IsiHausa

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Hausa ( /h aʊ s ə / ; Harshen / Halshen Hausa ; Ajami : هَرْشَن هَوْسَ ) wulimi lwesiChadic olukhulunywa ngabantu baseHausa, ikakhulukazi engxenyeni esenyakatho yeNigeria nengxenye eseningizimu yeNiger, kanye nabambalwa abambalwa eChad, Benin naseCameroon Izikhulumi zomdabu zaseHausa, isizwe samaHausa, zitholakala kakhulu eNiger, eNyakatho yeNigeria, eNyakatho yeCameroon naseChad.Ngaphezu kwalokho, ulimi isetshenziswa njengophawu isifanakalo izikhulumi okungezona bomdabu e iningi Northern Nigeria kanye Southern Niger, futhi njengoba ulimi ukuhweba uhlangabezana Swathe emikhulu kakhulu Ntshonalanga Afrika ( Benin, Ghana, Cameroon, Togo, Chad futhi izingxenye ISudan ). [1]

UHausa uyilungu lomndeni wolimi lwesi-Afroasiatic futhi yilona limi olukhulunywa kakhulu egatsheni laseChadic lalowo mndeni.I-Ethnologue ilinganisele ukuthi ikhulunywa njengolimi lokuqala ngabantu abangaba yizigidi ezingama-47 futhi njengolimi lwesibili kukhulunywa ngezinye izigidi ezingama-25, okwenza isibalo esiphelele sabakhuluma isiHausa sifinyelele ezigidini ezingama-72.Ngokwezibalo zakamuva nje, isiHausa sizokhulunywa ngabantu abayizigidi eziyi-100-150.

ENigeria, imboni yamafilimu ekhuluma isiHausa yaziwa ngokuthi yiKannywood . [2]

Ukuhlukaniswa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IHausa ingeyesigatshana sezilimi zaseWest Chadic seqembu lezilimi zaseChadic, nalo eliyingxenye yomndeni wolimi lwe-Afroasiatic .

Ukusatshalaliswa kwendawo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukuhumusha[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IsiHausa siveza ukufana okubanzi nomaphi lapho kukhulunywa khona.Kodwa-ke, izazi zezilimi zikhombe izindawo ezinolimi olunenqwaba yezici ezivelele endaweni ngayinye.

Izilimi zesigodi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Eastern Hausa zezigodi zihlanganisa Dauranci e Daura, Kananci e Kano, Bausanci e Bauchi, Gudduranci e Katagum Misau futhi ingxenye Borno, futhi Hadejanci e Hadejiya .

Western Hausa zezigodi zihlanganisa Sakkwatanci e Sokoto, Katsinanci e Katsina, Arewanci e Gobir, uAdari, Kebbi, futhi Zamfara, futhi Kurhwayanci e Kurfey eNiger. UKatsina ushintsho phakathi kwezigodi zaseMpumalanga nezaseNtshonalanga.ISokoto isetshenziswa emibhalweni eyahlukahlukene yakudala yesiHausa, futhi yaziwa kakhulu njengeClassical Hausa .

Izigodi zaseNyakatho Hausa zifaka i- Arewa (okusho ukuthi 'iNyakatho') ne- Arewaci .

Zazzaganci e Zazzau kuyinto lwesigodi ezinkulu Southern.

The Daura ( Dauranchi ) and Kano ( Kananci ) dialect are the standard.I- BBC, iDeutsche Welle, iRadio France Internationale neVoice of America banikela ngezinsizakalo zeHausa kumasayithi abo wezindaba aphesheya besebenzisa iDauranci neKananci.Ekuthuthukisweni kolimi kwakamuva uZazzaganci uthathe izintambo zokubhala nokukhuluma ukusetshenziswa kwamanje kolimi lwesiHausa.

Izigodi ezisenyakatho kanye nokulahleka kwethoni[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izigodi ezisentshonalanga kuya empumalanga yeHausa zeKurhwayanci, iDam agaram ne- Aderawa, zimelela umkhawulo wendabuko osenyakatho kakhulu wemiphakathi yendabuko yamaHausa.Lezi ezikhulunywa enyakatho Sahel futhi mid- Saharan izifunda e entshonalanga nasenkabeni Niger ku Tillabéri, Tahoua, Dosso, Maradi, Agadez futhi Zinder izifunda.Ngenkathi iqondakala ngokunye nezinye izilimi (ikakhulukazi iSakkwatanci, kanye nezinga elincane iGaananci), izilimi ezisenyakatho kakhulu zinokuhluka okuncane kohlelo nolimi ngenxa yokuxhumana njalo namaqembu amaZarma, amaFula, namaTuareg kanye nezinguquko zamasiko ngenxa yokwehluka kwendawo phakathi utshani nezindawo eziwugwadule.Lezi zezigodi futhi babe izinga asemngceleni non-kokuthona iphimbo nokugqamisa zezigodi.

Isigodi saseHhana saseHausa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I Ghanaian Hausa lwesigodi (Gaananci), akhulunywa Ghana futhi Togo, kuyinto esihlukile entshonalanga bomdabu Hausa lwesigodi-Bloc nge ngokolimi eyanele yabasebenzi abezindaba atholakalayo.Kukhulunywa izilimi ezincanyana ezihlukene zesiHausa ngenani elingaziwa lamaHausa ngasentshonalanga ezingxenyeni zeBurkina Faso, naseHaoussa Foulane, Badji Haoussa, eGuezou Haoussa, nase- Ansongo izifunda ezisenyakatho-mpumalanga yeMali (lapho kukhulunywa khona njengolimi oluncane ngabaseMaliya government), kepha kuncane kakhulu izinsizakusebenza zolimi kanye nocwaningo olwenziwe kulezi zilimi ezithile ngalesi sikhathi.

Ezinye izilimi zomdabu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IsiHausa siphinde sikhulunywe ezingxenyeni ezahlukahlukene zaseCameroon naseChad, ezihlanganise izilimi ezixubekile zaseNyakatho yeNigeria neNiger.Ngaphezu kwalokho, isi-Arabhu sibe nomthelela omkhulu endleleni isiHausa esikhulunywa ngayo yizikhulumi zomdabu zaseHausa ezikulezi zindawo.

Ama-pidgins asuselwa eHausa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Kunezinhlobo eziningana ze- pidgin zesiHausa. IBarikanchi phambilini yayisetshenziswa ebuthweni lamakoloni eNigeria.IGibanawa njengamanje isetshenziswa kabanzi eJega enyakatho ntshonalanga yeNigeria, eningizimu yendawo yomdabu yaseHausa.

Imisindvo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ongwaqa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IsiHausa sinamaphiko ongwaqa aphakathi kuka-23 no-25 kuya ngesikhulumi.

Imisindvo yongwaqa
I-Bilabial I-Alveolar Thumela<br id="mwASA"><br><br><br></br> i-alveolar Ukubuyela emuva I-Glottal
ngaphambili ithafa isiyingi
I-Nasal m n
I-Plosive /



</br> Izimali
implosive ɓ ɗ
kuzwakalisiwe b d ( d ) ʒ ɟ ɡ ɡʷ
tenuis t c k ʔ
ejective ( t ) sʼ ( tʃʼ ) kʷʼ
Okuthambile kuzwakalisiwe z
tenuis ɸ s ʃ h
Okuseduze l j ; j̰ w
I-Rhotic r ɽ

Umehluko wezindlela ezintathu phakathi kwama- /c ɟ cʼ/, plain velars /k ɡ kʼ/, kanye nama- /kʷ ɡʷ kʷʼ/ atholakala kuphela ngaphambi kwesikhathi eside futhi esifushane /a/, isib /cʼaːɽa/ ('utshani'), /kʼaːɽaː/ ('ukwandisa'), /kʷʼaːɽaː/ ('shea-nuts').Ngaphambi konkamisa bangaphambili, kuphela ama- /ciːʃiː/ ('jealous') vs. /kʷiːɓiː/ ('side of body').Ngaphambi konkamisa abayindilinga, kuvela ama- /kʷoːɽaː/ ('ringworm'). [3]

Ongwaqa abangamaGlottalic[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IsiHausa sinongwaqa abangama-glottalic (implosives nama-ejectives) ezindaweni ezine noma ezinhlanu zokukhuluma (kuya ngolimi).Zidinga ukunyakaza kwama-glottis ngesikhathi sokubiza futhi zinomsindo we-staccato.

Zibhalwe ngezinguqulo eziguquliwe zezinhlamvu zesiLatini.Zingakhonjwa futhi nge- apostrophe, kungaba ngaphambi noma ngemuva kuye ngencwadi, njengoba kukhonjisiwe ngezansi.

  • ɓ / b ', ungwaqa ongathandeki, [ ɓ ], kwesinye isikhathi [ʔb] ;
  • ɗ / d ', implosive [ ɗ ], kwesinye isikhathi [dʔ] ;
  • ts ', ungwaqa ongabizi, [tsʼ] noma [sʼ], ngokusho kolimi;
  • ch ', i-ejective [ ] ( [
  • ƙ / k ', i-ejective [kʼ] ; [kʲʼ] kanye ne- [kʷʼ] ngongwaqa abahlukene;
  • U-ƴ / 'y uyi- palatal cishe ngezwi [j̰], [j̰], [4] elitholakala kwinani elincane kuphela lamagama /j̰áːj̰áː/ (isb. j̰áːj̰áː / "children", /j̰áː/ "daughter"). Ngokomlando yathuthuka isuka palatalized [ ɗ ] . [5]

Onkamisa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ishadi lonkamisa baseHausa, elivela & Yalwa (1999 . Onkamisa abafushane /i, u, a/ banebanga elibanzi kakhulu lama-allophones kunalokho okuvezwa eshadini.

Onkamisa beHausa batholakala ezimfanelweni ezinhlanu zonkamisa abahlukene, zonke ezingaba mfushane noma zinde, zihlanganise ama- monophthong ayishumi.Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunezine (i-diphthongs) ezine, ezinikeza inani eliphelele lama-phonemes angama-14.

Ama-monophthongs
Onkamisa abafushane (abangashadile): /i, u, e, o, a/ .



</br> Onkamisa abade: /iː, uː, eː, oː, aː/ .

Uma kuqhathaniswa nonkamisa abade /i, u/ angafana ngekhwalithi nonkamisa abade, maphakathi nendawo abe [ɪ, ʊ ] noma abe [ɨ, ʉ ] . [3]

I-medial /i, u/ ingashintshwa ibe [ɨ ~ ʉ ], ngokuhlanganiswa kuye ngemvelo. [6]

Okumaphakathi /e, o/ kuncishisiwe nge /a/ . [3]

I-short /a/ ingacishe ifane ngekhwalithi ye-long /aː/, noma ingaba phezulu njenge- [ ə ], ngezimpawu eziphakathi ezingaba khona ( [ɐ ~ ɜ ] ). [3]

Diphthongs
/ai, au, iu, ui/ .

Amathoni[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IsiHausa siwulimi olunamathoni . Onkamisa bawo abahlanu ngamunye bangaba nethoni ephansi, ithoni ephezulu noma ithoni ewayo.NgesiHausa esivamile esibhaliwe, ithoni ayimakiwe.Ezinsizakalweni zakamuva zezilimi nezokufundisa, ithoni imakwa ngezimpawu zokubhala.

à è ì ò ù – low tone: grave accent (`)
â ê î ô û – falling tone: circumflex (ˆ)

Ukugcizelela okukhulu ( ´ ) kungasetshenziselwa ithoni ephezulu, kepha umkhuba ojwayelekile ukushiya ithoni ephezulu ingamakiwe.

  1. Empty citation (help)
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Schuh & Yalwa (1999).
  4. Hausa ejectives and laryngealized consonants. Sound files hosted by the University of California at Los Angeles, from: Ladefoged, Peter: A Course in Phonetics. 5th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth.
  5. Newman, Paul (1937/2000) The Hausa Language: an encyclopedic reference grammar. Yale University Press. p. 397.
  6. Schuh & Yalwa (1999), p. 90.