Anime

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I-Anime (isiJapane: ア ニ メ, i-IPA: [aɲime] (Mayelana nalolu luhlu lomsindo)) idwetshwe ngesandla ne-computer izithombe ezivela eJapane. EJapan naseJapan, i-anime (igama elisuselwa egameni lesiNgisi elithi animation) ichaza yonke imisebenzi enopopayi, ngaphandle kwesitayela noma imvelaphi. Kodwa-ke, ngaphandle kweJapane nangesiNgisi, i-anime ihlangana ngokugqwayiza kwaseJapan futhi ibhekisa ngqo kwizithombe ezenziwa eJapan. Ukugqwayiza okukhiqizwe ngaphandle kweJapane ngesitayela esifanayo nezopopayi zaseJapan kubhekiswa njengokugqwayiza okuthonywe yi-anime.

Izithombe zokuqala zaseJapane ezentengiselwano zaqala ngo-1917. Isitayela sobuciko esivelile savela ngawo-1960 ngemisebenzi yomdwebi wamakhathuni u-Osamu Tezuka futhi sasabalala emashumini eminyaka alandelayo, sakha izethameli eziningi zasekhaya. Ama-Anime asatshalaliswa kumdlalo waseshashalazini, ngokusakazwa kwethelevishini, ngqo emithonjeni yezindaba yasekhaya, naku -Intanethi . Ngaphezu kwemisebenzi yasekuqaleni, ama-anime ajwayele ukuguqulwa kwamahlaya amaJapan (ama- manga ), amanoveli akhanyayo, noma imidlalo yevidiyo . Ihlukaniswe ngezinhlobo eziningi ezibhekise kubabukeli abahlukahlukene nabanzi.

I-Anime iyindlela eyahlukahlukene enezindlela zokukhiqiza ezihlukile eziguqukele ekuphenduleni kubuchwepheshe obuvelayo. Ihlanganisa ubuciko bokuqhafaza, ukwakheka, i-cinematography, nezinye izinhlobo zamasu okucabanga nokuzenzela. Uma kuqhathaniswa nokugqwayiza kwaseNtshonalanga, ukukhiqizwa kwe-anime ngokuvamile kugxila ekunyakazeni, futhi kuningi emininingwaneni yezisetshenziswa kanye nokusetshenziswa "kwemiphumela yekhamera", njengokukhulisa, ukusondeza isithombe, nama-angle shots. Izitayela zobuciko ezahlukahlukene zisetshenzisiwe, futhi ubukhulu bezimpawu nezici zingahlukahluka kakhulu, ngesici sesici esifanayo kube ngamehlo amakhulu futhi athinta imizwa.

Imboni ye-anime inezinkampani zokukhiqiza ezingaphezu kuka-430, kufaka phakathi ama-studio amakhulu afana ne- Studio Ghibli, i- Sunrise, ne- Toei Animation . Kusukela ngeminyaka yama-1980, umthombo kubonakala impumelelo international nge ukuvelela angaphandle awakholelwa futhi ezansi izinhlelo. Kusukela ngo-2016, i-anime yaseJapane yaba ne-60% yemidlalo yethelevishini epopayiwe .

I-Etymology[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Njengohlobo lokugqwayiza, i-anime ifomu lobuciko eliqukethe izinhlobo eziningi ezitholakala kwamanye ama-mediums; kwesinye isikhathi ihlukaniswa ngephutha njengohlobo uqobo lwayo. [5] NgesiJapane, igama elithi anime lisetshenziselwa ukubhekisa kuyo yonke imisebenzi enopopayi, ngaphandle kwesitayela noma imvelaphi. LesiNgisi izichazamazwi ngokuvamile ichaze anime ( US : / AE n ə m eɪ /, UK : / AE n ɪ m eɪ / ) ngokuthi "isitayela Japanese izithombe" noma ngokuthi "isitayela ukugqwayiza okuvela eJapane ".Ezinye izincazelo zisuselwa kumsuka, okwenza ukukhiqizwa eJapan kube yinto edingekayo ukuze umsebenzi ubhekwe njenge- "anime".

I-etymology yethemu elithi anime iyaphikiswa. Igama lesiNgisi elithi "animation" libhalwe nge-Japanese katakana njengo-アニメーション( animēshon ) nanjengoアニメ(i- anime, pronounced [a.ɲi.me] ( </img> ngesimo sayo esifushane. Eminye imithombo ithi leli gama lisuselwa egameni lesiFulentshi le-animation dessin animé ("ikhathuni", ngokwezwi nezwi 'umklamo opopayiwe'), kepha abanye bakholelwa ukuthi lokhu kuyinganekwane ethathwe ekuthandweni kwe-anime eFrance ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1970 kanye nawo-1980.

NgesiNgisi, anime, lapho zisebenzisa esetshenziswa njengeselelesi esivamile Ibizo -normally imisebenzi njengoba ibizo mass . (Isibonelo: "Uyayibuka i-anime?" Noma "Uqoqe i-anime engakanani?" ) Njengamanye amagama ambalwa aseJapane, anjengelithi saké nelithi Pokémon, imibhalo yesiNgisi kwesinye isikhathi ibhala i- anime njenge- animé (njengesiFulentshi), enezimpawu ezigqamile ngaphezulu kwe- e yokugcina, ukunxenxa umfundi ukuthi aphimisele incwadi, hhayi ukuyishiya ithule njengoba ukubhala kweNgisi kungasikisela. Ngaphambi kokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwe- anime, igama elithi Japanimation laligcwele kuwo wonke ama-1970 nawo-1980. Maphakathi nawo-1980, igama elithi anime laqala ukufaka esikhundleni seJapanimation ; ngokujwayelekile, igama lokugcina manje livela kuphela enkathini yokusebenza lapho lisetshenziselwa ukuhlukanisa futhi likhombe ukugqwayiza kwaseJapan.

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Abandulela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-Emakimono ne- kagee zithathwa njengezandulela izithombe zaseJapan. I-Emakimono yayijwayelekile ngekhulu leshumi nanye. Ababalisi bezindaba abajikelezayo babelandisa izinganekwane nama-anecdotes ngenkathi i- emakimono ivulwa kusuka kwesokudla kuye kwesobunxele ngokulandelana kwesikhathi, njenge-panorama ehambayo. IKagee ibidume kakhulu ngesikhathi se-Edo futhi isuka kumdlalo wamathunzi waseChina. Izibani zomlingo ezivela eNetherlands nazo zazithandwa ngekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalombili. Umdlalo wephepha obizwa ngeKamishibai uqhamuke ngekhulu leshumi nambili futhi wahlala udumile enkundleni yemidlalo yasesitaladini kwaze kwaba ngawo-1930. Odoli beshashalazi le-bunraku kanye ne- ukiyo-e kubhekwa njengokhokho babalingiswa bezithombe eziningi zaseJapan. Ekugcineni, ama-mangas abe ugqozi olunzima lwe-anime yaseJapan. Abadwebi bekhathuni uKitzawa Rakuten no- Okamoto Ippei basebenzise izakhi zamafilimu emapheshaneni abo.

Amaphayona[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Uhlaka oluvela kuNamakura Gatana (1917), ifilimu emfushane kakhulu yaseJapane esaphila eyenziwe ngamabhayisikobho

Ukugqwayiza eJapan kwaqala ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-20, lapho abenzi bamafilimu beqala ukuzama amasu aphayona eFrance, eJalimane, e-United States naseRussia. [10] Isimangalo sopopayi bokuqala baseJapan uKatsudō Shashin ( c. 1907 ), umsebenzi wangasese womdali ongaziwa. [16] Ngo-1917, imisebenzi yokuqala yobungcweti neyakhonjiswa esidlangalaleni yaqala ukuvela; abagqwayizi abafana no- Ōten Shimokawa, Seitarō Kitayama, noJun'ichi Kōuchi (ababhekwa "njengobaba be-anime") bakhiqiza amafilimu amaningi, okudala kunawo wonke okuyiNamakura Gatana yaseKōuchi . Imisebenzi eminingi yokuqala yalahleka ngokucekelwa phansi kwempahla kaShimokawa ngesikhathi kuzamazama umhlaba iGreat Kantō ngo-1923.

Maphakathi no-1930s izithombe zazisungulwe kahle eJapan njengefomethi ehlukile embonini yezenzo ezibukhoma. It wahlupheka mncintiswano kubakhiqizi bezinye izizwe, njenge -Disney, kanye Animators eziningi, kuhlanganise Noburō Ōfuji futhi Yasuji Murata, aqhubeka nomsebenzi nge eshibhile cutout izithombe kunokuba cel izithombe . Abanye abadali, kufaka phakathi uKenzō Masaoka noMitsuyo Seo, nokho benze intuthuko enkulu kwezobuchwepheshe, bazuza ekuxhasweni nguhulumeni, okwakusebenzisa ama-animators ukukhiqiza izikhindi zemfundo nenkulumo-ze . Ngo-1940, uhulumeni wahlakaza izinhlangano zabaculi eziningana ukuze zakhe Shin Nippon Mangaka Kyōkai [21] I- talkie anime yokuqala kwakunguChikara to Onna no Yo no Naka (1933), ifilimu emfushane eyenziwe nguMasaoka. [22] Ifilimu yokuqala ye-anime yobude obuyisici kwakunguMomotaro: Sacred Sailors (1945), eyenziwe ngu Seo ngokuxhaswa yi- Imperial Japanese Navy . Ama-1950s abona ukwanda kwezikhangiso ezimfushane, ezinopopayi ezenzelwe ithelevishini.

Isikhathi sanamuhla[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

File:Astro Boy 1963 opening.jpg
Uhlaka kusuka ekulandelaneni kokuvula kochungechunge lwe-Tezuka luka-1963 u- Astro Boy

Ngawo-1960, umculi wama-manga nomenzi we-animator u- Osamu Tezuka waguqula futhi wenza lula amasu wokugqwayiza weDisney ukunciphisa izindleko nokukhawulela ukubalwa kohlaka kwimikhiqizo yakhe. Ekuqaleni kwakuhloswe njengezinyathelo zesikhashana zokumvumela ukuthi akhiqize okokusebenza ngesikhathi esiminyene nabasebenzi abangenalwazi, imikhuba yakhe eminingi yokulingisa enqunyelwe yafika ekuchazeni isitayela salowo osebenzisayo. I-Three Tales (1960) kwakuyifilimu yokuqala ye-anime esakazwa kuthelevishini; [28] uchungechunge lwe-anime lokuqala lwethelevishini kwakungu- Instant History (1961-64). [29] Impumelelo yokuqala neyaba nethonya kwaba ngu- Astro Boy (1963-66), uchungechunge lwethelevishini oluqondiswa nguTezuka olususelwa kumanga wakhe wegama elifanayo . Ama-animators amaningi eTezuka's Mushi Production ngokuhamba kwesikhathi asungula ama-studio amakhulu e-anime (afaka iMadhouse, iSunrise, nePierrot ).

Ama-1970 abona ukukhula ekuthandweni kwama-manga, amaningi awo kamuva aphiliswa. Umsebenzi kaTezuka — kanye nowamanye amaphayona asensimini — ukhuthaze izici nezinhlobo ezihlala ziyizinto eziyisisekelo ze-anime namuhla. Uhlobo olukhulu lwerobhothi (olubizwa nangokuthi " mecha "), ngokwesibonelo, lwakhiwa ngaphansi kukaTezuka, lwakhula lwaba uhlobo oluhle kakhulu lwamarobhothi ngaphansi kukaGo Nagai nabanye, futhi lwenziwa uguquko ekupheleni kweminyaka eyishumi nguYoshiyuki Tomino, owathuthukisa okwangempela irobhothi uhlobo. Robot anime uchungechunge ezifana Gundam futhi Super Dimension Fortress Macross baba osheshayo zabuna in the 1980, futhi uhlobo wahlala omunye ethandwa kakhulu Emashumini eminyaka alandela. [31] Umnotho we-bubble we-1980s wakhuthaza inkathi entsha yamafilimu e-anime asezingeni eliphakeme kanye nokuhlola, kufaka phakathi uNausicaä we-Valley of the Wind (1984), iRoyal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise (1987), no- Akira (1988 ).

UNeon Genesis Evangelion (1995), uchungechunge lwethelevishini olwenziwa nguGainax futhi lwaqondiswa nguHideaki Anno, lwaqala esinye isikhathi sezihloko ze-anime zokuhlola, njengeGhost in the Shell (1995) noCowboy Bebop (1998). Ngawo-1990, i-anime nayo yaqala ukuheha intshisekelo enkulu emazweni aseNtshonalanga; impumelelo enkulu ngamazwe zihlanganisa Sailor Moon futhi Dragon Ball Z, zombili ezazenzelwe awakholelwa ngezilimi ezingaphezu kweshumi nambili emhlabeni wonke. Ngo-2003, i- Spirited Away, ifilimu ye- Studio Ghibli eqondiswa ngu- Hayao Miyazaki, yawina i- Academy Award ye-Best Animated Feature kuma- 75th Academy Awards . Kamuva yaba yifilimu ye-anime ephezulu kakhulu, [lower-alpha 2] ehola ngaphezu kuka- $ 355 isigidi. Kusukela ngeminyaka yama-2000, inani elandayo lemisebenzi ye-anime kube ukuguqulwa kwamanoveli alula namanoveli abukwayo ; izibonelo eziphumelele zifaka iMelancholy kaHaruhi Suzumiya neFate / stay night (both 2006).

File:Modernanime.jpg
Abaculi bama-Anime basebenzisa izitayela eziningi ezibukwayo ezihlukile.

I-Anime yehluka kakhulu kwezinye izinhlobo zokugqwayiza ngezitayela zayo zobuciko ezahlukahlukene, izindlela zokugqwayiza, ukukhiqizwa kwayo, nenqubo yayo. Ngokubuka, imisebenzi ye-anime ikhombisa izitayela ezahlukahlukene zobuciko, ezahlukile phakathi kwabadali, abaculi, nezitudiyo. Yize singekho isitayela sobuciko esisodwa esilawula i-anime yonkana, babelana ngezimpawu ezifanayo ngokuya ngamasu wokugqwayiza nokwakhiwa kwezinhlamvu.

Amasu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-anime yesimanje ilandela inqubo ejwayelekile yokukhiqiza izithombe, efaka ukubekwa kwezindaba, ukulingiswa kwezwi , ukwakheka kwezinhlamvu nokukhiqizwa kwe-cel . Kusukela ngama-1990s, ama-animators asebenzise kakhulu izithombe zekhompyutha ukuthuthukisa ukusebenza kwenqubo yokukhiqiza. Imisebenzi yokuqala yama-anime yayiwukulinga, futhi yayiqukethe izithombe ezidwetshwe kumabhodi amnyama, ukumisa izithombe zokunyakazisa ezisikiwe zamaphepha, ne- silhouette animation . I-animation ye-Cel yakhula ithandwa yaze yafika ekulawuleni okuphakathi. Ekhulwini lama-21, ukusetshenziswa kwamanye amasu wokugqwayiza kukhawulelwe kumafilimu amafushane azimele, kufaka phakathi umsebenzi wokugqwayiza onodoli wokuma owenziwe nguTadahito Mochinaga, Kihachirō Kawamoto noTomoyasu Murata. Amakhompiyutha ahlanganiswa nenqubo yokugqwayiza ngawo-1990, nemisebenzi efana neGhost kuShell nakuPrincess Mononoke ehlanganisa izithombe ze-cel nezithombe ezenziwe ngekhompyutha. Fuji Film, inkampani enkulu yokukhiqiza i-cel, imemezele ukuthi izomisa ukukhiqizwa kwe-cel, ikhiqize ukwethuka kwemboni ukuthola ukungena kwe-cel nokusheshisa ukushintshela kuzinqubo zedijithali.

Ngaphambi kwenkathi yedijithali, i-anime yayikhiqizwa ngezindlela zokugqwayiza zendabuko kusetshenziswa iposi ukwenza indlela.Iningi le-anime ejwayelekile lisebenzisa ozimele bokhiye abambalwa nokuningi phakathi kokugqwayiza.

Izitudiyo zokugqwayiza zaseJapan bezingamaphayona wamasu amaningi we-animation alinganiselwe, futhi zinikeze i-anime isethi ehlukile yemihlangano. Ngokungafani nopopayi weDisney, lapho kugcizelelwa khona ukunyakaza, i-anime igcizelela ikhwalithi yobuciko bese ivumela izindlela ezinqunyelwe zokugqwayiza zenzele ukungabi nesikhathi esichithwa ekuhambeni. Amasu anjalo awavamisile ukusetshenziselwa kuphela ukuhlangabezana nesikhathi esinqunyiwe kodwa futhi njengezinto zobuciko. Izigcawu ze-Anime zigcizelela ekufezeni ukubukwa kwezinhlangothi ezintathu, nezizinda ziyasiza ekwakheni isimo somsebenzi. Izizinda azisungulwanga njalo futhi kwesinye isikhathi zisuselwa ezindaweni zangempela, njengoba kuboniswe eHowl's Moving Castle naseMelancholy kaHaru Suzuziya . Oppliger wathi i-anime ingenye yezindlela ezingavamile lapho kuhlanganiswa khona bonke abalingisi bezinkanyezi ngokuvamile kuphuma kubukeka "kumangalisa kakhulu".

Imiphumela yesinema ye-anime iyazihlukanisa nemidlalo yasesiteji etholakala kwezithombe zaseMelika. I-Anime idutshulwa ngesinema ngokungathi yenziwa ngekhamera, kufaka phakathi ukucwayiza, ukusondeza, ibanga nama-angle shots kuma-shots ashukumisayo anzima angaba nzima ukukhiqiza empeleni. Ku-anime, ukugqwayiza kukhiqizwa ngaphambi kokulingiswa kwezwi, okuphambene nokugqwayiza kwaseMelika okwenza izwi lisebenze kuqala.

Izinhlamvu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izilinganiso zomzimba zezinhlamvu ze-anime zabantu zivame ukukhombisa ngokunembile ubukhulu bomzimba womuntu empeleni. Ukuphakama kwekhanda kubhekwa ngumdwebi njengeyunithi eyisisekelo yokulinganisa. Ukuphakama kwamakhanda kungahluka, kepha izinhlamvu eziningi ze-anime zingamakhanda ayisikhombisa kuya kwayisishiyagalombili ubude.Abaculi bama-anime ngezikhathi ezithile benza ukuguqulwa ngamabomu kokulingana komzimba ukukhiqiza izinhlamvu ezikhubazeke kakhulu ezinomzimba omncane ngokungalingani uma kuqhathaniswa nekhanda; izinhlamvu eziningi ezikhubazeke kakhulu zinamakhanda amabili kuya kwamane ubude. Abanye imisebenzi anime efana Crayon Shin-chan bambalala ngokuphelele kulezi olinganise, ngendlela ungafunga uthi ziyindawo caricatured Western opopayi .

Umhlangano ovamile wokuklanywa komlingiswa we-anime usayizi wamehlo owenziwe ihaba. Ukugqwayiza kwezinhlamvu ezinamehlo amakhulu ku-anime kungalandelwa emuva ku-Osamu Tezuka, owayethonywe ngokujulile ngabalingiswa bakuqala bezithombe ezinjengoBetty Boop, owadonswa ngamehlo amakhulu ngokungalingani. [50] UTezuka ungumuntu ophakathi nomlando we-anime nowama manga, onesitayela sobuciko nesakhiwo sakhe somlingiswa esivumela lonke uhla lwemizwa yomuntu ukuthi luboniswe ngamehlo kuphela. [51] Umdwebi ungeza ukuguquguquka kombala okuguquguqukayo emehlweni futhi ikakhulukazi kwi-cornea ukuze ubanikeze ukujula okukhulu. Ngokuvamile, kusetshenziswa ingxube yomthunzi okhanyayo, umbala wethoni, nomthunzi omnyama. Isazi semvelaphi yesintu uMatt Thorn uthi ama-animators aseJapane nezethameli awawaboni lawo mehlo anezitayela njengakwamanye amazwe. Kodwa-ke, akuzona zonke izinhlamvu ze-anime ezinamehlo amakhulu. Isibonelo, imisebenzi kaHayao Miyazaki yaziwa ngokuba namehlo alinganiselwe ngokweqiniso, kanye nemibala yezinwele engokoqobo kubalingiswa babo.

Izinwele ku-anime imvamisa zinempilo futhi zinemibala ehlukile noma zakhiwe ngendlela ehlukile. Ukunyakaziswa kwezinwele ku-anime kunehaba futhi "isenzo sezinwele" sisetshenziselwa ukugcizelela isenzo nemizwa yabalingiswa ngomphumela wokubuka ongeziwe. Poitras ilanda umbala wesitayela sokumboza imifanekiso ekwi-manga, lapho ubuciko obudonsa amehlo namathoni amibalabala eheha ama-manga ezingane. Yize ikhiqizelwa imakethe yasekhaya, i-anime ifaka abalingiswa ubuhlanga noma ubuzwe babo abuchazwa ngaso sonke isikhathi, futhi lokhu kaningi kuyisinqumo sangamabomu, njengakuchungechunge lwe- Pokémon animated. Abaculi bama-anime nabama-manga bavame ukudweba kusuka ku-canon ejwayelekile yemifanekiso yobuso besithonjana ukukhombisa izimo nemicabango ethile. Lezi zindlela ngokuvamile ezahlukene ifomu kuka nabalingani bawo base-Western izithombe, futhi zihlanganisa ezihleliwe iconography esetshenziswa njengoba ifasitela lokuzula imizwelo ethile futhi uhlale. Isibonelo, umlingiswa wesilisa angakhula ngegazi uma evuswa. Kusetshenziswa izimpawu ezahlukahlukene zokubukwa, kufaka phakathi amathonsi izithukuthuku ukukhombisa ukwethuka, ukufiphaza okubonakalayo kokujabha, noma amehlo akhanyayo ngokukhanya okukhulu. [60] Okunye ukubona okuphindaphindwayo ukusetshenziswa kwe- chibi (okhubazekile, owenziwe lula wabalingiswa) izibalo ukufaka uphawu lokuhlekisa ngemizwa efana nokudideka noma amahloni.

Umculo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukuvulwa nokulandelwa kwamakhredithi ochungechunge oluningi lwethelevishini lwe-anime kuhambisana nezingoma ze- J-pop noma ze- rock, imvamisa ngamabhendi adumile — njengoba kubhalwe ngochungechunge engqondweni - kodwa futhi kuhloswe ngakho emakethe yomculo jikelele, ngakho-ke kuvame ukubhekiswa kanye ngayo ngokungacacile noma hhayi konke kuzilungiselelo zamatimu noma isakhiwo sochungechunge. Futhi, zivame ukusetshenziswa njengomculo ohambisanayo ("faka izingoma") esiqeshini ngasinye ukugqamisa izigcawu ezibaluleke kakhulu.

Izinhlobo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ama-Anime ajwayele ukuhlukaniswa ngabantu ababhekiswe kubo, kufaka phakathi children's , girls' , boys' nezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinhlobo ezibhekiswe kuzethameli zabantu abadala. I-Shoujo ne-shounen anime kwesinye isikhathi iqukethe izinto ezithandwa yizingane zabo bobabili ubulili ngomzamo wokuthola isikhalazo se-crossover. I-anime yabantu abadala ingahle ifake ijubane elihamba kancane noma ubunzima bendawo enkulu izethameli ezincane ezingakuthola kungathandeki, kanye nezindikimba nezimo zabantu abadala. [62] Iqoqo elincane le-anime yabantu abadala elisebenza ngezici zezithombe zocansi libhalwe ukuthi "R18" eJapan, futhi laziwa umhlaba wonke njenge- hentai (kusuka pervert ). Ngokuphambene, amanye ama-anime subgenres afaka i- ecchi, izingqikithi zocansi noma imisindo engezansi ngaphandle kokuboniswa kokuya ocansini, njengoba kufanekiselwa izinhlobo zamahlaya noma zabesifazane; ngenxa yokuthandwa kwayo phakathi kwabathandi be-anime abasebasha nabadala, ukufakwa kwezinto ezinjalo kubhekwa njengohlobo lwenkonzo yabalandeli . Ezinye izinhlobo zihlola ukuthandana kwabantu bobulili obufanayo, njenge- yaoi (ubungqingili besilisa) ne- yuri (ubungqingili besifazane). Ngenkathi isetshenziswa kakhulu kumongo wezithombe zocansi, amagama athi yaoi no- yuri angasetshenziswa kabanzi kumongo obanzi ukuchaza noma ukugxila kuzingqikithi noma ekuthuthukiseni ubudlelwano uqobo.

Ukuhlukaniswa kohlobo lwama-Anime kuyahluka kwezinye izinhlobo zoopopayi futhi akubolekisi ngezigaba ezilula. UGilles Poitras waqhathanisa ilebuli ethi Gundam 0080 kanye nenkomba yayo eyinkimbinkimbi yempi njenge "anime enkulu" efana nokubiza nje iMpi nokuthula ngokuthi "inoveli yempi". Isayensi eqanjiwe uhlobo olukhulu lwe-anime futhi ifaka imisebenzi ebalulekile yomlando efana neTezuka's Astro Boy neYokoyama 's Tetsujin 28-go . A subgenre ezinkulu yesayensi kuyinto Mecha, ne Gundam metaseries kokuba yisakhiwo sodumo. Uhlobo oluhlukahlukene lwenganekwane lubandakanya imisebenzi esuselwa kumasiko ase-Asia nawaseNtshonalanga nezinganekwane; izibonelo zifaka phakathi i-feudal fairytale InuYasha, kanye nokuboniswa konkulunkulukazi baseScandinavia abathuthela eJapan ukugcina ikhompyutha ebizwa ngeYggdrasil ku- Ah! Unkulunkulukazi wami . [68] Ukuwela ngohlobo lwe-anime nakho kudlangile, njengokuhlanganiswa kwenganekwane namahlaya kuDrako Half, kanye nokufakwa kwamahlaya e-slapstick kwifilimu ye-anime yobugebengu iCastle of Cagliostro . Amanye ama-subgenres atholakala ku-anime afaka intombazane enomlingo, i-harem, ezemidlalo, ubuciko bempi, ukuzivumelanisa nemibhalo, inkathi ephakathi, nempi.

Amafomethi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imisebenzi yokuqala ye-anime yenzelwa ukubukwa kweshashalazi, futhi kwakudingeka izinto zomculo ezidlalwayo ngaphambi kokufakwa komsindo nezwi ekukhiqizeni. Ngo-1958, iNippon Television yasakaza iMogura no Abanchūru (" Mole's Adventure "), zombili i-anime yokuqala yethelevishini nombala wokuqala. Kuze kwaba ngawo-1960 lapho kusakazwa uchungechunge lokuqala lwethelevishini futhi selokhu lwahlala luyinto edumile kusukela lapho. Imisebenzi ekhishwe ngqo kufomethi yevidiyo ibizwa nge- " original video animation " (OVA) noma "original animation video" (OAV); futhi ngokuvamile azikhishwa kumidlalo yaseshashalazini noma kuthelevishini ngaphambi kokukhishwa kwemidiya yasekhaya. Ukuqhamuka kwe-Intanethi kuholele abanye bama-animators ukusabalalisa imisebenzi online ngefomethi ebizwa nge- " original net anime " (ONA).

Ukusatshalaliswa kwasekhaya kokukhishwa kwe-anime kwathandwa kakhulu ngawo-1980 ngamafomethi we-VHS neLaserDisc. [ yevidiyo ye-VHS NTSC esetshenziswe eJapan nase-United States ibizwa ngokuthi isiza ukuthandwa okwandayo kwe-anime ngawo-1990. Amafomethi we-LaserDisc ne-VHS adluliswa yifomethi ye-DVD enikeze izinzuzo ezihlukile; kufaka phakathi amathrekhi amaningi we-subtitling nokudubbing kudiski efanayo. yeDVD nayo inezithiyo ekusetshenzisweni kwayo kokufaka amakhodi esifundeni ; yamukelwa yimboni ukuxazulula izinkinga zelayisense, ubugebengu kanye nokuthekelisa kanye nesifunda esivinjelwe esikhonjiswe ku-DVD player. ye- Video CD (VCD) yayithandwa eHong Kong naseTaiwan, kodwa yaba ifomethi encane kuphela e-United States eyayihlobene kakhulu namakhophi e- bootleg.

Imboni[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isifunda sase-Akihabara saseTokyo sithandwa kakhulu ngabathandi be-anime nama-manga kanye ne- otaku subculture eJapan

Imboni yokugqwayiza inezinkampani ezingaphezu kuka-430 zokukhiqiza ezinama-studio amakhulu okubalwa kuwo iToei Animation, Gainax, Madhouse, Gonzo, Sunrise, Bones, TMS Entertainment, Nippon Animation, PAWorks, Studio Pierrot neStudio Ghibli . [78] Izitudiyo eziningi zihlelwe zaba inhlangano yezohwebo, i- The Association of Japanese Animations . Kukhona nenyunyana yabasebenzi kule mboni, iJapan Animation Creators Association . Izitudiyo zihlala zisebenza ndawonye ukukhiqiza amaphrojekthi ayinkimbinkimbi futhi abiza kakhulu, njengoba kwenziwa ngeStudio Ghibli's Spirited Away . [78] Isiqephu se-anime singabiza phakathi kuka-US $ 100,000 kuya ku-US $ 300,000 ukukhiqiza. Ngo-2001, ukugqwayiza kwaba ne-7% yemakethe yamafilimu yaseJapan, ngaphezu kwesabelo semakethe esingu-4.6% semisebenzi yezenzo ezibukhoma. Ukuthandwa nempumelelo ye-anime kubonakala ngokuzuza kwemakethe ye-DVD, okufaka isandla cishe ku-70% wokuthengiswa okuphelele. Ngokuya ngendatshana yango-2016 ekhuluma ngeNikkei Asian Review, iziteshi zikamabonakude zaseJapan zithenge ngaphezu ¥60 billion i-anime ebiza izinkampani zokukhiqiza "kule minyaka embalwa eyedlule", uma kuqhathaniswa ¥20 billion kusuka phesheya kwezilwandle. Kube nokukhuphuka kokuthengiswa kwemidlalo eziteshini zethelevishini eJapan, okubangelwe yi- anime yasebusuku nabantu abadala njengabantu ababhekiwe . Lolu hlobo lwe-anime aluthandi kangako ngaphandle kweJapan, lubhekwa "njengomkhiqizo omningi we- niche ". ISpirited Away (2001) yifilimu enesilinganiso esiphakeme kunazo zonke eJapane . Bekubuye futhi kube yifilimu ye-anime eyakha kakhulu emhlabeni wonke yaze yeqiwa yifilimu kaMakoto Shinkai ka-2016 Igama Lakho . Amafilimu ama-Anime amelela ingxenye enkulu yamafilimu aseJapan ahola kakhulu minyaka yonke eJapan, anaba-6 kwabangu-10 abahamba phambili ngo-2014, ngo-2015 nango- 2016 .

Ama-Anime kufanele anikezwe ilayisense yizinkampani ezikwamanye amazwe ukuze akhululwe ngokusemthethweni. Nakuba anime kugunyazwe ilayisensi elikhishwe kubanikazi bayo Japanese ukusetshenziswa ngaphandle kwase-Japan njengoba okungenani 1960, umkhuba baba ezimisiwe e-United States ngawo-1970 sekwephuzile 1980 zakuqala, lapho ezinjalo uchungechunge TV njengoba Gatchaman futhi uCaptain Harlock abangu ilayisense kusukela zabo Izinkampani zabazali baseJapan zokusatshalaliswa emakethe yase-US. Lo mkhuba maqondana nokusakazwa American anime zadlulela 1980 nge kwamalayisensi izihloko ezifana Voltron kanye 'ukudalwa' uchungechunge ezintsha ezifana Robotech ngokusebenzisa umthombo wendaba kusuka ochungechungeni eziningana yasekuqaleni. [84]

Ngasekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-1990, izinkampani eziningana zaqala ukuzama ukunikezwa kwelayisense yezinto ezingaphansi kwezingane. Abanye, abanjengo- AD Vision, neCentral Park Media kanye nemibhalo yayo, bazuze impumelelo enkulu kwezentengiselwano futhi baba ngabadlali abakhulu emakethe yama-anime yaseMelika manje enenzuzo enkulu. Abanye, abanjengo- AnimEigo, bathole impumelelo elinganiselwe. Izinkampani eziningi ezenziwe ngqo yizinkampani zabazali baseJapan azange zenze kahle, iningi lakhipha isihloko esisodwa noma ezimbili ngaphambi kokuphothula imisebenzi yazo yaseMelika.

Amalayisense ayabiza, imvamisa amakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaRandi ochungechungeni olulodwa namashumi ezinkulungwane nge-movie eyodwa. Amanani ahluka kakhulu; isibonelo, iJinki: Nweba kubiza u- $ 91,000 kuphela ukuthola ilayisense ngenkathi iKurau Phantom Memory ibiza u- $ 960,000. Amalungelo okusakaza nge-Intanethi e-Simulcast ashibhile, ngamanani azungeze u- $ 1,000- $ 2,000 isiqephu, kepha futhi angabiza kakhulu, ngochungechunge oluthile lubiza ngaphezu kuka- US$200,000 isiqephu ngasinye.

Imakethe ye-anime yase-United States ibifanele cishe ama- $ 2.74 billion ngo-2009. Izithombe ezifakiwe zaqala ukusakazwa e-United States ngo-2000 kumanethiwekhi afana neThe WB neCartoon Network 's Adult Swim . Ngo-2005, lokhu kwaholela ezihlokweni eziyisihlanu kwezingu-10 eziphezulu ezake zasakazwa ngaphambilini kuCartoon Network. [89] Njengengxenye yokwenziwa kwendawo, okunye ukuhlelwa kwezinkomba zamasiko kungenzeka ukulandela kangcono izinkomba zesiko elingelona elaseJapane. Izindleko zokwenziwa kwasendaweni ngesiNgisi zilinganiselwa ezi-US $ 10,000 ngesiqephu ngasinye. Kukhona nemikhiqizo yokugqoka ephefumulelwe yi-anime efana ne-Not For All: Anime Clothing.

Umkhakha ubulokhu unconywa futhi ulahlwa abalandeli, ukwengezwa kokuhumusha okungekho emthethweni nokungekho emthethweni kochungechunge lwama-anime noma amafilimu. [92] Fansubs, ekuqaleni ayesatshalaliswa kumakhasethi we-VHS bootlegged ngawo-1980, atholakale ngokukhululekile futhi asatshalaliswa online kusukela ngawo-1990. Njengoba lo mkhuba uphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngezindaba ze-copyright nokugebenga, abalandeli be-fansubers bavame ukulandela ikhodi yokuziphatha engabhalwanga yokucekela phansi noma ukungabe besasabalalisa i-anime uma inguqulo esemthethweni ehunyushiwe noma enesihloko isiba nelayisense. Baphinde bazame ukukhuthaza ababukeli ukuthi bathenge ikhophi esemthethweni yokukhishwa uma iphuma ngesiNgisi, yize abalandeli abalandeli beqhubeka nokujikeleza ngamanethiwekhi okwabelana ngamafayela. [93] Noma kunjalo, imithethonqubo eyehlisiwe yemboni yokugqwayiza yaseJapan ijwayele ukungazinaki lezi zinkinga, iyivumele ukuthi ikhule ngaphansi komhlaba futhi ngaleyo ndlela inyuse ukuthandwa kuze kube kunesidingo sokukhishwa okusemthethweni kwekhwalithi ephezulu yezinkampani zama-animation. Lokhu kuholele ekwandeni kokuthandwa komhlaba wonke ngemifanekiso yaseJapan, kufinyelela ku- $ 40 kuthengiswa ngo-2004.

Ukutholakala kwezomthetho emhlabeni jikelele kwe-anime kwi-Intanethi sekuguqukile eminyakeni yamuva, nama- simulcast ochungechunge atholakala kumawebhusayithi afana neCrunchyroll . Kodwa-ke, izinsizakalo ezinjalo zisakhawulelwe kakhulu emazweni aseNtshonalanga, akhuluma isiNgisi, okuholela ekutheni abalandeli abaningi emazweni asathuthuka baphendukele ebugebengwini be-inthanethi.

Izimakethe[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IJapan External Trade Organisation (JETRO) ilinganise imakethe ye-anime yasekhaya eJapan ngo- ¥2.4 trillion ( $24 billion ), kufaka phakathi ¥2 trillion kusuka kumikhiqizo enelayisense, ngo-2005. IJETRO ibike ukuthengiswa kwezimpahla ezithunyelwa ngaphandle kwe-anime phesheya ngo-2004 kwaba ngu- ¥2 trillion ( $18 billion ). IJETRO ibalule imakethe yama-anime eMelika ngo- ¥520 billion ( $5.2 billion ), kufaka $500 million ekuthengisweni kwamavidiyo asekhaya $4 billion kusuka kumikhiqizo enamalayisense, ngo-2005. IJETRO yaqagula ngo-2005 ukuthi imakethe ye-anime emhlabeni wonke, kubandakanya nokuthengiswa kwemikhiqizo enamalayisense, izokhula ibe ¥10 trillion ( $100 billion ). Imakethe ye-anime eChina yayibiza $21 billion ngo-2017, futhi kulindeleke ukuthi ifinyelele $31 billion ngo-2020. INetflix ibike ukuthi, phakathi kuka-Okthoba 2019 noSepthemba 2020, 100 million emhlabeni wonke ibike okungenani isihloko esisodwa se-anime endaweni yesikhulumi.

Imiklomelo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imboni ye-anime inemiklomelo eminingana yonyaka ehlonipha imisebenzi ehamba phambili yonyaka. Imiklomelo emikhulu yaminyaka yonke eJapan ifaka i- Ōfuji Noburō Award, i- Mainichi Film Award ye-Best Animation Film, ama- Animation Kobe Awards, ama- Japan Media Arts Festival awards awards, iTokyo Anime Award kanye neJapan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year . E-United States, amafilimu e-anime ancintisana kumaCrunchyroll Anime Awards . Kwakunanezinselele American Anime Imiklomelo, okuyinto babedalelwe ubuhle e anime izihloko eliphakanyiswe umkhakha, futhi yayiqhutshwa kanye kuphela ngo-2006 [102] imiklomelo Anime imikhiqizo baye kuphinde kugqugquzele futhi ngek hhayi kuphela anime, efana Academy Umklomelo Wesici Esihamba Phambili Sezilwane noma iGolden Bear .

Ukuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  I-Anime iye yaba nenzuzo yezentengiselwano emazweni aseNtshonalanga, njengoba kukhonjisiwe ekuguquleni kwasekuqaleni kwe-anime okuphumelelayo kwezentengiselwano, njenge- Astro Boy neSpeed Racer . Early adaptions American ngawo-1960 kwenziwa Japan sandise zibe emakethe yezwekazi European, kuqala nge imikhiqizo okuhloswe ngaso European nezingane Japanese, ezifana Heidi, Vicky Viking futhi Barbapapa, okuyinto senza emazweni ahlukahlukene. I-Italy, iSpain neFrance bakhulisa intshisekelo ethile ekukhishweni kweJapan, ngenxa yentengo yayo yokuthengisa eshibhile kanye nomkhiqizo okhiqizayo. Eqinisweni, i-Italy ingenise i-anime kakhulu ngaphandle kweJapan. Lokhu kungeniswa kwenqwaba kuthonye ukuthandwa kwe-anime ezimakethe zaseNingizimu Melika, isi-Arabhu naseJalimane.

Ukuqala kuka-1980 kwaqala ukwethulwa kochungechunge lwama-anime aseJapan kumasiko aseMelika. Ngawo-1990, ukugqwayiza kwamaJapane kwaqala ukuthandwa eMelika. Izinkampani zemidiya ezinjengeViz neMixx ziqale ukushicilela futhi zakhipha izithombe emakethe yaseMelika. Ifilimu i- Akira yango-1988 yaziwa kakhulu ngokuqhakambisa i-anime emhlabeni waseNtshonalanga ngeminyaka yama-1990s, ngaphambi kokuthi i-anime yaziwe kakhulu yimidlalo yethelevishini efana nePokémon neDrag Ball Z ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990. Ukukhula kwe-Intanethi kamuva kwanikeza izethameli zamazwe omhlaba indlela elula yokufinyelela kokuqukethwe kwaseJapan. Ekuqaleni, ubugebengu be-inthanethi babamba iqhaza elikhulu kulokhu, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kwavela ezinye izindlela zomthetho. Lokhu kunjalo ikakhulukazi ngezinsizakalo zenetha ezifana neNetflix neCrunchyroll ezinamakhathalogi amakhulu emazweni aseNtshonalanga, yize ngo-2020 abalandeli be-anime emazweni amaningi angewona asentshonalanga, njenge-India noma i-Southeast Asia, benobunzima bokuthola ukufinyelela kokuqukethwe okusemthethweni, futhi ngakho-ke phindela ebugebengwini be-inthanethi.