukuthi okuningi kuqukethe ikhabhoni kunalokho okungenakho. [81] Isimangalo esifanayo singenziwa nge-hydrogen ngoba iningi lama-organic compounds aqukethe i-hydrogen ngamakhemikhali ahlanganiswe nekhabhoni noma enye into ejwayelekile efana ne-oxygen noma i-nitrogen.

Uhlobo olulula kakhulu lwe-molecule ephilayo yi-hydrocarbon — umndeni omkhulu wama-molecule ephilayo akhiwe ngama-athomu e-hydrogen ahlanganiswe nochungechunge lwama-athomu esikhutha. Umgogodla we-hydrocarbon ungashintshwa ngamanye ama-athomu, aziwa ngokuthi ama-heteroatom. Ama-heteroatom avamile avela ezinhlanganisweni zezinto eziphilayo afaka i-oxygen, i-nitrogen, isulfure, i-phosphorus, nama-halogen angenawo umsakazo, kanye nezinsimbi i-lithium ne-magnesium. Amakhemikhali we-Organic aqukethe izibopho zensimbi ayaziwa njengama-organometallic compounds (bheka ngezansi). Ukuqoqwa okuthile kwama-athomu, okuvame ukufaka ama-heteroatom, kuphindaphindeka ngamanani amaningi ezinto eziphilayo. La maqoqo, aziwa njengamaqembu asebenzayo, anikeza amaphethini wokuphinda asebenze futhi avumela ukutadisha okuhlelekile nokuhlukaniswa kwamakhemikhali angokwemvelo. Ubude beketanga, ukuma namaqembu asebenzayo konke kuthinta izakhiwo zama-molecule ephilayo.

Ezingxenyeni ezizinzile kakhulu zekhabhoni (futhi cishe zonke izinhlanganisela ezizinzile zezinto eziphilayo), ikhabhoni ithobela umthetho we-octet futhi i-tetravalent, okusho ukuthi i-athomu yekhabhoni yakha izibopho ezine ezihlangene (ezingabandakanya izibopho eziphindwe kabili nezintathu). Okuhlukile kufaka inani elincane lezinto zokuzinza ezizinzile (amabhondi amathathu, imali ekhokhiswayo), ama-radicals (ama-bond amathathu, angathathi hlangothi), ama-carbanion (amabhondi amathathu, inkokhiso engemihle) nama-carbenes (ama-bond amabili, angathathi hlangothi), yize lezi zinhlobo zinamathuba amaningi okuthi zibe khona uhlangane njengabalamuli abangazinzile, abasebenza kahle.

Ikhabhoni yenzeka kuyo yonke impilo yemvelo eyaziwayo futhi iyisisekelo se-organic chemistry. Uma ihlanganiswe ne-hydrogen, yakha ama-hydrocarbon ahlukahlukene abalulekile embonini njengeziqandisi, izinto zokuthambisa, izincibilikisi, njenge-feedstock yamakhemikhali yokwenziwa kwamapulasitiki nama-petrochemicals, futhi njengamandla okubasa.

Izinhlanganisa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Uma ihlanganiswe ne-oxygen ne-hydrogen, i-carbon ingakha amaqembu amaningi ezinhlanganisela ezibalulekile zebhayoloji kufaka phakathi ushukela, ama-lignans, ama-chitin, ama-alcohol, amafutha, nama-ester anamakha, ama-carotenoids nama-terpenes. Nge-nitrogen yakha ama-alkaloid, futhi ngokungezwa kwesibabule futhi yakha ama-antibiotic, ama-amino acid, nemikhiqizo yenjoloba. Ngokungezwa kwe-phosphorus kulezi ezinye izakhi, yakha i-DNA ne-RNA, izakhi zokuthwala zamakhemikhali, kanye ne-adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ingqamuzana elidlulisa amandla kunawo wonke kumaseli aphilayo


Ikhaboni egayiwe