Ifonetiki

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Ifonetiki yigama elisuselwa olimini lwesiGriki: (φωνή elisho umsindo, izwi). Ifonetiki yigatsha lwesifundo ngezilimi elibhekene nemisindo yenkulumo, noma  - izici zezimpawu ezisetshenziswa olimini lwabantu abayizithulu.  Ifonetiki ibhekene nokuphinyiswa kwemisindo yenkulumo noma izimpawu: ibheka ukuthi imisindo iphinyiswa kanjani, isuke kanjani emlonyeni wokhulumayo iye endlebeni yolalele, izwakale kanjani kolalele, ifonetiki ibheka nokusebenza kwemizwa lapho kusebenza izitho zokuphimisa. Ifonoloji, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ibheka okwenzeka emisindweni noma ezimpawini zemisindo lapho isetshenziswa olimini.  

Isifundo sefonetiki [ siyisifundo sezolimi ]esimkhakhamningi esibhekene nemisindo yenkulumo. Ezilimini ezikhulunywayo mithathu imikhakha ebhekwayo eyisisekelo:

  • Ifonetiki yokuphimisa: yisifundo semisindo yenkulumo lapho okhulumayo esebenzisa izitho zokuphimisa kanye nomgudu womoya osetshenziswayo empimisweni.
  • Ifonetiki yokuhamba kwemisindo: yisifundo sokuhamba kwemisindo isuka kokhulumayo iye kolalele.
  • Ifonetiki ephathelene nokuzwa imisindo: yisifundo esiphathelene nokuthi imisindo yakwamukelwa futhi iqondisiswe kanjani ngolalele.

Le mikhakha iyashiyelana. Yomithathu iphathelene nemisindo, ubude bamaza emisindo (iphimbo), ukuphakama kanye  nokunyakaza kwezitho zokuphimisa. 

Umlando wefonetiki[hlela | edit source]

Ifonetiki yayiyisifundo okwasekubhekenwe naso eminyakeni engamakhulu amathathu (3) BC ezwenikazini elincane laseNdiya, kubhekwa okwenziwe nguPanini ngezitho zokuphimisa kanye nendlela imisindo ephinyiswa ngayo ongwaqa olimini lwesiSanskrit. Namuhla ama-alphabhethi amaningi aseNdiya ahlela ongwaqa bawo ngokuhlela kukaPanini.

Ifonetiki  yamanje iqala ngemizamo yabantu abanjengoJoshua Steele (encwadini yakhe ethi Prosodia Rationalis, 1779) no-Alexander Melville Bell (encwadini yakhe ethi Visible Speech, 1867) ukwethula uhlelo lokubhalwa kwemisindo yenkulumo.

Isifundo sefonetiki sathuthuka ngokukhulu ukushesha eminyakeni yamakhulu ayi-19, ngenxa yokusungulwa komshini wokushicilela imisindo. Izingweti kwezefonetiki zazikwazi ukuthi zidlale imisindo ngokuphindiwe, zisebenzisa imishini yokwehlukanisa ukuhamba kwemisindo emsindweni ngokwawo. Ngokwenze njalo, umuntu wayekwazi ukusho ngokucophelela ukuthi yikuphi okuphathelene nokuhamba komsindo.

Kusetshenziswa umshini wokushicilela owaziwa ngokuthi yi-Edison, uLudimar Hermann wacubungula izici zonkamisa nongwaqa. Kukuwona la maphepha lapho kwasetshenziswa khona okokuqala ithemu elithi 'format'.  UHermann wabuye wadlala okushicilelwe ngonkamisa okwakushicilelwe kusetshenziswa umshini wokushicilela ka-Edison ngesivinini esehlukile ukuze ahlole injulwazi yawoWillis noWheatstone eyayingokukhiqizwa konkamisa. 

Ukuhambisana kwefonetiki nefonoloji[hlela | edit source]

Uma iqhathaniswa nefonetiki, ifonoloji yisifundo esiphathelene nokuthi imisindo kanye nokunyakaza komzimba  okusetshenziswa nenkulumo (gestures)  kunamaphi amaphethini olimini nakwezinye izilimi, nokuthi lokhu kuhambisana kanjani namanye amazinga neminxa yolimi. Ifonetiki ibhekene nokuphinyiswa kanye nokuhamba kwemisindo yenkulumo, ukuthi le misindo ikhiqizwa kanjani, nokuthi kwenzekani uma izwiwa ngolalele. Njengengxenye yalolu cwaningo, izingcweti zefonetiki zibheka izici ezibonakalayo zemisindo ezetshenziswa ngabantu enkulumeni (ngokobulili, ubuhlanga, njll.). A

Noma kuvunyelwana ngokuthi ifonoloji yeyeme kufonetiki, ifonoloji yona iyisifundo esizimele sesifundo sezilimi, iphathelene nemisindo kanye nokunyakaza komzimba okusetshenziswa nenkulumo njengamayunithi angabonakali kanye nezinguquko ezihambisana nakho. Ifonoloji ihambisana nefonetiki ngezimo ezinokwehkukanisa, eziveza okungabonakali emisindweni.

Notes[hlela | edit source]