Imfundo yabadala

From Wikipedia

Imfundo yabadala yinqubo lapho khona abantu abadala bengenela khona imisebenzi eqhubekayo yokuzifundisa ukuze bathole ulwazi olusha, amakhono, imibono noma ama-value.[1] Lokhu kuchaza noma yiyiphi imfundo abadala abayingenelayo ngaphandle kwesikole esivamile, okubandakanya umkhakha wokuqala ukufunda ukubhala komuntu okuyisisekelo noma ukuqhubeka nokufunda komfundi impilo yakhe yonke.[2] Ngokuqondane nalolu daba, imfundo yabadala ikhombisa ifilosofi eqondene nokuthize maqondana nokufunda kanye nokufundisa ngokulandela ukuthi abantu abadala bangakwazi ukufunda futhi bayafuna ukufunda, nokuthi ukufunda ngokwakho kumele kubhekane nezidingo zabo.[3] Ngokugqugquzelwa yilokho okudingwa ukufundwa ngumuntu noma umuntu afuna ukukufunda, amathuba akhona, kanye nendlela umuntu afunda ngayo, ukufunda komuntu omdala kubandakanywa yindlela isizwe esihleleke ngayo, njengobuningi babantu ezweni nobulili (demographic), ukuhlobana kwamazwe nezimakethe zamazwe omhlaba (globalisation), kanye netheknoloji.[4] Ukufunda kwenzeka ngezindlela ezehlukene futhi ngaphansi kwezimo ezehlukene njengoba nezimpilo zabantu abadala zehlukene.[5] Ukufunda kwabantu abadala kungenzeka ngaphansi kwezimo ezintathu, Isibonelo sazo nazi lapha ngezansi:

  • Formal – Ukufunda okuhleliwe okwenziwa ezikhungweni zemfundo noma zoqeqesho, ezivamise ukuba ne-curriculum ehleliwe kanti futhi lapho khona abantu abafundayo abathola izitifikedi ezibonisa ukuphasa abakufundile;
  • Non-formal – Ukufunda okuhlelwa zikhungo zemfundo kodwa ezinganikezelwa izifikedi ezibonisa lokho abantu abakufundile. Amathuba okufunda oku-Non-Formal kungenzeka emisebenzini noma kwenziwa zinhlangano zemiphakathi ezithize kanye namaqembu athize;
  • Imfundo engahlelekile (Informal education) – Ukufunda okwenzeka ngaso sonke isikhathi, okwenzeka kuzo zonke izimo empilweni, emndenini, emiphakathini noma esikhathini sokuziphumulela nokungcebeleka (isibonelo, lapho kuneklasi lokubhaka emphakathini).[6][7]

Isimo nobunjalo (characteristics)[hlela | edit source]

Kuchazwa njengesayense nobuciko bokusiza abantu abadala ukufunda D,[8][9] iphrakthizi noma inqubo yemfundo yabadala ichazwa ngethemu elithi:andragogy (okuyisayense namathekniki okufundisa abantu abadala), ukwenza umehluko phakathi kwemfundo yesikole yezingane ebizwa ngokuthi yi-pedagogy (okuyithiyori yokufunda nokufundisa kwimfundo ehlelekile). Umehluko phakathi kwezingane nabantu abadala, ukuthi abantu abadala bobonwa ngokulandelayo:

  • Abantu abadala bayaziqhuba, abancikile kwabanye ukubasiza
  • Abantu abadala bavuthiwe engqondweni, kanti banezipiliyoni kakhulu ezenza ukuthi babenomthombo ocebile wokufunda
  • Ukuzimisela komuntu omdala ukufunda kuxhunyaniswa nalokho umuntu afuna ukukwazi
  • Umqondo womuntu omdala wokufunda usekelwe phansi kwenkinga kunokuba usekelwe kwisihloko salokho okufundwayo (subject centered).
  • Ugqozi lomuntu omdala lokufunda lungaphakathi kuye.[9]

Ukufundisa abantu abadala kwehlukile kunokufundisa izingane ngezindlela ezehlukene, ngoba abantu abadala banolwazi abaluqokelele kanye nezipiliyoni zokusebenza, okungezela kwizipiliyoni zabo zokufunda.[10] Omunye umehluko, ukuthi imfundo yabadala yenziwa ngokuzithandela, ngakho-ke abababamba  iqhaza kuyo bavamise ukuba nogqozi, ngaphandle kokuba bephoqelekile ukungenela leyo mfundo, isibonelo, mhlawumbe bephoqelelwa ngumqashi. Abantu abadala bavamise ukusebenzisa ulwazi lwabo ngendlela ebambekayo ukuze bafunde ngokunomphumela. Kumele balindele ukuthi ulwazi abalutholayo luzobasiza ukuqhubela phambili izinhloso zabo. Isibonelo, ngeminyaka yoma 1990, abantu abadala abaningi, ababandakanya abasebenzi basemahhovisi, bangenela amakhozi oqeqesho lwamakhompyutha. La makhozi ayefundisa ulwazi oluyisekelo sokuqala se-operating system noma oluqondene nokusebenza okuthile kwama-software. Ngoba izincazelo eziningi noma ama-abstractions alawula ukusebenza noma ukusetshenziswa kwama-PC kwakusekusha kakhulu, ngakhoke abantu abaningi ababesebenza emahhovisi eminyakeni elishumi noma ngaphezulu kwayo kuleso sikhathi, baqala ukungenela izifundo zalolo qeqesho, ngokuzithandela ngokwabo (ukuthola amakhono amakhompyutha ukuze bahole imali yezinga eliphezulu) noma bangenela uqeqesho ngoba omininjele babo befuna ukuthi bangenele lolo qeqesho.

EMelika kanye nezindawo eziningi zase-Canada, isibonelo esivamile, yilapho kuba nesidingo sokuthi abantu abadala abayeka isikole bengaqedanga babuyele ezikoleni ukuyoqedelela imfundo yabo yesikole. Izikhundla eziningi eziphezulu zidinga ukuthi abantu babe nediploma yesikole semfundo ephezulu (high school) noma elinye izinga elilingana nayo. Umuntu omdala osebenzayo akavamile ukuba nenkululeko yokuthi avele ayeke umsebenzi wakhe ukuze abuyele esikoleni ayofunda ngokuphelele. Izikole zohulumeni noma amakholishi emiphakathi avamise ukuhlinzeka ngamaklasi abanjwa ngezimpelasonto ngenxa yalesi sizathu. EYuropha lokhu kuvamise ukubizwa ngokuthi "yithuba lesibili" kanti izikole eziningi zihlinzeka ngamakhozi ahlelelwe inhloso ethize ngolulandela izidingo kanye nezinhlelo zemfundo zalaba bafundi. Kanti-ke futhi okunye, abantu abadala abanamakhono ezinga eliphansi lokufunda bangathola usizo kwizinhlelo zobuvolontiya zalaba bafundi ababuyela ukuyofunda. Lezi zinhlangano zikazwelonke zihlinzeka ngoqeqesho, izitifikedi zokufunda, kanye nama-accreditation ezinhlelo zobuvoluntiya zendawo. EMelika, kuvamise ukuba nezinhlangano ezihlinzeka ngamasevisi emiphakathi kwizinhlelo zobuvolontiya zokufundisa abasaqalayo ukufunda.

Izinhloso zemfundo yabadala zingehluka, izinhloso ezivamile zingafinyezwa ngokulandelayo:

  • Vocational (ukufundela amakhono nolwazi oluthile ukuze ukwazi ukwenza umsebenzi othile)
  • Social (amakhono aqondene nobudlelwane nabantu)
  • Recreational (okuqondene nokungcebeleka nokuzijabulisa)
  • Self-development (Amakhono okuzithuthukisa)[11]

Enye yezinhloso kungaba ukusiza a bantu abadala ukufezekisa izidingo zabo ziqu kanye nokufinyelela izinhloso zezamaprofeshini.[12] Ngakho-ke, inhloso eyisiphetho yemfundo, kungaba ukufezekisa izinhloso zokuzenelisa kountu. Inhloso ingaba ukufezekisa izidingo zesikhungo. Isibonelo, lokhu kungabandakanya ukuthuthukisa ikhono lokwenza umsebenzi kanye nezinga lokukhiqiza endaweni yomsebenzi. Inhloso ebanzi yemfundo yabadala kungaba kungaba ukukhula kwesizwe ngokwenza uuthhi izakhamizi ezindala zikwazi ukuba sezingeni nezinguquko ezenzekayo esizweni kanye nokuthi kuqhubeke kube nenqubo elungile esizweni.[1]

Inhloso yemfundo yabadala emakholishi noma emayunivesithi yehlukile. Kulezi zikhungo, inhloso ivamise ukuthi iqondane nentuthuko yomuntu siqu kanye nomsebenzi ofundelwayo kanye nokuba ngolungele umsebenzi othile ofundelwayo. Enye inhloso kungaba ukuqondana nokufakela izinselele esizweni kanye nokuthuthukisa umumo esizwe, kungekhona nje kuphela ukuqhubela phambili isizwe senqubo yedimokhrasi.[1]

Omunye umkhakha okhula masishane wemfundo yabadala ukufundiswa kwe-English kubantu abangakhulumi lolu limi, okubizwa ngokuthi yi-Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), kanti futhi lezi zifundo zibuye zibizwe nangokuthi yi-English as a Second Language (ESL) noma i-English Language Learners (ELL).[13] La makhozi alezi zifundo asiza abantu abasuke bebuya kwamanye amazwe bengena kwamanye lapho okukhulunywa khona i-English, ukuthi bafunde i-English kanye nokuba nolwazi kanye nokujwayela amasiko alawo mazwe abangena kuwo, njengamazwe aseMelika kanye namanye amazwe okukhulunywa kuwo i-English, afana nase-Canada, e-Australia nase-New Zealand.[14]

Inkinga evamile e-US ukusweleka kwamathuba okuthuthuka ngezeprofeshini kubantu abafundisa abantu abadala. Abantu abaningi abafundisa abantu abadala baqhamuka kwamanye amaprofeshini kanti futhi abaqeqeshiwe kahle ukubhekana nezinto eziphathelene nokufunda kwabantu abadala. Izikhundla eziningi ezikhona kulo mkhakha zivamise ukuba ngezingezona izikkhundla zokwenza umsebenzi ngokugcwele (part-time) kanti futhi kulezo zikhundla abantu abatholi ama-benefit nokuba sezikhundleni ezinzile, ngoba zivamises ukuxhaswa ngezimali zamagranti kahulumeni kanti futhi le mixhaso kahulumeni ayivamile ukuba ngeqhubeka ngaso sonke isikhathi, ivamise ukuba ngeminyakana ethize. Kodwa e-Canada, ukuthuthuka ngezeprofeshini kuyatholakala kuwo wonke amaprovinsi kanye nezindawo, ezikhungweni ezingaphezulu kwe kwemfundo yesekondari kanti amaProvinsi amaningi ahlinzeka intuthuko yezeprofeshini okwenziwa ngaphansi kophiko lukangqongqoshe wemfundo noma amabhodi ezikole noma izinhlangano ezingekho ngaphansi kukahulumeni.[15] Nangaphezu kwalokho, kukhona izinhlelo eziqondene nemfundo yabadala kulabo vele asebenza lo msebenzi, kumkhakha weze-akhademiki, ezenziwa emayunivesithi, emakholishi nasezinhlanganweni zamaprofeshini.[16]

Principles (Izimiso)[hlela | edit source]

Izimiso (principles) zendlela nenqubo yokufundisa abantu abadala (androgogy) zisuselwa kuma-characteristics abantu abadala njengabafundi kanti futhi zingabonwa lapho siqondisisa ama-characteristics abantu abadala, nokubona indlela lawo ma-characteristics anomphumela ngayo kwindlela abantu abadala abafunda kangcono ngayo.[17] Othisha abalandela lezi zimiso ze-androgogy lapho bekhetha izinto zokuqeqesha ngazo (amametheriyali okuqeqesha) kanye nalapho bedizayina indlela abethula ngayo uhlelo, bayebathole ukuthi abafundi babo baqhubeka ngokushesha nakangcono, kanti futhi ngempumelelo kakhulu ekufinyeleleni izinhloso zabo.[17] Uhlelo lwase-Canada lwe-Canadian Literacy and Learning Network, luchaza izimiso ezingu 7 ezibalulekile ekufundeni kwabantu abadala. Ngamanye amagama, lezi zimiso ezingu 7, zenza umehluko phakathi kokufunda kwabantu abadala kanye nezingane kanye nentsha.

  1. Abantu abadala ngeke baphoqelelwa ukufunda. Bafunda kuphele lokho bona abanogqozi lokukufunda.
  2. Abantu abadala bafunda kuphelal lokho ababona bedinga ukukufunda, bavamise ukubheka izinto ngeso lokubonelela lokho okuwusizo olubambekayo.
  3. Abantu abadala bafunda ngokwenza. Ukubamba iqhaza ngokwaba kubaluleke kakhulu kubafundi abadala uma kuqhathaniswa nezingane.
  4. Ukufunda komuntu omdala kumele kusekelwe phansi kwenkinga kanti lezi zinkinga kumele kube ngezangempela. Abafundi abadala bathanda ukuthola izixazululo zezinkinga
  5. Ukufunda kwabantu abadala kuchaphazela zipiliyoni umfundi nomfundi eza nazo.
  6. Abafundi abadala bafunda kangcono uma befunda ngaphansi kwesimo esingahlelekile kakhulu (informally). Abantu abadala bafunda lokho abadinga ukukwazi kanti izingane zifunda izinto ezikwikharikhyulamu.
  7. Izingane zidinga ukunikezwa imikhombandlela (guidance). Abantu abadala badinga ulwazi oluzobasiza ukuthuthukisa isimo sabo noma isimo sezingane zabo.[18]

Izinselele kanye nezinto ezifakela ugqozi[hlela | edit source]

Abantu abadala banemisebenzi esemahlombe abo ababhekene nayo ezimpilweni okufanele ukuthi bayibhalanse maqondana nezidingo zokufunda. Ngenxa yale misebenzi ababhekenenayo emahlombe abo, abantu abadala banezihibe nezinselele ekufundeni kanye nasekuqhubekeni nemfundo. Izihibe zingabekwa ngaphansi kwale mikhakha:

  • Institutional (eziqondene nezikhungo)
  • Situational (eziqondene nezimo)
  • Dispositional (indlela umqondo obuka ngayo izinto)[19]

Ezinye zalezi zihibe, zibandakanya ukuswela isikhathi sokubhalansa umsebenzi kanye nezidingo zomndeni, ezezimali, izinto zokugibela, ukuzethemba, noma ukuthokozela okuthile, ukuswela ulwazi ngamathuba okufunda, izinkinga zokubeka izikhathi zokwenza okuthile, izidingo zezimfuneko zokungena kwezemfundo kanye nezinkinga zonakekelo lwezingane.[20] Ezinye izihiibe ezivimbela abantu abadala ukuqhubeka nemfundo, ukwesaba, amahloni, ukuzibona, noma ukubonelwa phansi. Abantu abasebenza amatoho behola ngosuku bamanqika ngokujoyina isikole ngoba lapho beya esikoleni balahlekelwa umholo wosuku okuyiwona kumphela umvuzo abanawo. Ukufunda umuntu ekude (distance learning) kungaba yisixazululo sezinye zalezi zihibe zokufunda nezikhungo, ezifana nokubekwa kwesikhathi samaklasi kanye nezidingo eziyimfuneko ukungena ohlelweni lwemfundo.[21] Ukwesaba, ukuba namahloni, ukuzibona noma indlela umuntu abonwa ngayo nakho kungavimbela abantu abadala ukuthi baqhubeke nemfundo.

Ukwenza ukuthi abantu abadala bahlale benegqozi lokufunda, ukufakela ikhono lokuzethemba kanye nokwenza ukuthi bazibone ngesithombe esihle kwenza ukuthi baqhubeke nokufunda impilo yabo yonke.[22] Izinto eziwugqozi, zibandakanya isidingo sokuba nekhono noma ilayisense, ukuthola ipromoshini noma ukulindela ukuthola ipromoshini, isidingo sokuqinisa amakhono noma ukufunda amakhono amasha, isidingo sokwazi kahle umsebenzi noma ukwazi izinguquko emsebenzini, noma isidingo sokufunda ukuze umuntu akwazi ukulandela imiyalelo yenkampani. Indlela engcono yokufakela ugqozi lokufunda kubantu abadala ukuthi kuthuthukiswe izizathu zabo zokungenela imfundo kanye nokunciphisa izihibe. Abafundisi babantu abadala kumele bazi kungani izitshudeni zabo zingenele uhlelo lokufunda (izinto ezibafakele ugqozi); kumele bathole ukuthi yini ezihibe ekufundeni kwabo. Ebese abafundisi babantua badala kumele bahlele amasu abo okubafakela ugqozi. Isu elinempumelelo libandakanya ukukhombisa abafundi abadala ubudlelwane phakathi koqeqesho kanye nepromoshini elindelwe, bangaboniswa ukuthi ikhozi abayenzayo inanzuzo enjani ebambekayo, bozokwazi ukusebenza kangcono kanti izinzuzo ngezesikhathi eside. .[23] Kubalulekile kothisha ukwazi ama-characteristics abafundi babo nokuthi bahlele izifundo ezibhekana nalapho abafundi abanamandla khona kanye nezidingo zomfundi ngamunye.[24]

Bheka futhi kulokhu[hlela | edit source]

Okuhambelana namarijini omhlaba (geographic region)[hlela | edit source]

  • Imfundo yabadala e-Afrika

Okubhekana nezikhathi zomlando othize (Historical)[hlela | edit source]

  • Lyceum movement
  • Mechanics' Institutes
  • London Institution
  • The New School

Abafundisi[hlela | edit source]

  • Paulo Freire
  • Malcolm Knowles
  • Eduard C. Lindeman
  • Albert Mansbridge
  • John Dewey
  • Julius Nyerere

Amareferensi (Imithombo okuthathwe kuyo)[hlela | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Merriam, Sharan, B. & Brockett, Ralph, G..
  2. "What is adult education". http://adulted.about.com/od/whatisadultlearning/p/whatisadulteducation.htm. 
  3. "Adult Education". The Canadian Encyclopedia. http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/adult-education/. 
  4. Baumgartner, Sharan B. Merriam, Rosemary S. Cafarella, Lisa M.; Caffarella, Rosemary S.; Baumgartner, Lisa M. (2007). Learning in adulthood : a comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7879-7588-3. 
  5. Fenwick, Tara J.; Nesbit, Tom; Spencer, Bruce (2006). Contexts of adult education : Canadian perspectives. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publ.. p. 17. ISBN 9781550771602. 
  6. Spencer, Bruce (2006). The purposes of adult education : a short introduction (2nd ed.). Toronto: Thompson Educational Pub.. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9781550771619. 
  7. "Adult learning in Canada: Characteristics of learners". Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81-004-x/2008001/article/10560-eng.htm. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  8. Spencer, Bruce (2006). The purposes of adult education : a short introduction (2nd ed.). Toronto: Thompson Educational Pub.. p. 4. ISBN 9781550771619. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Knowles, Malcolm (1984). The adult learner : a neglected species (3rd ed.). Houston: Gulf Pub. Co., Book Division. ISBN 0-87201-005-8. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED084368.pdf. 
  10. Bohonos, Jeremy Appreciating the Experiences and Expertise of Adult Students, Journal of College Orientation and Transition 20:2
  11. Selman, Gordon; Cooke, M; Selman, M.; Dampier, P. (1998). The foundations of adult education in Canada (2. ed.). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publ. ISBN 978-1550770834. 
  12. Bohonos, Jeremy Understanding Career Context as a Key to Recruiting, Retaining and Best Serving Adult Students.
  13. "Adult English Language Instruction". http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/AdultEd/englit.html. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  14. Faez, Farahnaz; Valeo, Antonella (September 2012). "TESOL Teacher Education: Novice Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Preparedness and Efficacy in the classroom". Tesol Quarterly 3 (46). http://newsmanager.commpartners.com/tesolc/downloads/TQ_vol46-3_faezvaleo.pdf. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  15. Council of Ministers of Education Canada. "Adult Learning and Education: Canada progress report for the UNESCO Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE) and the end of the United Nations Literacy Decade". http://www.cmec.ca/Publications/Lists/Publications/Attachments/283/GRALE_EN.pdf. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  16. Nesbit, Tom (Spring 2011). "Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement". Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education 37 (1): 2. http://www.academia.edu/948160/Canadian_Adult_Education_Still_a_Movement. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 LBS Practitioner Training: Professional development support for Literacy and Basic Skills educators in Ontario. "Principles of Adult Learning". http://www.lbspractitionertraining.com/pd-courses/practitioners/working-with-adult-learners/99-22-principles-of-adult-learning. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  18. Canadian Literacy and Learning Network.
  19. Cross, K.P (1992). Adults as learners: Increasing Participation and Facilitating Learning. San Fancisco: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 9780783725079. 
  20. Phipps, S. T. A., Prieto, L. C., & Ndinguri, E. N. (2013).
  21. Spencer, Bruce (2006). The purposes of adult education : a short introduction (2nd ed.). Toronto: Thompson Educational Pub.. pp. 101–103. ISBN 9781550771619. 
  22. Kunga, K., & Machtmes, K. (2009).
  23. Lieb, Stephen (Fall 1991). "Principles of adult learning: Adults as learners". Vision. https://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.masaniconsulting.com%2Fupload%2FPRINCIPLES%2520OF%2520ADULT%2520LEARNING.docx. 
  24. "Massachusetts Adult Basic Education, Curriculum Framework for English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)". Massachusetts Department of Education, Adult and Community Learning Services: 9. http://www.doe.mass.edu/acls/frameworks/esol.pdf. Retrieved 20 October 2014.