Imbongi

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UVictor Hugo wayeyimbongi yaseFrance, umbhali wamanoveli nomlingisi wemidlalo yeshashalazi. UHugo udume ngemisebenzi efana neLes Contemplations ( The Contemplations ) neLa Légende des siècles ( The Legend of the Ages ).

Imbongi ngumuntu odala izinkondlo.Izimbongi zingazichaza kanjalo noma zichazwe kanjalo ngabanye abantu. Imbongi ingavele ibe ngumbhali wezinkondlo, noma ingenze ubuciko bayo kuzethameli.

Umfanekiso oqanjiwe wasemva kokufa komuntu wembongi yaseSlovak uJanko Kráľ (1822-1876) - isithombe esithandekayo sokuthi "imbongi yangempela kufanele ibukeke kanjani" esikweni laseNtshonalanga.

Umsebenzi wembongi empeleni ungowokuxhumana, kungaba ukuveza imibono ngomqondo ongokoqobo, njengokubhala ngomcimbi othile noma indawo ethile, noma ngokomfanekiso. Izimbongi bezikhona kusukela endulo, cishe kuzo zonke izilimi, futhi zikhiqize imisebenzi eyehluka kakhulu emasikweni nasezinkathini ezahlukahlukene.Kuyo yonke impucuko nolimi ngalunye, izimbongi zisebenzise izitayela ezahlukahlukene eziguqukile ngokuqhubeka komlando wokubhala, okuholele emlandweni wezimbongi ezahlukahlukene njengezincwadi abazikhiqizile.

Izimbongi eziningi zasendulo kungenzeka ukuthi azange ziluzuze udumo empilweni yazo, kepha kukhona okuhlukile; UJohan Ludvig Runeberg (1804-1877), owabuye wakhuphuka waba "yimbongi kazwelonke yaseFinland ", wayengumuntu ohlonishwayo ngesikhathi ehlala ezweni lakubo.
IGiacomo Leopardi yase-Italy kukhulunywe ngayo yi-University of Birmingham "njengomunye wabacwaningi abanenkani enkulu futhi abayinselele kubacwaningi bekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalolunye". [1]

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

E- Ancient Rome, izimbongi eziqeqeshiwe zazivame ukuxhaswa ngabathengi, abacebile abacebile kubandakanya izikhulu nezikhulu zamasosha.Isibonelo, uGaius Cilnius Maecenas, umngani kaKesari Augustus, wayengumphathi obalulekile wezimbongi zika-Augustan, kufaka phakathi bobabili uHorace noVirgil.Ngenkathi u- Ovid, imbongi esungulwe kahle, waxoshwa eRoma ngu- Awugustu wokuqala.

NgeNkathi Ephakathi Ephakathi, abahlukumezi babeyisigaba esibalulekile sezimbongi futhi bevela ezizindeni ezahlukahlukene.Babehlala futhi behamba ezindaweni eziningi ezahlukahlukene futhi babebhekwa njengabalingisi noma abaculi njengezimbongi.Babevame ukuphathwa, kepha abaningi babehamba kakhulu.

Isikhathi se- Renaissance saqhubeka nokuxhaswa kwezimbongi ngabasebukhosini.Izimbongi eziningi, kodwa, bezineminye imithombo engenayo, okubandakanya amaNtaliyane anjengoDante Aligheri, uGiovanni Boccaccio noPetrarch 's works in a pharmist's guild and William 's Shakespeare's theatre.

Esikhathini se-Romantic kuya phambili, izimbongi eziningi zazingababhali abazimele ababeziphilisa ngomsebenzi wabo, imvamisa belekelelwa yimali evela kweminye imisebenzi noma emndenini. [2] Lokhu bekubandakanya izimbongi ezinjengoWilliam Wordsworth noRobert Burns.

Izimbongi ezifana noVirgil ku- Aeneid noJohn Milton kwi- Paradise Lost bacele usizo lwe- Muse.

Ezemfundo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izimbongi zezikhathi zangaphambili zazivame ukufundwa kahle nabantu abafunde kakhulu kanti ezinye zazizifundise ngezinga elikhulu.Izimbongi ezimbalwa ezifana noJohn Gower noJohn Milton bakwazile ukubhala izinkondlo ngezilimi ezingaphezu kweyodwa.Ezinye izimbongi zasePortugal, njengoFrancisco de Sá de Miranda, azibhalanga ngesiPutukezi kuphela kodwa nangeSpanishi.[3]UJan Kochanowski ubhale ngesiPolish nangesiLatin, [4] uFrance Prešeren noKarel Hynek Mácha [5] babhala izinkondlo ezithile ngesiJalimane, yize babeyizimbongi zaseSlovenia naseCzech ngokulandelana. U-Adam Mickiewicz, imbongi enkulu kunazo zonke zolimi lwasePoland, wabhala i-ode yesiLatini yombusi uNapoleon III.Esinye isibonelo uJerzy Pietrkiewicz, imbongi yasePoland. Lapho ethuthela eGreat Britain, wayeka ukubhala izinkondlo ngesiPolish, kodwa waqala ukubhala inoveli ngesiNgisi.[6]Wabuye wahumusha izinkondlo zisuselwa esiNgisini ziye esiNgisini.

Amanyuvesi amaningi ahlinzeka ngama-degree ekubhaleni okudala yize lokhu kuvele kuphela ngekhulu lama-20.Yize lezi zifundo zingadingeki emsebenzini wokuba yimbongi, zingaba wusizo njengokuqeqesha, nokunikeza umfundi iminyaka eminingi yesikhathi egxile ekubhaleni kwabo. [7]

Izimbongi zevesi elingcwele[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izimbongi ezi-Lyrical ezibhala izinkondlo ezingcwele ("ama- hymnographer ") ziyehluka emfanekisweni ojwayelekile wezimbongi ngezindlela eziningi.Umbhali wezingoma ezifana no- Isaac Watts owabhala izinkondlo ezingama-700 ngesikhathi sakhe sokuphila, kungenzeka ukuthi izingoma zakhe ziculwa yizigidi zabantu njalo ngeSonto ekuseni, kodwa azifakwanga njalo kwizingoma zezinkondlo.Ngoba amaculo abhekwa njengokuthi " ukukhonza " kunokuthi "izinkondlo," igama elithi "ubuciko kenosis" kwesinye isikhathi lisetshenziselwa ukuchaza impumelelo yomculi wehuna "ekuchitheni" umuzwa wokuphumelela njengombongi.Umculi osesihlalweni angahle abambe ngekhanda izitanza ezimbalwa zikaWatts, ngaphandle kokwazi igama lakhe noma ukumcabanga njengembongi.

  1. The Zibaldone project, University of Birmingham
  2. Peter T. Murphy (2005) "Poetry as an Occupation and an Art in Britain" Cambridge University Press
  3. Encyclopaedia Britanncia.
  4. Jan Kochanowski at Catholic Encyclopaedia.
  5. Karel Hynek Mácha: A leading poet of Czech Romanticism.
  6. Independent.
  7. Nikki Moustaki (2001), The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Poetry, Penguin.