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IMpaphamo

Mayelana Wikipedia
Ukudwetshwa kwempaphamo kwasekhulwini leshumi nesikhombisa nguRobert Fludd, umelaphi oyingisi waseParacelsian

IMpaphamo isho ukuba ophapheme, ovukile, oxwayile, nosabelayo kokukuzungezeli nokungaphakathi. Kodwa ngenxa yokungabi nesichasiso esiqondile, sekuvele izichasiso ezingafani emkhakheni ehlukene. Kunempikiswano phakathi kosonjulalwazi, abachazithixo, izazi zolimi nosonzululwazi. Bonke abavumelani ukuthi yini edinga ukufundwa noma ukucubungulwa ngempaphamo. Kwezinye izincazelo, impaphamo imqondofana nengqondo, kanti kwezinye izikhathi, iyingxenye yomqondo. Endulo, yayichazwa ngokuthi "ingaphakathi", lomuntu, unembeza wakhe, imidlinzo yangasase, imikhanyango nentando yakhe. Namuhla, ihlanganisa noma ikuphi ukuqonda, ubungcweti, kanye nomuzwa nokwazi. Kungaba ukuqwasha, ukulumuka ngokuqwasha, noma ukuzilumuka siqu. Ukungafani kwezici zocwaningo, imiziyo nokuqayiza kuvusa ilukuluku ngokuphathelene nokuthi ingabe kubuzwa imibuzo efanele ngalokhu.

Izibonelo zezichaziso, izincasiso noma izincazelo yilezi: ukuqhwasha, umuzwa womuntu ngokuba nguye siqu noma umphefumulo ohlwaywe "ngokuzibheka ngaphakathi"; noma ngokuba isingathekiso sesimo sengqondo, isehlo sengqondo noma inqubo yengqondo eyenzeka ebuchosheni.

Izintshwayo zemikhakha ehlukile[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Osonjulalwazi basentshona kusukela esikhathini sikaDesikhatesi noLokhe baye bazabalaza ukuqonda isimo sempaphamo nokuthi liyini iqhaza layo emhlabeni. Lemibuzo isaphakama nanamuhla kunjulalwazi yezwekazi neyenhlaziyo, umchazasimongotho (phenomenology) kanye nomchazangqondo womqondo.

Impaphamo seyiphenduke isihloko esibalulekile ocwaningwni lwemikhakha embaxa lenzululwazi yokuqonda (cognitive science), ebandakanya imikhakha efana nomchazangqondo (psychology), ezezilimi (linguistics), umchazasintu (anthropology), umchazangqondo weziNzwa (neuropsychology) kanye nenzululwazi yezinzwa (neuroscience). Okugxilwe Kukho ngokuyinhloko ukuqonda ukuthi kusho ukuthini ngomchazampilo nangokomchazangqondo ukuba ukwaziswa kube khona kwimpaphamo —okusho, ukunquma ukuhlobana kwezinzwa nomchazangqondo zempaphamo.

uMsuka[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Osonjulalwazi basekupheleni kwekhulu lama-20 babelokhu bephikisana ngokuthi iyini impaphamo nokuthi ingabe usonjulalwazi ongumGriki u-Aristotile wayenesicabango esinembile ngayo. Kodwa u-Aristotile usebenzisa amazwi amaningana ukuchaza lesi simongotho. Usonjulalwazi Caston ugomela ngokuthi ku-Aristotile, Ukulumuka kwentshwayo kwakufana nalokho osonjulalwazi banamuhla abakubiza ngempaphamo.

U-John Locke encwadini yakhe ethi 'Isibhalwa ngokuPhathelene nokuQonda koMuntu (Essay Concerning Human Understanding), eyashicilelwa ngo-1690, wachasisa impaphamo ngokuthi "intshwayo yalokho okwenzeka emqondweni womuntu". Lesibhalwa sathonya imibono yempaphamo yangekhulu le-18, futhi incasiselo yakhe yavela kusichazamazwi esinesibunge sangowe-1755 sika Samuel Johnson. Umqulu wonyaka we-1753 weNgqoqelolwazi yesifulentshi uchasisa impaphamo ngokuthi "uvo noma umuzwa wangaphakathi esiba nawo ngalokho esikwenzeyo."

Igama lesizulu elithi "impaphamo" lisuselwa esenzweni esithi "phaphama" esisho 'ukuvuka, ukuba ngovukile, ukuba olumukile, oqaphelayo, ohlakaniphile noma onolwazi." Liyasebenza lapho kukhulunywa ngomuntu uhlakaniphile obizwa ngesiphaphami, bese lowo oyisnwazeyama abizwe ngolele. Ukuphaphama kuhlobene nokubona ngamehlo, ngoba lapho umuntu elele, akakuboni okwenzeka eduze kwakhe. Kodwa lapho ephapheme, evukile, ebhekile, ubona konke, okuyindlela azuza ulwazi ngayo, ngokuqaphela nokulumuka indawo ezungezile, naye uqobo lwakhe. Lokhu kuhlobanisa igama elithi impaphamo nesisho esiyisibunge esithi 'ukungazi kufana nokungaboni', okuzosho ukuthi lempaphamo akukhona nje ukuhlahla amehlo ugqolozele izwe, kodwa kuhambisana nolwazi lwalokho umuntubakubonayo, ukukuqonda nokuba nolwazi lokuthi kuyini nokuthi umuntu ngokwakhe uhlobana kanjani nakho.