Ngokulandela amazinga abekwe ngabe-International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), imfundo eyisisekelo iqukethe izigaba ezimbili, okuyimfundo yeprayimari kanye nemfundo yesikondari yebanga eliphansi.
Imfundo kawonkewonke eyisisekelo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]
Imfundo eyisisekelo kwaxoxwa ngayo kakhulu kwidokhumende yonyaka ka 1997, ye-ISCED, kodwa ithemu lalingabandakanyiwe kwiglasari. Izwe nezwe litolika ithemu ngezindlela ezehlukile, kanti ukuya kunyaka ka 2011 lerivishini, kwaba nephepha lengxoxo elakhishwa ukuzama ukucacisa.
Kumazwe amaningi, i-ISCED 1 ihambisana nemfundo kazwelonke yeprayimari, ebese kanti imfundo eyisisekelo yona ibandakanye i-ISCED 2 okuyimfundo yebanga eliphansi lesekondari (izinga elisezansi lesekondari). Kwamanye amazwe, lapho khona kungekho ukwehlukaniswa kweprayimari kanye nezinga elisezansi lesekondari, "imfundo eyisekelo" ibandakanya sonke isikhathi semfundo yesikole ephoqelelayo. Ngezizathu zamastatistiki, i-ISCED 1 ithathwa njengeminyaka yesithupha yokuqala yesikole.
Universal basic education is regarded as a priority for developing countries and is the focus of the Education For All movement led by UNESCO. It is also included in the Millennium Development Goals as goal number 2: achieve universal primary education by 2015.
An extensive number of studies have proven its benefits for public health (e.g. lower spread of HIV/AIDS; better vaccination; prevention and medication of disease; better nutrition; lower maternal, infant, and child mortality), demography (e.g. longer life expectancy, accelerated demographic transition through better birth control) and the economy (e.g. increased purchase power, increased productivity in traditional sectors, increased demand on service sectors). Other benefits, although more difficult to measure, include a beneficial impact on democracy, human rights, governance, and political stability through increased understanding of non-violent ways to solve problems and mutual understanding between groups in conflict.Template:Ifsubst
The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), established by UNICEF in 1989, protects children's inalienable rights by setting standards for multiple issues, one of which is education.
Gender equality in basic education[hlela | Hlela umthombo]
Gender equality in education has traditionally been narrowly equated with gender parity at different levels of formal education. Gender has been a traditional factor of inequality and disparity in education, most often to the disadvantage of girls and women. Yet there has been significant progress in narrowing the gap around the world since 2000, with a larger proportion of girls and women accessing different levels of formal education. Indeed, gender parity in primary education has been achieved in Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, East Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America and Western Europe. In addition, significant progress has been made since 2000 in narrowing the gender gap, particularly in South and West Asia and to a lesser degree in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab States. However, despite the significant progress made, the majority of out-of-school children are girls, while two-thirds of youth and adults with low levels of literacy in the world are women. To help ensure women’s empowerment, boys and men must also be engaged in the fight against gender inequality. This must begin with basic education.
See also[hlela | Hlela umthombo]
References[hlela | Hlela umthombo]
- "International Standard Classification of EducationI S C E D 1997". http://www.unesco.org/education/information/nfsunesco/doc/isced_1997.htm.
- Truong, Nhung. "Review of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 97) Basic Education and the review of the ISCED". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170426055912/http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/ISCED_RM_Basic_Ed_proposal_EN.pdf. Retrieved 25 April 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Educational Programmes Manual for ISCED-97 Implementation in OECD Countries". OECD. 1999. p. 30. http://www.oecd.org/edu/1841854.pdf. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Goal :: Achieve Universal Primary Education". Mdg Monitor. 2011-05-15. http://www.mdgmonitor.org/goal2.cfm. Retrieved 2012-10-18.
- Cutler, David M.; Lleras-Muney, Adriana (July 2006). "Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence". NBER Working Paper No. 12352. doi:10.3386/w12352.
- Mazumder, Bhashkar (2008-05-19) (in en). Does Education Improve Health? A Reexamination of the Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Laws. Rochester, NY. SSRN Template:=1134064 1134064.
- Rethinking Education: Towards a global common good?. UNESCO. 2015. pp. 44. ISBN 978-92-3-100088-1. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002325/232555e.pdf.