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IMuffin

Mayelana Wikipedia

I- muffin ingumkhiqizo osayizi ngamunye, obhakwe.Lingase libhekisele izinto ezimbili ezingafani, ingxenye-ephakanyiswe flatbread ukuthi kubhakwa bese sasipheka ngesitofu emganwini oyincence (ngokuvamisile ezingenashukela) kanye ikhekhe -like quickbread (ngokuvamile ezinoshukela) ukuthi amakhemikhali esivutshelweyo bese ephekwe isikhunta.Ngenkathi ama-muffin esinkwa esheshayo evame ukuba mnandi, kunezinhlobonhlobo ezinomsoco ezenziwe ngezithako ezifana nommbila noshizi.Isinkwa esiyisicaba sivela eBrithani noma eYurophu, futhi sivela okungenani ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-18, ngenkathi isinkwa esisheshayo sivela eNyakatho Melika ngekhulu le-19.Kokubili kuvamile emhlabeni wonke namuhla.

I-Etymology[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umthombo owodwa wekhulu le-19 uphakamisa ukuthi "i-muffin" ingahle ihlobane nesinkwa samaGrikhi "maphula", "ikhekhe elibhakwe eziko noma i-griddle", noma kusuka ku-Old French "mou-pain" ("isinkwa esithambile"), okungenzeka yonakaliswe yaba "i-mouffin". [1] Igama litholakala okokuqala linyathelisiwe ngo-1703, spelled moofin ; [2] inemvelaphi engaqinisekile kepha kungenzeka ukuthi ithathwe kuMuffen waseGerman ophansi, ubuningi beMuffe okusho ikhekhe elincane, noma mhlawumbe ngokuxhumeka okuthile ku-Old French moufflet okusho ukuthamba, njengoba kushiwo ngesinkwa. [3]Inkulumo ethi "muffin-man", okusho ukuthi umthengisi wasemgwaqeni wasemgwaqeni, kufakazwa enkondlweni ka-1754, efaka ulayini othi: "Hark! The shrill Muffin-Man his Carol plies. . " [4]

Ama-muffin esinkwa esheshayo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ama- muffin asePoppyseed epuletini

Ama-muffin wesinkwa esisheshayo (kwesinye isikhathi achazwa eBrithani ngokuthi "ama-muffin aseMelika" [5] ) abhakwa, ngosayizi ngamunye, ukudla okwenziwe ngekhekhe ngokuthungwa "okumanzi, okusalukiwe". [6]Ama-muffin ayatholakala kuzo zombili izinhlobo ezinomsoco, njengama-muffin ombila kanye noshizi, noma izinhlobo ezinoshukela ezifana ne-blueberry, chocolate chip, lemon noma ubhanana flavour. Ama-muffin anoshukela aqala kusuka kumafinithi angenamnandi kuya emikhiqizweni "ecebe kakhulu kunamaqebelengwane amaningi emafutheni nashukela." [6] Ziyafana namakhekhe ngosayizi nezindlela zokupheka, umehluko omkhulu ukuthi amakhekhe ajwayele ukuba uphudingi omnandi usebenzisa i-cake batter futhi okuvame ukufakwa i-sugar icing (i-American frosting). Ama-muffin angaba nezinto eziqinile ezixubene ne-batter, njengamajikijolo, ama-chocolate chips noma amantongomane. Muffin Fresh wabhaka zidayiswa ngo amabhikawozi, izitolo Ungalokothi futhi abanye ukudla okusheshayo zokudlela kanye yekhofi . Ama-muffin abhakwa efektri athengiswa ezitolo zokudla nasezitolo ezisezingeni eliphakeme futhi ayasetshenzwa nakwezinye izindawo zokuphekela nezindawo zokudlela .

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukusetshenziswa kwaleli gama ukuchaza ukuthi empeleni amakhekhe noma amabhanisi akuzange kusetshenziswe ngokujwayelekile eBrithani kuze kube ngamashumi eminyaka adlule ekhulu lama-20 ngemuva kokusabalala kwezitolo zekhofi ezifana ne- Starbucks.Ukupheka kwama-muffin esinkwa esheshayo kuvamile ezincwadini zokupheka zaseMelika zekhulu le-19.Ukupheka kwama-muffin asuselwa kwimvubelo, kwesinye isikhathi okwakuthiwa "ama-muffin ajwayelekile" noma "ama-muffin kakolweni" ezincwadini zokupheka zaseMelika zekhulu le-19, kungatholakala ezincwadini zokupheka ezindala kakhulu. Encwadini kaFannie Farmer 's Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, unikeze izindlela zokupheka zombili izinhlobo zama-muffin, zombili lezo ezisebenzisa imvubelo ukukhulisa inhlama nalezo ezisebenzisa indlela esheshayo yesinkwa, zisebenzisa izindandatho ze -muffin ukubumba ama-muffin esiNgisi. Umlimi uveze ukuthi phezulu "kwesitofu", njengoba kwenziwa ngemvubelo inhlama, bekuyindlela ewusizo lapho ukubhaka kuhhavini kungasebenzi.Kuyo yonke le minyaka, usayizi nokuqukethwe kwekhalori kwama-muffin kushintshile: i- "3-inch muffins ugogo owenziwe wayenama-calories ayi-120 kuye kwangama-160 kuphela.Kodwa lanamuhla giant yokubhaka Muffin aqukethe kusukela kilojoule 340 kuya 630 ngamunye. "

Ukwakha[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ama-muffin ama-Quickbread enziwa ngofulawa, ahlungwe ndawonye ne- bicarbonate of soda njenge-ejenti yokukhulisa.Kulokhu kufakwa ibhotela noma ukunciphisa, amaqanda nanoma yikuphi ukunambitheka (izithelo, njengama-blueberries, ushokoledi noma ubhanana; noma ama-savouries, afana noshizi).

Ama-muffin we-Bran asebenzisa ufulawa omncane futhi asebenzise i-bran esikhundleni salokho, kanye nokusebenzisa ama-molasses noshukela onsundu. [6]Ukuxubana kuguqulwa kube ithreyi le-muffin elifakwa ephaketheni, noma libe isikhunta sephepha ngalinye, bese kubhakwa kuhhavini.Ubisi luvame ukungezwa, ngoba lunomthelela ekubukeni okukhangayo kokunsundu. [6]Umphumela uphakanyisiwe, izinkwa ezisheshayo ngazinye. [5]I-muffin ingahle ifakwe okokufaka, njengoshukela wesinamoni, i-streusel, [6] amantongomane, noma ama-chip chocolate.

Ama-muffin ezentengiselwano angahle abe "nesitashi esishintshiwe", isiraphu yommbila (noma isiraphu yommbila ephezulu-fructose ), i-xanthan gum, noma i-guar gum yokwandisa okuqukethwe komswakama nokwandisa impilo yeshalofu (futhi, lezi zinsini zingenza okuqinile okwengeziwe, njengama-chocolate chips, usabalalise ngokulinganayo ku-batter). [6]

I-poppyseed muffin[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

A vegan lemon poppyseed Muffin

Ama-muffin we-poppyseed (noma ama- poppy seed muffin ) aqukethe imbewu ye-poppy. Imbewu yePoppy yayivele ithandwa ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba ngokunambitheka kwayo nokuthungwa kwayo — kanye nezimpawu ze- narcotic zesitshalo se-opium poppy ezivunwa kuso. Ezikhathini zanamuhla, ukukhula kwezimbewu ze-poppy ibhizinisi elinzima kubalimi baseMelika, ngenxa yengozi yokukhiqizwa kwe-heroin. Amanye amazwe anezinkinga ezimbalwa ngokuvumela ukukhula kwama-poppies wezinhlamvu zodwa, ezinamazinga aphansi kakhulu (kepha asekhona namanje) ama- opium alkaloids, njenge- morphine . Njengoba amanye amazwe eqala ukulingisa i-muffin yaseMelika, ukusetshenziswa kwembewu ye-poppy ukunambitheka kwayo nako kwasabalala. Yize imbewu ye-poppy ingenakusetshenziswa njenge- narcotic ngenxa yamazinga aphansi kakhulu ama-opium alkaloids, [7] anakho okwanele ukuthi izivivinyo zezidakamizwa zivame ukukhohliswa futhi zinikeze izinzuzo ezingamanga ngemuva kokuthi umuntu ongenazo ezinye izidakamizwa adle ama-muffin ambalwa nje e-poppyseed. [8] Ngenxa yalokhu, wonke amaqebelengwane e-poppyseed abeka umuntu owadlayo ngaphambi kokuhlolwa engozini enkulu yokubhekwa ngokungafanele njengomsebenzisi wezidakamizwa. [9]

Ukudla okunomsoco[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umthombo Wezakhamzimba waseHarvard University uthi yize ama-muffin amaningi wezithelo engabonakala ngathi "... ukuba yisidlo sasekuseni esingcono kunabomakhelwane bawo bama-donut" endaweni yakho yekhofi yangakini, nefulawa yabo evame ukucolisiswa, i-sodium ephezulu, noshukela omningi ongeziwe ... nosayizi wesabelo esikhulu, bakude kakhulu nokukhethwa kokudla okulungile ukuqala usuku lwakho. " Abathengi bacabanga ukuthi ama-muffin ezentengiselwano angukukhetha okunempilo kunamadonathi; kodwa-ke, ngokusho kukaDietician obhalisiwe uKaren Collins, imvubelo noma ama-donuts aphakanyisiwe anama-khalori asukela ku-170 kuya ku-270 lilinye (ama-donuts wekhekhe anama-calories angama-290 kuye kwangama-360), kuyilapho ama-muffin amakhulu ebhikawozi enama-calories angama-340 kuya ku-630 lilinye kanye no-11 kuya ku-27 amagremu amafutha . "Ama-muffin amaningi anamafutha amaningi akhohlisayo", anamafutha afinyelela ku-40%, abathengi abaningi abangawazi. [6]

Uhlobo lwe-muffin lungaba nomthelela omkhulu kokuqukethwe kwalo okunamafutha noshukela; iberry muffin eyodwa enkulu esheshayo yokudla okusheshayo inama-khalori angama-300, kanti i-chocolate chunk muffin efanayo yokudlela inama-calories ayi-620. Umthombo weHarvard's Nutrition uncoma ama-muffin amancane, okusanhlamvu okuphelele anokushukela okuncishisiwe, uwoyela wesitshalo oketshezi esikhundleni sokunciphisa noma ibhotela, futhi wengeza ukudla okunempilo okufana namantongomane (noma ufulawa wamantongomane) noma ubhontshisi (noma ufulawa kabhontshisi) noma izithelo ezintsha noma imifino .

Ama-Muffin aphezulu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ingaphezulu le-muffin liyingxenye ekhanyayo ephezulu ye-muffin, esungule "uqweqwe olunsundu oluboshwe kancane emaphethelweni". Bebegxile esiqeshini se- Seinfeld sitcom sango- 1997 , i- "The Muffin Tops " (isiqephu sama-21 sesizini 8), lapho umlingisi u-Elaine, odla iziqongo kuphela lapho uthenga i-muffin, abona ukuthi ibhikawozi elidayisa iziqongo nje kungaba uphumelele. Lapho ibhizinisi seliqalile, kufanele abone ukuthi enzeni ngamabhodlela e-muffin, okufakazela ukuthi kunzima.

Izinsiza ze-Bakeware nezokubhaka[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ipani elijwayelekile le-muffin

Amathini ka-Muffin namaphini we- muffin ngokuvamile angama-bakeware ensimbi anezimpawu eziyindilinga ezimise okomgqomo lapho kuthelwa khona i-muffin batter.Amathini noma amapani kaMuffin angagcotshwa ngebhotela noma ngesifutho sokupheka, ukwehlisa inkinga yokunamathela epanini.Ngenye indlela, kusetshenziswa izinkomishi ze-muffin noma amacala.Izinkomishi noma izimo ngokuvamile amashidi esiyindilinga iphepha, ucwecwe, noma i-silicone ne imiphetho i-scallop ecindezelwe, enikeza Muffin esiyindilinga inkomishi ukuma.Asetshenziswa ekubhakeni kwama-muffin ukugcwala amabhodlela wamathini wamathini, ukwenza lula ukususwa kalula kwe-muffin eqediwe ethinini.Inzuzo kubapheki ukususa kalula nokuhlanza, ifomu eliqonde ngokwengeziwe, nama-muffin we-moister; noma kunjalo, ukuzisebenzisa kuzovimbela uqweqwe ekwakhiweni.

Izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamacala we-muffin ziyatholakala. Osayizi abahluke kancane babhekwa "njengokujwayelekile" emazweni ahlukene.Amacala amancane ajwayelekile abe ngu-ububanzi phansi kanye ubude. Amacala osayizi ojwayelekile aqala kusuka ku-ububanzi phansi futhi.Amanye amacala osayizi we-jumbo angabamba ngaphezu kokuphindwe kabili ubukhulu bamacala ajwayelekile. Ababhaki bezinkwa base-Australia nabaseSweden bajwayele amabhokisi amaphepha amade anobubanzi obukhulu ngaphezulu kunababhaki baseMelika nabaseBrithani.

Igalari[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ama-muffin we-Flatbread[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ama-muffin ayisinkwa esisicaba (aziwa e-United States nakwezinye izindawo ngokuthi " ama-muffin esiNgisi ", noma amane athi 'ama-muffin' eBrithani, noma "ama-muffin ebhikawozi" [6] ) ayisinkwa esisicaba esimise okwe-disk, ngokuvamile esingenamvubelo semvubelo; ngokuvamile cishe ngo- 4 inches (10 cm) nxazonke no- 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) ubude. Inemvelaphi yesiNgisi noma yaseYurophu. Esikhundleni sokubhaka ngokuphelele kuhhavini, ziyaphekwa futhi ku-griddle ngaphezulu kwesitofu bese ziphenywa zisuka ngapha nangapha, okuholela ekubunjweni kwazo okujwayelekile okuyisicaba kunokuba kube yisiyingi esiyindilinga esibonwa kumaroli abhakwe noma kumafinini ohlobo lwekhekhe. [10] "Kwesinye isikhathi kufakwa ufulawa." [11] Lawa ma-muffin athandwa emazweni e-Commonwealth nase-United States. Ama-muffin e-Flatbread avame ukunikezwa i-toasted ngebhulakufesi. Zingaphakwa ngebhotela noma imajarini, zifakwe okokufaka okwehla esiphundu, okufana nojamu noma uju, noma okuthosiwe okunambitheka (isb. Isoseji eyindilinga, iqanda eliphekiwe, ushizi noma ubhekeni). Muffin Flatbread zivame kudliwa njengoba ibhulakufesi ukudla (isib njengoba luyinto esemqoka e Amaqanda Benedict futhi iningi zayo ezihlukahlukene), ephelezelwa ikhofi noma itiye .

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Indoda e-muffin yenkathi yama-Victorian ekhala insimbi.

Ama-muffin esiNgisi aqale akhulunywa ezincwadini ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-18, [12] yize umkhiqizo ngokungangabazeki mdala kunalokho.Ku- Oxford Companion to Food, u-Alan Davidson uthi "[lapha] bekulokhu kukhona ukudideka phakathi kwama-muffin, ama- crumpet, nama-pikelets, kokubili ekuphekeni nasegameni." [13]Ukuthandwa okwandayo kwama-muffin ayisinkwa esicwecwe ngekhulu le-19, kufakazelwa ukuba khona kwamadoda "... e-muffin [a] dabula imigwaqo yedolobha ngesikhathi sokudla, eshaya izinsimbi zawo" ukuzidayisa. [13]Ukukhala kwensimbi kwamadoda e-muffin kwande kakhulu kangangokuba ngawo-1840, iPhalamende laseBrithani laphasisa umthetho owenqabela ukukhala kwensimbi ngamadoda e-muffin, kepha awuzange uthathwe ngabathengisi. [13]

"Ama-mush muffin (abizwa ngokuthi ama-slipperdowns eNew England) abeyi-muffin yamaKoloni [aseMelika] enziwe nge- hominy ku-griddle elengisiwe." [14] Ama-theses nezinye izinhlobo zama-muffin ayizicaba ayaziwa kubahlali baseMelika, kepha benqaba ukuthandwa ngokufika kwe-muffin esheshayo yesinkwa. I-muffin yaseNgilandi yaphinde yangeniswa emakethe yaseMelika ngo-1880 ngokuthi "ama-muffin amaNgisi" ngumbhaki wamaNgisi waseMelika uSamuel Beth Thomas (inkampani yakhe yezimpahla ezibhakiwe uThomas isekhona kuze kube namuhla). UThomas ubize lo mkhiqizo ngokuthi "ama-crumpets e-toaster", futhi wayewahlose "njengenye indlela ebukekayo yokugcoba 'okufanele isetshenziswe emahhotela amahle. [15] I-muffin yesiNgisi ichazwe njengefomu ehlukile yesigaxa, noma "umzala", umahluko kube yindawo yemigodi; kukhonkrithi, izimbobo ziyahamba ziye phezulu, kanti nge-muffin yesiNgisi, izimbobo zingaphakathi. [15] Ngo-1910, uFred Wolferman waseKansas City, eMissouri waqala ukwenza ama-muffin ama-denser angamaNgisi endaweni yakhe yokudla komndeni, esebenzisa amathini angenalutho njenge-molds. [16]

I-Bakeware[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Amasongo kaMuffin ayizinsimbi zokupheka ezisetshenziselwa ukubhaka kuhhavini noma ukupheka imfucumfucu yesinkwa esiyisicaba. Yizinto ezinjengendilinga ezenziwe ngensimbi ezacile. Amasongo angamayintshi ukuphakama.

I- Muffineer ekuqaleni yayiyi-shuaker shaker, ibukeka njengesela elikhulu likasawoti ngenhla yokuhlobisa enamakha, yokusabalalisa ushukela oluyimpuphu kuma-muffin namanye amakhekhe amnandi. Kamuva, ngekhulu le-19, leli gama lasetshenziswa futhi ukuchaza isitsha se-muffin sesiliva, noma esesiliva, esinovalo oluyindilinga negumbi elingezansi lamanzi ashisayo, elalisetshenziselwa ukugcina amakhekhe athosiwe aseNgilandi efudumele ngaphambi kokuphaka.

Ngokwesiko elidumile[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

" The Muffin Man " kuyinto bendabuko nursery nemvumelwano, ingoma zezingane noma umdlalo wezingane we ngesiNgisi imvelaphi kusuka 1820.

Isethenjwa esaziwayo sama-muffin esiNgisi sikumdlalo ka- Oscar Wilde wango- 1895 othi The Importance of Earnest .

Njengezimpawu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  • I-muffin yommbila yi-muffin yombuso esemthethweni yaseMassachusetts . [17]
  • I- muffin eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka yi-muffin yombuso esemthethweni yaseMinnesota . [17]
  • I-muffin ye-apula iyimfene kahulumeni esemthethweni yaseNew York . [18]

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Notes and Queries: Medium of Inter-Communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc., Volume 1, Oxford University Press, 1850. p. 253.
  2. R. Thoresby in a letter dated 27 Apr. 1703 and quoted by J. Ray in 1848. vide: The correspondence of J. Ray, consisting of selections from the philosophical letters published by Dr. Derham and original letters of J. Ray in the collection of the British Museum (1848) p. 425
  3. Oxford English Dictionary 2nd Ed. (1989)
  4. Empty citation (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 American muffins at cakebaker.co.uk; retrieved 3 Sept 2017
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Wrigley, Colin W; Corke, Harold; Seetharaman, Koushik; Faubion, Jonathan. Encyclopedia of Food Grains. Academic Press, 2015. p. 33-34
  7. "Poppy law" on Erowid.org.
  8. "Poppy-seeds: codeine, morphine and urinanalysis". Archived from the original on 2021-09-15. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 2021-09-15.
  9. BBC News - Tourists warned of UAE drug laws
  10. English Muffin - Kitchen Dictionary - Food.com
  11. Larousse Gastronomique, Jennifer Harvey Lang, editor. Crown:New York] 1988 (p. 703)
  12. Muffin at Oxford English Dictionary, retrieved 3 Sept 2017
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Davidson, Alan. Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press:Oxford, 1999 (p. 517)
  14. Mariani, John F. Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, [Lebhar-Freidman Books:New York] 1999 (p. 211)
  15. 15.0 15.1 http://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/breadstuffs/english-muffin-history.asp
  16. http://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/breadstuffs/wolfermans.asp
  17. 17.0 17.1 Minnesota North Star
  18. "State Symbols USA". Archived from the original on 2015-03-28. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 2021-09-15.