Illuminati

Mayelana Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U-Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830), umsunguli we IBavarian Illuminati

UmiI- Illuminati (ubuningi beLatin illuminatus, 'okukhanyiselwe') igama elinikezwe amaqembu amaningi, angokoqobo futhi aqanjiwe.Ngokomlando, leli gama livame ukubhekisa eBavarian Illuminati, umphakathi we- Enlightenment -era oyimfihlo owasungulwa ngomhlaka 1 Meyi 1776 eBavaria, namuhla oyingxenye yeJalimane.Izinhloso zomphakathi kwakuwukuphikisa inkolelo-ze, ukungaboni kahle, ithonya lenkolo empilweni yomphakathi, nokusetshenziswa kabi kwamandla ombuso."Ukuhleleka kosuku," babhala emithethweni yabo ejwayelekile, "ukuqeda amaqhinga abaphenyi bokungabi nabulungisa, ukubalawula ngaphandle kokubalawula." [1]I Illuminati-kanye Freemasonry nezinye imfihlo imiphakathi-wavinjelwa ngokusebenzisa esimemezelweni ngo Charles uTheodore, Elector of eBavaria, ne isikhuthazo iSonto LamaKatolika, ngo-1784, 1785, 1787, futhi 1790. [2]Phakathi neminyaka eyalandela, leli qembu lalihlanjalazwa kakhulu ngabagxeki abalondolozayo nabezenkolo abathi i-Illuminati yaqhubeka ingaphansi komhlaba futhi babephethe i- French Revolution.

Izazi eziningi ezinethonya nosopolitiki abathuthukayo bazibheka njengamalungu, okubandakanya uFerdinand waseBrunswick kanye nommeli uFranz Xaver von Zach, owayengumphathi wesibili we-Order.Luhehe abesilisa abanjengoJohann Wolfgang von Goethe noJohann Gottfried Herder kanye noMbusi waseGotha noweWeimar.

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imvelaphi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

U- Owl waseMinerva obehleli phezu kwencwadi kwakuyisibonakaliso esasetshenziswa yiBavarian Illuminati ngeziqu zabo ze "Minerval".

U-Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830) waba nguprofesa we- Canon Law nefilosofi esebenzayo e- University of Ingolstadt ngo-1773.Wayenguye kuphela uprofesa owayengeyena umfundisi esikhungweni esasiphethwe amaJesuit, owaqedwa umyalo uPapa Clement XIV ngo-1773. AmaJesuit ase-Ingolstadt, noma kunjalo, asazigcina izintambo zesikhwama semali namandla athile eyunivesithi, aqhubeka nokuthatha njengawabo.Benza imizamo engapheli yokukhubekisa nokuhlambalaza abasebenzi abangewona abefundisi, ikakhulukazi lapho okokusebenza kwezifundo bekuqukethe noma yini abayithatha njengenkululeko noma yamaProthestani.UWeishaupt waba ngumuntu ophikisana kakhulu nabefundisi, wanquma ukusabalalisa izinhloso ze- Enlightenment ( Aufklärung ) ngohlobo oluthile lomphakathi oyimfihlo wabantu abacabanga njengaye. [3]

Ukuthola i- Freemasonry kubiza kakhulu, futhi kungavulelekanga emibonweni yakhe, wasungula umphakathi wakhe owawuzokuba nohlelo lwamazinga noma amamaki asuselwa kulabo abase-Freemasonry, kodwa ngohlelo lwakhe. [3] Igama lakhe lokuqala lohlelo olusha kwakunguBund der Perfektibilisten, noma iSivumelwano Sokupheleliswa (Ama-Perfectibilists); ngokuhamba kwesikhathi wayiguqula ngoba izwakala isimanga kakhulu.Ngomhlaka 1 Meyi 1776, uWeishaupt nabafundi abane basungula amaPerfectibilists, bathatha i- Owl of Minerva njengophawu lwabo. [4] [5]Amalungu kwakufanele asebenzise izethembiso ngaphakathi komphakathi. I-Weishaupt yaba nguSpartacus.Abafundi bezomthetho uMassenhausen, uBauhof, uMerz noSutor ngokulandelana baba yi- Ajax, Agathon, Tiberius kanye no- Erasmus Roterodamus.Kamuva u-Weishaupt waxosha uSutor ngenxa yobuvila. [6] [7] Ngo-Ephreli 1778, i-oda laba yi- Illuminatenorden, noma i-Order of Illuminati, ngemuva kokuthi uWeishaupt ecabangisise ngegama elithi Bee oda . [8]

Ngokuhamba kukaMassenhausen, uZwack washeshe wazikhandla ekuqokeleleni abaqashi abavuthiwe nababalulekile.Owayebongwa kakhulu nguWeishaupt kwakunguHertel, umngani wobuntwana kanye nohlu lwezincwadi zeMunich Frauenkirche.Ekupheleni kwehlobo ngo-1778 i-oda lase linamalungu angama-27 (asabala iMassenhausen) ngemiyalo emi-5; IMunich (Athens), Ingolstadt (Eleusis), Ravensberg (Sparta), Freysingen (Thebes), ne-Eichstaedt (Erzurum). [6]

Izinguquko[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

U-Adolph Knigge[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

U-Adolph Freiherr Knigge, umqashi osebenza kakhulu we-Illuminati

UKnigge waqashwa ngasekupheleni kuka-1780 emhlanganweni weRite of Strict Observance nguCostanzo Marchese di Costanzo, ukaputeni wamasosha ezempi eBavaria kanye noFreemason.UKnigge, eseneminyaka engamashumi amabili, wayesevele efinyelele emabangeni aphezulu kakhulu e-oda lakhe, futhi wayefike nezinhlelo zakhe ezinhle zokulungiswa kwazo.Edumele ngokuthi uhlelo lwakhe alutholanga ukwesekwa, uKnigge wavele wahlabeka umxhwele lapho uCostanzo emazisa ukuthi i-oda ayefuna ukulakha selivele likhona. UKnigge nabangane bakhe abathathu bazwakalise intshisekelo enkulu yokufunda kabanzi ngalo myalelo, futhi uCostanzo wabakhombisa izinto eziphathelene nebanga leMinerval.Izinto zokufundisa zaleli banga kwakuyizincwadi "ezikhululekile" ezazingavunyelwe eBavaria, kepha ulwazi oluvamile emazweni aseJalimane amaProthestani.Abangane bakaKnigge abathathu badumazeka futhi abasenandaba noCostanzo, kepha ukuphikelela kukaKnigge kwavuzwa ngoNovemba 1780 yincwadi evela kuWeishaupt.Ukuxhumana kukaKnigge, ngaphakathi nangaphandle kweFreemasonry, kwamenza waba ngumqashi ofanele.UKnigge, naye uqobo, wathokoziswa ukunakwa, futhi wadonselwa ezinhlosweni ezibekiwe ze-oda zemfundo nokuvikelwa kwesintu kubushiqela.UWeishaupt ukwazile ukwazisa, futhi wathembisa ukusekela, intshisekelo kaKnigge ku-alchemy kanye "nakwisayensi ephakeme".UKnigge uphendule uWeishaupt echaza ngezinhlelo zakhe zokuguqulwa kweFreemasonry njengoba iStrict Observance iqala ukungabaza ngemvelaphi yayo. [9]

UWeishaupt wabeka uKnigge umsebenzi wokuqasha ngaphambi kokuthi angeniswe emabangeni aphezulu e-oda.UKnigge wamukela, ngaphansi kombandela wokuthi avunyelwe ukuthi azikhethele indawo lapho angaqashwa khona.Abanye omakhi abaningi bathola incazelo kaKnigge yohlelo olusha lwe-masonic iheha, futhi babhaliswa ebangeni leMinerval le-Illuminati.UKnigge uvele ngalesi sikhathi ekholwa "KumaSerene Superiors" athe u-Weishaupt ubakhonza. Ukwehluleka kwakhe ukuveza noma yini ngamazinga aphakeme we-oda kwaba yinto ehlazisayo, kepha ekubambezeleni noma yiluphi usizo, uWeishaupt wamnika omunye umsebenzi owengeziwe.Kunikezwe okwenziwe nguWeishaupt, uKnigge manje usekhiqize amapheshana aveza imisebenzi yamaJesuit avinjelwe umthetho, ngenhloso yokukhombisa ukuthi baqhubeka kanjani nokuchuma nokuqasha, ikakhulukazi eBavaria. Khonamanjalo, ukwehluleka kukaKnigge ukunikeza abaqashi bakhe impendulo egculisayo emibuzweni emayelana namabanga aphezulu kwakwenza isikhundla sakhe singabambeki, futhi wabhalela uWeishaupt ngalokhu. NgoJanuwari 1781, ebhekene nethemba lokulahlekelwa nguKnigge nabaqashi bakhe bamasoni, uWeishaupt wagcina evumile ukuthi abaphathi bakhe nalokho okwakucatshangwa ukuthi kwakudala komyalelo kwakuyizindaba eziqanjiwe, futhi amazinga aphezulu kwakungafanele abhalwe. [9]

Ukube uKnigge bekulindeleke ukuthi afunde izimfihlo ezijulile ezithenjisiwe ze-Freemasonry emazingeni aphakeme e-Illuminati, ubethule ngokumangazayo ngokwambulwa kukaWeishaupt.UWeishaupt wathembisa uKnigge isandla samahhala ekwakheni iziqu eziphakeme, wabuye wathembisa ukumthumelela amanothi akhe.Ngokwakhe, uKnigge wamukele ithuba lokusebenzisa i-oda njengemoto yemibono yakhe.Uthe indlela yakhe entsha izokwenza i-Illuminati ikhange ngokwengeziwe kulabo abazoba ngamalungu embusweni wamaProthestani waseJalimane.NgoNovemba 1781 i-Areopagus yaqhubekisela phambili i-Knigge 50 florins ukuya eBavaria, ayenza edlula eSwabia naseFranconia, ehlangana futhi ejabulela ukungenisa izihambi kwamanye ama-Illuminati ohambweni lwakhe. [10]

Izinkinga zangaphakathi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-oda manje lase likhiqize ukwahlukana okujulile kwangaphakathi.Umyalo we-Eichstaedt wawusungule isifundazwe esizimele ngoJulayi 1780, futhi kwakukhula uqhekeko phakathi kukaWeishaupt kanye ne-Areopagus, abamthola enenkani, engumashiqela futhi engahambelani.UKnigge ungene kalula endimeni yokuba ngumenzi wokuthula. [10]

UCostanza ubhalele iRoyal York eveza umehluko phakathi kwemali ekhokhelwa iGrand Lodge yabo entsha nesevisi abayitholile.IRoyal York, engathandi ukulahlekelwa yimali engenayo, yanikela ngokunikeza izimfihlo "eziphakeme kakhulu" ze-Freemasonry kummeleli abazalwane babo baseMunich abazothumela eBerlin.UCostanza wabhekisa amabombo ePrussia ngomhlaka 4 Ephreli 1780, ngemiyalo yokuxoxisana ngokuncishiswa kwemali kaTheodore ngenkathi elapho.Endleleni, ukwazile ukuxabana nowesilisa waseFrance ngendaba yowesifazane othile ababehlanganyela naye inqola. UmFulentshi wathumela umyalezo phambi kwenkosi, isikhathi esithile ngaphambi kokuba bafike eBerlin, esola uCostanza njengenhloli.Ukhululwe ejele kuphela ngosizo lweGrand Master yaseRoyal York, futhi waxoshwa ePrussia engafezi lutho. [10]

Uhlelo olusha[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Icebo lokuqala likaKnigge lokuthola umthethosisekelo eLondon, babona ukuthi, selibonisiwe ngalesi sahluko.Kuze kube kufika isikhathi lapho bengathatha amanye amakamelo okulala omculo angenakususwa yisahluko sabo,bekungokwesikhashana okuqukethwe ukuba babhale kabusha iziqu ezintathu zezindawo zokulala abaziphethe. [10]

Ngo-20 Januwari 1782, uKnigge wabeka uhlelo lwakhe olusha lwamabanga e-oda. Lezi zahlelwa ngezigaba ezintathu:

  • Isigaba I - I-nursery, equkethe iNoviciate, iMinerval, ne-Illuminatus encane.
  • Isigaba II - Amabanga amaMasonic. Amabanga amathathu "e-blue lodge" e-Apprentice, Companion, ne-Master ahlukaniswe namabanga aphakeme "aseScotland" eScotland Novice naseScottish Knight.
  • Isigaba III - Izimfihlakalo.Izimfihlakalo ezincane bekungamamaki kaPriest noPrince, zilandelwa izimfihlakalo ezinkulu emabangeni kaMage neKing.Akunakwenzeka ukuthi imikhuba yezimfihlakalo ezinkulu yake yabhalwa. [10] [11]

Isigodlo seWilhelmsbad[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isigodlo "esonakalisiwe" esakhiwe yiNkosana uCharles waseHesse-Kassel epaki eWilhelmsbad, indawo yesigodlo sokugcina seStrict Observance

Ibambezelekile kusuka ngo-15 Okthoba 1781, umhlangano wokugcina we-Strict Observance wagcina uvulwe ngomhlaka 16 Julayi 1782 edolobheni lase-spa laseWilhelmsbad emaphethelweni (manje ayingxenye ye) Hanau.Ngokusobala ingxoxo ngekusasa le-oda, izihambeli ezingama-35 bezazi ukuthi iStrict Observance esimweni sayo samanje yayizobhujiswa, nokuthi iConvent yaseWilhelmsbad izoba ngumzabalazo wezingcezu phakathi kwezimfihlakalo zaseJalimane, ngaphansi kukaDuke Ferdinand waseBrunswick-Wolfenbüttel nomphathi wabo iNkosana uCharles waseHesse-Kassel, kanye namaMartinists, ngaphansi kukaJean-Baptiste Willermoz .Okuwukuphela kwamazwi aphikisayo emabangeni aphakeme angaqondakali kwakunguJohann Joachim Christoph Bode, owayethuswe yiMartinism, kepha izindlela zakhe ezihlongozwayo zazingakabi khona, noFranz Dietrich von Ditfurth, umahluleli waseWetzlar nomphathi weJoseph of the Three Helmet u- lodge lapho, owayesevele eyilungu le-Illuminati.UDitfurth ukhankasele obala umkhankaso wokubuyela ezifundweni ezintathu eziyisisekelo zeFreemasonry, obekungumphumela omncane kakhulu womhlangano.Ama-mystics asevele enezinhlelo ezihambisanayo zokufaka esikhundleni seziqu eziphakeme. [12]

Ifa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Abakwa-Illuminati abasindanga ekucindezelweni kwabo eBavaria. Ukuqhubeka nokukhohlakala kwabo nokuhlela kwabo umsebenzi kaBarruel noRobison kumele kubhekwe njengokuqanjwa kwababhali. [3]Ngaphandle kwalokhu, bakhonjisiwe emibonweni eminingi yesimanjemanje yozungu ebhekiswe ekusindeni kwabo.

Izazi zetulo kanye nababhali abanjengoMark Dice baphikise ukuthi ama-Illuminati asekhona kuze kube namuhla.

Imibono eminingi yozungu iphakamisa ukuthi imicimbi yomhlaba ilawulwa futhi isetshenziswe umphakathi oyimfihlo ozibiza nge-Illuminati.Ababhali bozungu bathi abantu abaningi abadumile babengamalungu e-Illuminati noma. Abaongameli base-United States bayisisulu esivamile sezimangalo ezinjalo.

Amanye ama-theorists aphikisa ngokuthi imicimbi eyahlukahlukene yomlando yahlelwa yi-Illuminati, kusukela ku- French Revolution, i- Battle of Waterloo kanye nokubulawa kukaMongameli wase-US uJohn F. Kennedy, ezinsolweni zamakhomanisi zokusheshisa "i- New World Order " ngokungena imboni yamafilimu yaseHollywood.

Abanye bathi amalungu e-Illuminati yamazinga aphakeme anamakhono athile angajwayelekile njengokufunda ama-aura noma ukusebenzisa ukubhula ngezinombolo ukubikezela ikusasa. [13]

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Richard van Dülmen, The Society of Enlightenment (Polity Press 1992) p. 110
  2. René le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la franc-maçonnerie allemande, Paris, 1914, pp. 453, 468–469, 507–508, 614–615
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Vernon Stauffer, New England and the Bavarian Illuminati, Columbia University Press, 1918, Chapter 3 The European Illuminati, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon, accessed 14 November 2015
  4. René le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la franc-maçonnerie allemande, Paris, 1914, Book 1, Chapter 1, pp. 15–29
  5. Manfred Agethen, Geheimbund und Utopie. Illuminaten, Freimaurer und deutsche Spätaufklärung, Oldenbourg, Munich, 1987, p. 150.
  6. 6.0 6.1 René le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la franc-maçonnerie allemande, Paris, 1914, Book 1, Chapter 2, pp. 30–45
  7. Terry Melanson, Perfectibilists: The 18th Century Bavarian Order of the Illuminati, Trine Day, 2009, pp. 361, 364, 428
  8. Ed Josef Wäges and Reinhard Markner, tr Jeva Singh-Anand, The Secret School of Wisdom, Lewis Masonic 2015, pp. 15–16
  9. 9.0 9.1 René le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la franc-maçonnerie allemande, Paris, 1914, Book 3 Chapter 2, pp. 202–26
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 René le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la franc-maçonnerie allemande, Paris, 1914, Book 3 Chapter 3, pp. 227–50
  11. K. M. Hataley, In Search of the Illuminati, Journal of the Western Mystery Tradition, No. 23, Vol. 3. Autumnal Equinox 2012
  12. René le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la franc-maçonnerie allemande, Paris, 1914, Book 4 Chapter 1, pp. 343–88
  13. 334‰ Lies (Memoirs from the 41st Degree of the High Master of the Chair of the Illuminati, Freemasons, and Other Secret Societies?) by H.M. v. Stuhl XLI (High Master of the Chair)