Imfundo eShayina

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Imfundo eShayina iyinqubo yemfundo eqhutshwa wumbuso, kanti ingaphansi khwehhovisi likaNgqongqoshe wezeMfundo. Zonke izakhamizi kumele ziye esikoleni iminyaka eyisishagalolunye, eyeziwa njengemfundo ephoqelelayo, kanti futhi ithola imali evela kuhulumeni. Le nqubo ibandakanya iimfundo yeprayimari, eqala lapho izingane zineminyaka eyisithupha noma eyisikhombisa, kanye neminyaka emithathu yemfundo yezinga eliphansi lesekondari (isikole esiphakathi naphakathi) kwiminyaka engu 12 ukuya kwengu 15. Amanye amaprovinsi anemfundo yeprayimari yeminyaka emihlanu, kodwa iminyaka emine yenziwa esikoleni esiphakathi naphakathi. Ngemuva kokuqeda imfundo yesikole esiphakathi naphakathi, kuneminyaka emithathu yesikole esiphakeme esibandakanya imfundo yesekondari. Ihhovisi likaNgqongqoshe wezeMfundo, libika ukuthi cishe kunokungenwa kwesikole kwezinga elingamaphesente angu 99 esikoleni seprayimari, kanti amaphesente angu 80 esikole esiphakathi naphakathi. [citation needed] Ngo 1985, uhulumeni waqeda imfundo ephakeme ethola imali yentela kanti lokhu kudinga ukuthi abantu abenza izicelo zokuya eyunivesithi ukuthi baqhudelane ukuthola ama-scholarships ngokulandela ikhono labo kwezemfundo. Eminyakeni yoma 1980, uhulumeni wavumela okokuqala ukuthi kusungulwe izikole zangasese, lokho kwanyusa isibalo sabafundi abathola iziqu zokuqala eyunivesithi kanye nenani labantu abaneziqu zezinga lobudokotela ngezinga eliphindwe kahlanu phakathi kukanyaka ka 1995 nonyaka ka 2005.[1] Ngo 2003, iShayina yasekela izikhungo ezingu 1,552 zemfundo ephakeme (amakholishi kanye namayunivesithi) kanye noprofesa bakhona abangu 725,000 kanye nezitshudeni ezingu 11 miliyoni (bheka Uhla lwamayunivesithi eShayina). Kunamayunivesithi angaphezulu kwangu 100 abalulekile kazwelonke, abandakanya i-Peking University kanye ne-Tsinghua University. Ukusetshenziswa kwemali kunyuke ngo 20% ngonyaka ukusukela ngo 1999, manje lelil nani selifinyelela ku-$100bn, kanti kwaba nezitshudeni ezilinganiselwa ku 1.5 miliyoni ezifundele isayense nobunjiniyela eziphothule iziqu kwizifundo zesayense nobunjiniyela, eziphothule izifundo kumayunivesithi aseShayina ngo 2006. IShayina yashicilela imibhalo yezifundo engu 184,080 ngo 2008.[2] IShayina sekuyindawo yedumela kakhulu kubafundi bamazwe.[3] Ukusukela ngo 2013, izwe laseShayina libe ngelidume kakhulu nelithathw akakhulu zitshudeni zamazwe omhlaba e-Asia As of 2013, kanti lisezingeni lesithathu kuwo wonke amazwe.[3]

Imithetho elawula inqubo yemfundo, ibandakanya ukulawulwa kwama-Academic Degrees, imfundo yezomthetho ephoqelelayo ebizwa i-Compulsory Education Law, umthetho wezothisha (Teachers Law), umthetho wezemfundo (Education Law), umthetho wokufundela imisebenzi ethile, ie-Law on Vocational Education, kanye nomthetho wemfundo ephakeme i-Law on Higher Education. Bheka futhi ku: Law of the People's Republic of China.


Njengoba i-Shanghai kanye ne-Hong Kong zingezinye zezindawo zemfundo esebenza ngeqophelo eliphezulu kakhkulu kunamanye amazwe kuhlolo lwamazwe omhlaba lwe-Programme for International Student Assessment, inqubo yemfundo eShayina inconywa kakhulu ngobunzulu nokugxila kwayo,  kanye nokugcizelela ekufundeni ngekhanda ukulungiselela ama-test, okwaziwa ngokuthi yi-rote memorization kanye nokulungiselelela ama-test.


Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukusukela ekupheleni kwerivolushini yezamasiko i-Cultural Revolution (1966–76), inqubo yemfundo yaseShayina ilokhu ihlala ihlose nokuqikelela ukuguqula umnotho ukuthi  ube ngowesimanje (economic modernization). [citation needed] Ngo 1985, uhulumeni kazwelonke wadedela inqubo yemfundo yesisekelo wayinikeza ohulumeni bezindawo, lokhu okwenziwa ngokuthatha isinqumo esathathwa yisigungu esiphezulu seqembu lamakhomanisi, i-Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party's "Decision on the Reform of the Educational Structure." Ekuphothuleni inguquko kwezemfundo ngoMeyi 1985, iziphathimandla zamemezela ukuthi kube nemfundo ephoqayo yeminyaka eyisishagalolunye kanye nokusungulwa kweKhomishini yeMfundo yoMbuso i-State Education Commission (eyakhiwa ngenyanga elandelayo). Ukuzimisela ngokomthetho ukuthuthukisa imfundo kwabonakala kakhulu  ngokunyusa imali yezemfundo ngohlelo lweminyaka eyisikhombisa i-Seventh Five-Year Plan (1986–90), eyaba yinani lamaphesente angu 72 kunalelo elalinyikezwa ezemfundo kwisikhathi sohlelo olwedlule sango  (1981–85). Ngonyaka ka 1986, inani lamaphesente angu 16.8 kwibhajethe yombuso (state budget) yabekelwa eceleni ibekelwe ezemfundo, uma kuqhathaniswa namaphesente angu 10.4 kanyaka ka 1984. Ukusukela ngo 1949, imfundo ihlala njalo iwumkhakha okuphikiswana ngawo eShayina.  Ngenxa yokuqhubeka yokuqhubeka kokuhlelwa kabusha kwezinto okubizwa ngokuthi yi-intraparty realignments, umgomo wangokosiko ubuhlala uqhathaniswa nezinto ezibonwa zibalulekile ngokulandela i-idiyoloji kanye nezinto ezibalulekile ngokulandela izinto ezibambekayo nezibonelela ukusubenzeka kwezinto emizameni yekuqhubela phambili intuthukko kazwelonke. Kodwa ukulandela i-idiyoloji inkinga wukuthi kuhlala kunokuphambana phakathi kokubonelela izinto ezisebenzisekayo neziwusizo ngokwesimo, kanye ne-idiyoloji ngakolunye uhlangothi.Kodw ainqubekela phambili enkulu eyayibizws angokuthi yi-The Great Leap Forward (1958–60) kanye nentshukumo yemfundo yesoshalizimi ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Socialist Education Movement (1962–65) yaqikelela ukuqeda inqubo ebizwa ngokuthi yi-academic elitism, ukuze kuvalwe igebe kwezenhlalisano nezendabuko okubizwa ngokuthi yi-narrow social and cultural gaps phakathi kwabasebenzi, abaphila ngokulima emakhaya abaziwa ngokuthi ama-peasant kanye naphakathi kwabantu basemadolobheni nasemakhaya, kanye nokuqeda umkhuba wokuthi izifundiswa ezizaziwa ngokuthi ama- scholars kanye nabasebenza ngemisebenzi yezingqondo ama-intellectuals babukele phansi umsebenzi owenziwa ngezandla obizwa ngokuthi yi-manual labor. Ngesikhathi senqubo yentshukumo eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Cultural Revolution, kwaba nokuqikelelwa kakhulu ukuthi kube nenqubo yokulingana eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-social equality phakathi kwabantu, le nqubo yiyo eyabonwa njengento ebaluleke kakhulu nokumele kuqalwe ngayo ukwenziwa.

History[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Template:Ifsubst

A mean value theorem equation is displayed on a bridge in Beijing.
A mean value theorem equation is displayed on a bridge in Beijing.

Ubuholi bangemuva komholi wangaphambili u-Mao Zedong Chinese Communist Party babona imfundo njengesisekelo sokuqala semikhakha eminye yenqubo yesimodeni, eyayibizwa njenge-Four Modernizations. Ngeminyaka yoma-1980, imfundo yesayense netheknoloji yagxiliswa kakhulu ekubalulekeni kumgomo wemfundo. Ngonyaka ka 1986 ukuqeqeshwa kwamabasebenzi kumakhono okunabisa ulwazi lwesayense nobuthekniki kwabekelwa ezingeni eliphezulu nelibaluleke kakhulu. Ngisho noma umkhakha we-humanities nawo wabonwa ubalulekile, kodwa amakhono okuqeqeshelwa imisebenzi kanye namakhono atheknikhali, nawo abekwa ezingeni eliphezulu nelibalulekile kwizinhloso zokwenza iShayini libe yizwe lenqubo yesimodeni. Ukuhlelwa kwabusha kwezinto ezibalulekile nokumele zenziwe kuqala kwezemfundo kwaba yisu eliphambili likaDeng Xiaoping ukwenzela intuthuko yezomnotho. Kwagxilwa kakhulu nakuqeqesho oluqhubekela phambili lwalabo ababevele sebefundile, ukuze baqhubele phambili inqubo yokwenza izinto ngendlela yesimodeni kwiminyaka ezayo. Ukugcizelela kakhulu kwisayense yesimodeni netheknoloji, kwenza ukuthi kwamukelwe, ukusukela ngonyaka ka 1976, umgomo owawubonelela okuvela kwamanye amazwe aphesheya, lokhu okwakhuthaza ukuthi kufundwe kanye nokuboleka izinqubo nezinto zamazwe angaphandle, ukuqhubela kakhulu kwizinga eliphezulu ezoqeqesho, kwimikhakha yezesayense.

The post-Mao Zedong Chinese Communist Party leadership viewed education as the foundation of the Four Modernizations. In the early 1980s, science and technology education became an important focus of education policy. By 1986 training skilled personnel and expanding scientific and technical knowledge had been assigned the highest priority. Although the humanities were considered important, vocational and technical skills were considered paramount for meeting China's modernization goals. The reorientation of educational priorities paralleled Deng Xiaoping's strategy for economic development. Emphasis also was placed on the further training of the already-educated elite, who would carry on the modernization program in the coming decades. Renewed emphasis on modern science and technology led to the adoption, beginning in 1976, of an outward-looking policy that encouraged learning and borrowing from abroad for advanced training in a wide range of scientific fields.

Ekuqaleni kweNgqungquthela yawo wonke amalunga yesithathu (Third Plenum) yeKhongrese yeshumi nanye kazwelonke, yeKomidi lesikhungu esiphezulu i-Central Committee ngoDisemba ka 1978, izifundiswa zakhuthazwa ukuthi zenze ucwaningo (research)  olusekela imikhakha emine yenqubo yesimodeni, inqaba nje uma belandela izimiso ezisemqoka ezine ezazaziwa ngokuthi ama-"Four Cardinal Principles" lezi zifundiswa zazinikezwa inkululeko. Kodwa inhlangano yamakhomanisi kanye nohulumeni yibo ababebeka imikhawulo yalezo zimiso ezisemqoka ezine ezibalulekile, kodwa futhi uma bebena ukuthi ucwaningo aluhlangabezana nalezo zimiso, babekwazi ukulumisa lolo cwaningo..

Beginning at the Third Plenum of the Eleventh National Party Congress Central Committee in December 1978, intellectuals were encouraged to pursue research in support of the Four Modernizations and, as long as they complied with the party's "Four Cardinal Principles" they were given relatively free rein. But when the party and the government determined that the strictures of the four cardinal principles had been stretched beyond tolerable limits, they did not hesitate to restrict intellectual expression.

Ezemibhalo ye-Literature kanye neze-arts le mikhakha nayo yavuselelwa kakhulu ngeminyaka yoma 1970 kanye noma 1980. Imibhalo yamandulo nayo yavuselelwa futhi kanti futhi nezinye izinhlobo zemibhalo ye-literature nezamasiko, zangaphandle, nazo zavunyelwa ukuze zifakelwe kwinqubo yale mibhalo.

Literature and the arts also experienced a great revival in the late 1970s and 1980s. Traditional forms flourished once again, and many new kinds of literature and cultural expression were introduced from abroad.

Ukusukela ngonyaka ka 2015, izikhungo zemfundo kakhulumeni yeprayimari kanye namasekondari ezinga eliphansi (junior high), lezi zikole eShayina, zinabafundi abangama 28.8 miliyoni.[4]

Intuthuko[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-Tsinghua University ngeyeqophelo eliphezulu eShayina

Tsinghua Observatory.jpg Ukusukela ngeminyaka yoma 1950, iShayini ihlinzeka ngemfundo ephoqelelayo yeminyaka eyisishagalolunye, kubantu abayisibalo sengxenye yokunye-kokuhlanu uma kuqhathaniswa nesibalo sabantu bomhlaba wonke. Ngonyaka ka 1999, imfundo yeprayimari ibisiyinto eyande kakhulu endaweni engu 90% yezwe laseShayina, kanti futhi imfundo ephoqelelayo yeminyaka eyisishagalolunye, manje isiyongamele inani labantu abangu 85% baseShayina. [5] Kanti uhulumeni kazwelonke kanye nohulumeni bamaprovinsi, bahlinzeka ngemali yemfundo, kodwa izinga lokuhlinzeka ngemali liyehlukahluka kwiprovinsi neprovinsi, kanti futhi ukuhlinzekwa ngemali yemfundo kusezingeni eliphansi, kunezindawo zomasipala basemadolobheni. Imindeni nayo kumele ixhase kwimali ekhishwa nguhulumeni yemfundo, lokhu okusho ukuthi ezinye izingane imali ephansi. Kodwa abazali bayithathela phezulu imfundo, lokhu okwenza ukuthi bazinikele kakhulu ekuxhaseni ezemfundo ngisho noma bengenamali kahle, futhi bathumela izingane zabo esikoleni ukuyofinyelela eyunivesithi. Izinga lokungafundi ezinganeni ukuya kwabadadlana lehle kakhulu ukusukela kumaphesenti angu 80 ukuya kumaphesenti amahlanu. Inqubo yemfundo iqeqeshe abantu abanamaprofeshini abangamamliyoni angu 60 kwimikhakha yamaprofeshini aphakathi-naphakathi ukuya kumkhakha ophezulu, kanti cishe abasebenzi abangamamiliyoni angu 400 nabo baqeqeshiwe ukufinyelela kwizinga lemfundo yesikole ephezulu. Namuhla eShayina abantu abangu 250 miliyoni eShayina bathola imfundo yamazinga amathathu esikole, (okusho izinga lesikole le-elementary, ijunior kanye nesenior), lokhu okuphinde kabili izinga lokunyuka kwezemfundo uma kuqhathaniswa namazwe omhlaba. Ukungena isikole kwenyuka kwafinyelela amapesenti angu 98,8 kanti esikole sezinga eliphezulu khona kufinyelela amapesenti angu 94.1.

Izinga lemfundo eShayina liya ngokwenaba kakhulu. Eminyakeni elishumi eyedlule, iziqu ze-MBA zazingekho, kodwa ngonyaka ka 2004, kwase kunabantu abangu 47 000 abaneziqu ze-MBA, ababeqeqeshwe kwizikhungo ezingu 62. Abantu abaningi benza izicelo zokuthola amakhwalifikheshini amaprofeshini kumazwe omhlaba, ukwenza iziqu ze-EMBA ne-MPA; cishe kunabafundi abangu 10,000 ababhalisele iziqu ze-MPA ezikhungweni ezingu 47 zemfundo ephakeme, ezibandakanya i-Peking University kanye ne-Tsinghua University. Imakethe yezemfundo inyuke ngezinga nesivinini esiphezulu, kanti uqeqesho nokuhlolwa kwamakhwalifikheshini amaprofeshini kuphezulu, kanti ukuqeqeshwa ngamakhompyutha kanye nolwazi lwezilimi zangaphandle, yinto esezingeni eliphezulu. Imfundo eqhubekela phambili yinto eyenzeka kakhulu ngokuvamile, kanti abantu bafuna ukufunda izimpilo zabo bonke.

Since the 1950s, China has been providing a nine-year compulsory education to what amounts to a fifth of the world's population. By 1999, primary school education had become generalized in 90% of China, and mandatory nine-year compulsory education now effectively covered 85% of the population.[6] While the central and provincial governments provide some funding for education, this varies from province to province, and funding in the rural areas is notably lower than in major urban municipalities. Families must supplement money provided to school by government with tuition fees, which means that some children have much less . However, parents place a very high value on education, and make great personal sacrifices to send their children to school and to university. Illiteracy in the young and mid-aged population has fallen from over 80 percent down to five percent. The system trained some 60 million mid- or high-level professionals and near 400 million laborers to junior or senior high school level. Today, 250 million Chinese get three levels of school education, (elementary, junior and senior high school) doubling the rate of increase in the rest of the world during the same period. Net elementary school enrollment has reached 98.9 percent, and the gross enrollment rate in junior high schools 94.1 percent.

China's educational horizons are expanding. Ten years ago the MBA was virtually unknown but by 2004 there were 47,000 MBAs, trained at 62 MBA schools. Many people also apply for international professional qualifications, such as EMBA and MPA; close to 10,000 MPA students are enrolled in 47 schools of higher learning, including Peking University and Tsinghua University. The education market has rocketed, with training and testing for professional qualifications, such as computer and foreign languages, thriving. Continuing education is the trend, once in one's life schooling has become lifelong learning.

Ukusebenzisana nokuxhumana namazwe angahandle kwezemfundo kuya kunyuka ngezinga eliphezulu minyaka yonke.Izwe laseShayina linabafundi abaningi abafunda kumazwe angaphandle, ukusukela ngonyaka ka 1979 kube nabafundi abangu 697 000 baseShayina abafunda kumzwe angu 103 kanye namarijini, kanti kulelinani, abangu 185 000 babuyele eShayina ngemuva kwezifundo zabo. Inani labafundi bamanye amazwe abafunda eShayina nabo linyukile, ngonyaka ka 2004, bekunabafundi bamanye amazwe abangu 110 000 abavela kumazwe angu 178 ababefunda kumayunivesithi aseShayina..

Utshalomali kwezemfundo lunyukile eminyakeni eyedlule; izinga lemali efakelwe kwezemfundo lenyuke ngephesenti elilodwa kunyaka nonyaka ukusukela ngo 1998. Ngokulandela uhlelo lukaNgqongqoshe wezeMfundo, uhulumeni uzosungula inqubo yezezimali ngokuhambisana nenqubo yezimali zomphakathi, ukuqinisa indima yohulumeni kuyo yonke imikhakha yotshalomali lwemfundo, kanye nokuqinisekisa ukuthi ukwabiwa kwezimali kwezemfundo kukhula kakhulu ngesivinini ukudlula ingeniso lemali evamile. Uhlelo lubeka nenhloso kahulumeni yotshalomali kwimfundo, nokuthi kumele kube ngezinga lamaphesenti amane e-GDP ngesikhathi esifishane.

Kwimfundo engaphoqelelele, iShayina yamukele inqubo yokuthi kwabelwane ngenkokhelo, ukukhokhisa imali yokufunda ngamaphesenti athile ezindleko. Kodwa ukuqinisekisa ukuthi abafundi bemindeni eyeswele, bakwazi ukufinyelela kwimfundo ephakeme, uhulumeni uqale izindlela ezibambekayo zokusiza ngemigomo kanye nezinqubo zama-scholarship, izinhlelo zokufunda abantu bebebesebenza, ukuphungulelwa inkokhelo yokufunda, ama-subsidy kubafundi abanobunzima kwezezimali kanye nokuthi abanye bangakhokhi kanye nokuthola imixhaso kahulumeni.

Ukusebenzisana kwamazwe omhlaba kanye nokushintshisana kwezemfundo kuyenyuka unyaka nonyaka. Izwe laseShayina linabafundi basemayunivesithi namakholishi abafunda kumazwe aphesheya, abaningi ukudlula amanye amazwe; ukusukela ngo 1979, kube nabafundi bamaShayina abangu 697 000, abafunda kumazwe angu 103 kanye namarijini, okanti inani elingu 185 000 labo babuyela eShayina lapho beqede ukufunda izifundo zabo. Inani labafundi bangaphandle abafunda eShayina, nalo lenyuke ngokushesha; ngonyaka ka 2004, kwakunabafundi abangaphezulu kwenani lika 110 000 ababuye kumazwe angu 178, ababefunda emayunivesithi aseShayina.

Investment in education has increased in recent years; the proportion of the overall budget allocated to education has been increased by one percentage point every year since 1998. According to a Ministry of Education program, the government will set up an educational finance system in line with the public finance system, strengthen the responsibility of governments at all levels in educational investment, and ensure that their financial allocation for educational expenditure grows faster than their regular revenue. The program also set out the government's aim that educational investment should account for four percent of GDP in a relatively short period of time.


Uhulumeni uzimisele ukwenyusa izinga lemfundo kakhulu, njengoba kubonakala kubufakazi bohlelo lwemfundo lukaNgqongqoshe, lwango 2020 kubantu abangu 100 000 wabantu, abangu 13 500 bazobe benemfundo digri yezinga lokuqala lekholishi noma ngaphezulu kwalo, kanti abangu 31 000bazobe benemfundo yesikole sezinga eliphezulu, izinga labantu abangakwazi ukufunda nokubhala lizokwehla ngamaphesenti amathathu, kanti inani labangena isikole lizokwenyuka uusukela eminyakeni ayisishagalombili uuya kwiminyaka engu 11.

History[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

References[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. "China's Book in Higher Education graphic in The New York Times based on information from China's Ministry of Education, April 28, 2005
  2. Su, Xiaohuan (28 March 2011), China 'to overtake US on science' in two years, BBC World News, ISBN 7-80113-993-3 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Sheehy, Kelsey (October 8, 2013).
  4. Hornby, Lucy (Reuters).
  5. Su, Xiaohuan (2002), Education in China: reforms and innovations, 五洲传播出版社, ISBN 7-80113-993-3 
  6. Su, Xiaohuan (2002), Education in China: reforms and innovations, 五洲传播出版社, ISBN 7-80113-993-3