Chhatrapati Shivaji maharaj

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UShivaji Bhonsale I (iphimbo lesiMarathi: c.19 February 1630 - 3 April 1680), obuye abizwe ngoChhatrapati Shivaji, wayengumbusi waseNdiya futhi eyilungu lomndeni wakwaBhonsle Maratha. U-Shivaji waqopha i-enclave kusukela ku-Adilshahi sultanate eyanciphayo yase-Bijapur eyakha i-genesis yoMbuso WaseMaratha. Ngo-1674, wathweswa umqhele ngokusemthethweni iChhatrapati yombuso wakhe eRaigad.

Phakathi nempilo yakhe, uShivaji wahlanganyela kukho kokubili imifelandawonye kanye nobutha noMbuso WaseMughal, iSultanate yaseGolkonda, iSultanate yaseBijapur kanye namandla angamakoloni aseYurophu. Amabutho ezempi kaShivaji andisa umkhakha wethonya laseMaratha, athumba futhi akha izinqaba, futhi enza ibutho lasolwandle laseMaratha. U-Shivaji usungule umthetho womphakathi onekhono futhi oqhubekayo onezinhlangano zokuphatha ezakhiwe kahle. Wavuselela amasiko ezepolitiki amaHindu asendulo, izingqungquthela zasenkantolo futhi wakhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi zesiMarathi nesiSanskrit, wafaka isiPheresiya enkantolo nokuphatha.

Ifa likaShivaji lalizohlukahluka ngombuki nesikhathi, kodwa cishe emakhulwini amabili eminyaka ngemva kokufa kwakhe, waqala ukuthatha ukubaluleka okwengeziwe ngokuvela kwenhlangano yenkululeko yamaNdiya, njengoba abaningi bezwe baseNdiya bamphakamisa njenge-proto-nationalist kanye neqhawe lamaHindu. .

Isiqalo sokuphila[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UShivaji wazalelwa egqumeni laseShivneri, eduze nedolobha laseJunnar, manje osesifundeni sasePune. Izazi azivumelani ngosuku lwakhe lokuzalwa. Uhulumeni waseMaharashtra ubala umhlaka-19 Febhuwari njengeholide lokukhumbula ukuzalwa kukaShivaji (Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti). UShivaji wethiwa ngonkulunkulu wendawo, unkulunkulukazi uShivai.[18] Ubaba kaShivaji uShahaji Bhonsle wayengujenene waseMaratha owayesebenzela amaDeccan Sultanates. Umama wakhe kwakunguJijabai, indodakazi kaLakhuji Jadhavrao waseSindhkhed, isareda esiqondaniswe noMughal othi singowozalo lomndeni wasebukhosini waseYadav waseDevagiri.

UShivaji wayengowomndeni wakwaMaratha wakwaBhonsle. Umkhulu wakhe onguyise uMaloji (1552-1597) wayengujenene onethonya we-Ahmadnagar Sultanate, futhi waklonyeliswa ngendondo ethi "Raja". Wanikezwa amalungelo e-deshmukhi ePune, Supe, Chakan kanye ne-Indapur ngezindleko zempi. Waphinde wanikwa iFort Shivneri ukuze kuhlalwe kuyo umndeni wakhe (c. 1590).

Ngesikhathi sokuzalwa kuka-Shivaji, amandla e-Deccan ahlanganyelwa izinduna ezintathu zamaSulumane: i-Bijapur, i-Ahmednagar, ne-Golkonda. U-Shahaji wayevame ukushintsha ukwethembeka kwakhe phakathi kwe-Nizamshahi yase-Ahmadnagar, i-Adilshah yase-Bijapur kanye ne-Mughals, kodwa wayehlale egcina i-jagir (fiefdom) yakhe ePune nebutho lakhe elincane.

Ukufa nokulandelana[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umbuzo wokuthi indlalifa kaShivaji wawuyinkimbinkimbi. UShivaji wavalela indodana yakhe ePanhala ngo-1678, kwathi inkosana yabaleka nonkosikazi wayo futhi yaba nephutha kumaMughals unyaka. USambhaji wabe esebuyela ekhaya, engaphenduki, futhi waphinde wavalelwa ePanhala.

chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji

UShivaji ushone cishe zi-3-5 ku-Ephreli 1680 eneminyaka engama-50, ngobusuku bangaphambi kukaHanuman Jayanti. Imbangela yokushona kukaShivaji iyaphikiswa. Amarekhodi aseBrithani athi uShivaji wabulawa yi-blood flux egula izinsuku eziyi-12. Encwadini yangaleso sikhathi yesiPutukezi, i-Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa, imbangela eqoshiwe yokufa kukaShivaji i-anthrax. Kodwa-ke, uKrishnaji Anant Sabhasad, umbhali weSabhasad Bakhar, umlando weShivaji ukhulume umkhuhlane njengembangela yokufa kukaChhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Archived 2022-02-19 at the Wayback Machine.. UPutalabai, omdala ongenabantwana kumakhosikazi aseShivaji ayesaphila wenza i-sati ngokugxumela endaweni yakhe yomngcwabo. Omunye umngane womshado owayesaphila, uSakwarbai, akazange avunyelwe ukulingisa ngoba wayenendodakazi encane. Kwakukhona nezinsolo, nakuba izazi zakamuva zangabaza, ukuthi umkakhe wesibili uSoyarabai wayemdlise ushevu ukuze abeke indodana yakhe eneminyaka engu-10 ubudala uRajaram esihlalweni sobukhosi.

Ngemva kokushona kukaShivaji, uSoyarabai wenza izinhlelo nongqongqoshe abahlukahlukene bokuphatha ukuthwesa indodana yakhe uRajaram umqhele esikhundleni sendodana yakhe yokutholwa uSambhaji. Ngomhla zingama-21 kuMbasa 1680, uRajaram oneminyaka eyishumi wabekwa esihlalweni sobukhosi. Kodwa-ke, uSambhaji wathatha iRaigad Fort ngemva kokubulala umkhuzi, kwathi ngoJuni 18 wathola ukulawula uRaigad, wathatha isihlalo sobukhosi ngokusemthethweni zingama-20 kuJulayi. URajaram, unkosikazi wakhe uJanki Bai, kanye nomama uSoyrabai baboshwa, kwathi uSoyrabai wabulawa ngamacala okwakha uzungu ngo-Okthoba.