Umbuso Ohlangeneyo

From Wikipedia
Umbuso Ohlangeneyo
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Both Realms).svg
Isaga wesizwe: Dieu et mon droit
Inkondlo yesizwe: God Save the Queen[note 1]

EU-United Kingdom.svg
Izilimi isiNgisi,[1][2] isiAyilendi Gaeilge]], isiKoshi sase-Ulster Ulstèr-Scotch, Scottish Gaelic, isiKoshi Gàidhlig, isiWelisi Cymraeg, isiKornishi Kernowek[3]
Amaqembu wesiko 92.1% White
4.0% South Asian
2.0% Black
1.2% Mixed
0.4% Chinese
0.4% Other[4]
IDemonimi amaNgisi
Isiqongo ILondon
Ilathithudi 51N
Ilongithudi 0
Idolobha elikhulu ILondon
Uhulumeni Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Umholi nobukhosi uElizabeth II
Ungqongqoshe phezulu uTheresa May
Ubungako bendawo 243,610 km²
Inani labantu
 Lonke:
 Ukuminyana:

58,789,194(2001)[5]
255.6 ab./km²
GDP $2.233 trillion[6] (7th)
GDP per capita $35,646[6] (22nd)
GDP nominal $2.472 trillion[6]
GDP nominal per capita $39,459[6] (22nd)
HDI 0.863[7] (28th)
HDI category very high
Gini 41[8]
IMali Pound sterling (GBP)
Indawo yesikathi GMT (UTC +0)
Ukushayela Ukunxele
Inamba wucingo +44

Umbuso Ohlangeneyo (isiNgisi: United Kingdom) izwe laseYurophu. Uqukatha amazwe lezi: INgilandi, ISikotilandi, IWelisi, I-Ayilendi.

Umlando wegama[hlela | edit source]

e1707 "Acts of Union" uhlanganisa amazwe iNgilandi nosiKotilandi.[9][10][note 2][11] Igama "Umbuso Ohlangeneyo" ukusebenzisa ekhulunyaka yishumi nesishiyagalombili.[12][13][14][15] Igama "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" angeniswile e1927 nga-"Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act" ukunikela ukuzimela waFleyistata Ayilandi e1922.[16] Ushiya i-Ayilandi Senyakatho izwe kuphela esiqhingi, ukuhlanganyela wUmbuso Ohlangeneyo.

Umlando phambi kwa-1066[hlela | edit source]

Stonehenge, e-Wiltshire, akwakha e-2500BC.

Abantu nguNeolithiki abazinza iminyaka yinkulungwane ngamashumi amathathu kade.[17] Ekupheleni ikhathi udaladala, abantu bahlangene naqembu bambiza Insular Celtic, uqukatha Brythonic Britain no-i-Ayilendi Geyilikhi.[18] Emva kwaNhlaselo iRhomani, uqala 43 AD, nombuso iminyaka amakhulu okune (rule of southern Britain), inhlaselo isiJalimani (Anglo-Saxon).[19] Ingilandi wAnglo-Saxon uhlanganisa ungUmbuso iNgilandi ekhulunyaka yisishiyagalolunye.[20] Okwamanje, abantu Geyilikhi esiKotilandi senyakatho (nokuhlangana e-Ayilendi impumalanga nenyakatho)[21][22] bahlanganisa namaPikithi ukudala Umbuso isiKotilandi.[23]

e-1066, amasefulansi bangena iNgilandi.[24][25] Amakhosi isiNgisi banqoba iWelisi, bafeyila ukubanqoba isiKotilandi. Amakhosi isiNgisi, bamukela amaiziqithi eFulansi, namalungelo lobukhosi, pho balwa eFulansi, empi ngu-Impi Iminyaka Kakhulu.[26]

Ukuqhatha wemkolo ngenxa ya-Reformation nokungenisa wenkolo iProtestant.[27] IWelisi ukaka ngemibuso engilandi.[28] I-Ayilandi umbuso womshado yinskosana isiNgisi.[29] e-1603, imibuso wengilandi, wesiKotilandi no-Ayilandi bahlangana womshado ngenxa yaJames VI, King of Scots.


Notes[hlela | edit source]

  1. No law was passed making God Save the Queen the official anthem. In the British tradition, such laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are sufficient to make it the official national anthem. God Save the Queen also serves as the Royal anthem for several other countries.
  2. Compare to section 1 of both of the 1800 Acts of Union which reads: the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland shall...be united into one Kingdom, by the Name of "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland"


References[hlela | edit source]

  1. "direct.gov.uk" http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Governmentcitizensandrights/LivingintheUK/DG_10012519 Directgov: English language – Government, citizens and rights | Directgov | 23 August 2011
  2. "thecommonwealth.org">http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookHomeInternal/139560 Commonwealth Secretariat – UK | Commonwealth Secretariat | 23 August 2011
  3. Under the Council of Europe's European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Cornish, Irish, Scots and its regional variant Ulster Scots are officially recognised as Regional or Minority languages by the UK Government for the purposes of the Charter. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/ArtsCulture/gaelic/gaelic-english/17910/europeancharter%7Ctitle=European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages| publisher=Scottish Government |accessdate=11 December 2010
  4. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D6588.xlsTemplate:Fix/category[dead link]
  5. http://www.poverty.org.uk/09/index.shtml |title =Income inequalities |publisher=The Poverty Site |accessdate =21 April 2011}}
  6. http://www.scotshistoryonline.co.uk/union.html Treaty of Union, 1706 scotshistoryonline.co.uk 23 August 2011
  7. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=LYc1tSYonrQC&pg=PA165#v=onepage&q&f=false Constitutional & Administrative Law p165 Barnett, Hilaire | Jago, Robert | 8th edition 2011 9780415563017 Routledge, Abingdon | 5 July 2011
  8. Bamber Gascoigne. "History of Great Britain (from 1707)". History World. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab07. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  9. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/evolutionofparliament/legislativescrutiny/ | Acts of Union 1707 | parliament.uk | 21 July 2011
  10. http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/vli/visitingHolyrood/union_exhibition.pdf | Making the Act of Union 1707 | scottish.parliament.uk | 21 July 2011
  11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/7327029.stm England – Profile | BBC | 21 July 2011 | 10 February 2011
  12. http://www.history.org.uk/resources/he_resource_730_9.html | The Creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 | Historical Association | 21 July 2011
  13. The Irish Civil War 1922–23 | Cottrell, P. | 2008 | 85 | 1846032709
  14. "Ancient skeleton was 'even older'". BBC News. 30 October 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  15. Celtic culture: A historical encyclopedia | p973 | Koch, John T. | 9781851094400 | 2006 | ABC-CLIO | Santa Barbara, CA
  16. The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales | 2008 | University of Wales Press | Cardiff | 9780708319536 | p915}}
  17. Short Athelstan biography on the BBC History website
  18. Mackie, J.D. | A History of Scotland | London | Penguin | 1991 | 9780140136494 | p18–19
  19. Campbell, Ewan | Saints and Sea-kings: The First Kingdom of the Scots | Canongate | Edinburgh | 1999 | 0-86241-874-7 | p8–15
  20. Christopher Haigh | The Cambridge Historical Encyclopedia of Great Britain and Ireland | Cambridge University Press | 1990 | p30 | 9780521395526
  21. Feudalism | Ganshof, F.L. | p165 | 9780802071583 | University of Toronto | 1996
  22. The debate on the Norman Conquest | p115–122 | Chibnall, Marjorie | 1999 | Manchester University Press | 9780719049132
  23. Keen, Maurice. "The Hundred Years War". BBC History.
  24. The Reformation in England and Scotland and Ireland: The Reformation Period & Ireland under Elizabth I, Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  25. "British History in Depth – Wales under the Tudors". BBC History. 5 November 2009. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/wales_tudors_01.shtml. Retrieved 21 September 2010. 
  26. Nicholls, Mark (1999). A history of the modern British Isles, 1529–1603: The two kingdoms. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 171–172. ISBN 9780631193340. 



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