Isitrobheli

Mayelana Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

I-strawberry engadini (noma nje sitrobheli; Fragaria × ananassa) [1] kuyinto esekhulile kabanzi zinhlobo hybrid bohlobo lwe- Fragaria, bebonke eyaziwa ngokuthi ama-strawberry, okuyinto kutshalwa emhlabeni wonke ngenxa yezithelo zalo. Isithelo lesi sithandwa kakhulu ngephunga laso lesici, umbala obomvu ogqamile, ukuthungwa okunamanzi nobumnandi.Kudliwa ngobuningi, kungaba okusha noma ekudleni okulungiselelwe njengejamu, ujusi, ophaya, u -ayisikhilimu, ukuxubana nobisi noshokoledi.Ukunambitheka kwama-sitrobheli okufakelwa namaphunga nakho kusetshenziswa kabanzi emikhiqizweni efana namaswidi, insipho, i- lip gloss, amakha, neminye eminingi.

I-strawberry yensimu yaqala ukukhiqizwa eBrittany, eFrance, ngawo-1750s ngesiphambano seFragaria virginiana esivela empumalanga yeNyakatho Melika naseFragaria chiloensis, esasilethwa sisuka eChile ngu- Amédée-François Frézier ngo-1714.Izinhlobo zeFragaria × ananassa zithathe indawo, ekukhiqizeni ezentengiselwano, sitrobheli yasehlathini (iFragaria vesca ), okwakuyizinhlobo zokuqala ze-sitrobheli ezalinywa ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-17.

I-sitrobheli akuyona, ngokubuka kwezitshalo, iberry.Ngokomthetho, kuba aggregate -accessory izithelo, okusho ukuthi esinamanzi ingxenye isuselwe hhayi kusukela amaqanda sitshalo kodwa kusukela ayesisebenzisa ukuthi ubamba amaqanda."Imbewu" ngayinye ebonakalayo (i- achene ) engaphandle kwesithelo empeleni ingenye yamaqanda esimbali, enembewu ngaphakathi kuyo. [2]

Ngo-2019, ukukhiqizwa komhlaba kwama-strawberry kwakungamathani ayizigidi eziyi-9, eholwa yiChina ngama-40% esewonke.

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Closeup of a healthy, red strawberry
Fragaria × ananassa 'Gariguette,' a esezikhulile sesitshalo eningizimu yeFrance

Isitrobheli yensimu yokuqala yatshalwa eBrittany, eFrance, ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-18.Ngaphambi kwalokhu, ama-strawberry asendle kanye nokukhethwa okulinyiwe kusuka ezinhlotsheni ze-sitrobheli zasendle kwakuwumthombo ovamile wesithelo.

Ngekhulu le-16 leminyaka, izinkomba zokutshalwa kwe-sitrobheli zase zivame kakhulu.Abantu baqala ukuyisebenzisela izinto zayo zokwelapha futhi izazi zezitshalo zaqala ukuqamba izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene.ENgilandi isidingo sokulima isitrobheli njalo sasesikhuphukile maphakathi nekhulu le-16.

Ukuhlanganiswa kwama-strawberry nokhilimu kwenziwa nguThomas Wolsey enkantolo yeNkosi uHenry VIII.Imiyalo yokutshala nokuvuna ama-strawberry yavela yabhalwa ngo-1578.Ekupheleni kwekhulu le-16 kwase kucashunwe izinhlobo ezintathu zaseYurophu: F. vesca, F. moschata, no- F . viridis.I-strawberry yensimu yatshalwa ehlathini bese kuthi izitshalo zisakazwe ngokweqile ngokusika abagijimi.

UDuchesne unqume ukuthi uF ananassa abe yinhlanganisela kaF. Chiloensis noF . Virginiana. F. ananassa, okhiqiza izithelo ezinkulu, ubizwa kanjalo ngoba ufana uphayinaphu ngephunga, ukunambitheka kanye nesimo samajikijolo.ENgilandi, izinhlobo eziningi zika- F. ananassa zenziwa, futhi zakha isisekelo sezinhlobonhlobo zesimanje zama-strawberry ezilinywayo nezidliwayo njengamanje.Ukufuya okwengeziwe kwenziwa naseYurophu naseMelika ukwenza ngcono ukuqina, ukumelana nezifo, usayizi nokunambitheka kwama-strawberry.

Incazelo nokukhula[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imbali ye-Strawberry
Ama-Achenes (imbewu)
Strawberry growth (video)
Impova okusanhlamvu sitrobheli

Amajikijolo avame ukuqoqwa ngokwenqubo yawo yezimbali.Ngokwesiko, lokhu kube nokuhlukaniswa phakathi kwama-strawberry "azala uJuni", athela izithelo zawo ekuqaleni kwehlobo kanye nama-strawberry "ahlala ethwala", avame ukuthela izitshalo eziningana zezithelo kuyo yonke inkathi. [3] Isitshalo esisodwa kuyo yonke inkathi singaveza izikhathi ezingama-50 kuya kwezingama-60 noma cishe kanye ezinsukwini ezintathu.

Ucwaningo olwanyatheliswa ngo-2001 lwabonisa ukuthi ama-strawberry empeleni avela emikhubeni emithathu eyisisekelo yezimbali: usuku olufushane, usuku olude, nosuku olungathathi hlangothi.Lokhu kubhekisa ekuzweleni kobude besikhathi besitshalo nohlobo lwe- photoperiod elenza ukwakheka kwezimbali.Izilimo ezingathathi hlangothi zosuku zikhiqiza izimbali kungakhathalekile ukuthi zithathwa nini izithombe.

Ukulima[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izinhlobo ze-Strawberry ziyahlukahluka ngosayizi, umbala, ukunambitheka, ukuma, izinga lokuzala, isikhathi sokuvuthwa, isikweletu sesifo kanye nomthethosisekelo wesitshalo.Ngokwesilinganiso, isitrobheli sinezinhlamvu ezingaba ngu-200 kolwelwesi lwangaphandle.Amanye ayahlukahluka emahlamvu, kanti amanye ayahlukahluka ngokwezinto ezibonakalayo ekukhuleni okulinganayo kwezitho zawo zocansi.Ezimweni eziningi, izimbali zivela njenge-hermaphroditic ngesakhiwo, kepha zisebenza njengowesilisa noma owesifazane. [4]

Ngenhloso yokukhiqiza ukuthengisa, izitshalo zisakazwa zisuka kubagijimi futhi, ngokuvamile, zisatshalaliswa njengezitshalo zezimpande ezingenalutho noma ama-plugs.Ukutshala kulandela eyodwa yamamodeli amabili ajwayelekile — i-plasticulture yonyaka, noma uhlelo olungapheli lwemigqa ehlanganisiwe noma izindunduma.Izindlu zokugcina izithombo zikhiqiza inani elincane lama-strawberry ngenkathi engekho.

Enye indlela enkulu, esebenzisa izitshalo ezifanayo unyaka nonyaka ezikhula emigqeni noma ezindundumeni, zivame kakhulu ezindaweni ezibandayo.Inezindleko eziphansi zokutshala imali, nezidingo eziphansi zokulungisa.Izithelo zivame ukuba ngaphansi kune-plasticulture.

Ama-Strawberries nawo angasatshalaliswa yimbewu, yize lokhu ngokuyinhloko kungumsebenzi wokuzilibazisa, futhi akujwayele ukwenziwa kakhulu kwezentengiso.Izinhlobo ezimbalwa zezitshalo ezisatshalaliswa ngembewu zenzelwe ukusetshenziswa ekhaya, kanti ucwaningo lokukhula lusuka embewini ngokuhweba luyaqhubeka. [5]Imbewu (ama-achenes) itholwa ngokusebenzisa abahlinzeki bembewu abathengisayo, noma ngokuyiqoqa nokuyigcina esithelweni.

Ama-strawberry angatshalwa futhi ezindlini ezimbizeni ze-sitrobheli.Yize isitshalo singeke sakhula ngokwemvelo endlini ebusika, ukusetshenziswa kwezibani ze-LED kuhlanganiswe ukukhanya okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka nokubomvu kungavumela ukuthi isitshalo sikhule phakathi nobusika.Ngokwengeziwe, ezindaweni ezithile njengesifundazwe saseFlorida, ubusika yisikhathi sokukhula kwemvelo lapho ukuvuna kuqala khona maphakathi noNovemba.

I-Kashubian sitrobheli ( iTruskawka kaszubska noma i- Kaszëbskô malëna )isithelo sokuqala sasePoland ukunikezwa ukuvikelwa kokuhweba ngaphansi komthetho we-EU.Ikhiqizwa ezigodini zaseKartuzy, eKościerzyna naseBytów nakomasipala basePrzywidz, Wejherowo, Luzino, Szemud, Linia, Łęczyce naseCewice eKashubia .Izinhlobo ezilandelayo kuphela ezingathengiswa njenge- kaszëbskô malëna : iSenga Sengana, i-Elsanta, i-Honeoye ebekwe njenge-Extra noma i-Class I. 

Ukulima nokuvuna[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izitshalo eziningi ze-sitrobheli manje sezondliwa ngamanyolo wokufakelwa, ngaphambi nangemva kokuvuna, futhi kaningi ngaphambi kokutshala ku-plasticulture.

Ukugcina ikhwalithi ephezulu, amajikijolo avunwa okungenani njalo ngemuva kosuku.Amajikijolo akhiwa amakepisi asanamathele futhi okungenani kusele uhhafu we-intshi yesiqu.Ama-strawberry adinga ukuhlala esitshalweni ukuze avuthwe ngokuphelele ngoba awaqhubeki ukuvuthwa ngemuva kokukhiwa.Amajikijolo abolile futhi avuthwe ngokweqile ayasuswa ukunciphisa izinkinga zezinambuzane nezifo.Amajikijolo awagezwa kuze kube ngaphambi nje kokudliwa.

A man carries a flat of strawberries in a field
Amajikijolo avame ukukhiwa abekwe emabhokisini angajulile ensimini.

Imininingwane yokuhlolwa kwenhlabathi kanye nemiphumela yokuhlaziywa kwezitshalo kuyasetshenziswa ukuthola izindlela zokuzala.Umanyolo we-nitrogen uyadingeka ekuqaleni kwawo wonke unyaka wokutshalaNgokuvamile kunamazinga anele e-phosphorus ne-potash lapho amasimu evundiselwe isivuno esiphezulu.Ukuhlinzeka ngezinto eziningi eziphilayo, isivuno sekhava noma rye sitshalwa ebusika ngaphambi kokutshala ama-strawberry.Ama-Strawberries akhetha i-pH kusuka ku-5.5 kuye ku-6.5, ngakho-ke i-lime ngokuvamile ayisetshenziswa.

Inqubo yokuvuna nokuhlanza ayikashintshi kakhulu ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.Ama-strawberry athambile asavunwa ngesandla.Ukulinganisa nokupakisha kuvame ukwenzeka emkhakheni, hhayi endaweni yokucubungula. [6]Emisebenzini emikhulu, ama-strawberry ahlanzwa ngemifudlana yamanzi namabhande okuhambisa.

Ama-strawberry amasha athengiswa ezitsheni zepulasitiki
  1. "Berry antioxidants: small fruits providing large benefits". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94 (5): 825–33. March 2014. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6432. PMID 24122646. 
  2. Esau, K. (1977). Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Template:ISBN.
  3. Empty citation (help)
  4. Fletcher, Stevenson Whitcomb (1917) Strawberry Growing, The Macmillan Co., New York, p. 127.
  5. "An improved technique for the germination of strawberry seeds". Euphytica 22 (2): 362. doi:10.1007/BF00022647. 
  6. Empty citation (help)