Istanbul

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Template:Incazelo emfushane Template:Okunye ukusetshenziswa Template:Pp-move-indef Template:Pp-sock Template:Sebenzisa ama-dmy dates {{Ukukhokha kwe-Infobox | official_name = Istanbul | native_name = Istanbul | native_name_lang = tr | settlement_type = Megacity

umasipala we-Metropolitan | image_skyline = Lua error in Module:Multiple_image at line 163: attempt to perform arithmetic on local 'totalwidth' (a nil value). | Usayizi wesithombe = 270 | image_alt = Bona amagama-ncazo | image_caption = Ngokuhamba kwewashi ukusuka phezulu: Ibhuloho laseBosphorus elixhuma i-Europe ne-Asia, I-Maiden's Tower, Isigodlo saseDolmabahçe, Levent isifunda samabhizinisi, Galata Tower, Ortaköy Mosque, Hagia Sophia | image_blank_emblem = Istanbul city emblem.png | blank_emblem_type = Uphawu lukaMasipala wase-Istanbul Metropolitan | blank_emblem_size = 110px | usayizi wemephu = 230px | pushpin_map = Turkey#Europe#Asia#World | pushpin_map_alt = Turkey, ne-Istanbul ekhonjwe enyakatho-ntshonalanga eduze komugqa omncane wezwe oboshwe amanzi | pushpin_map_caption = Indawo phakathi kweTurkey##Indawo phakathi kwe-Europe##Indawo phakathi kwe-Asia | pushpin_relief = 1 | izixhumanisi = 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.955°E / 41.01361; 28.955Coordinates: 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.955°E / 41.01361; 28.955 | subdivision_type = Izwe | subdivision_name = Turkey | subdivision_type1 = Region | subdivision_type2 = Isifunda | subdivision_name1 = Marmara | subdivision_name2 = Istanbul | seat_type = Isihlalo Sesifundazwe[lower-alpha 1] | isihlalo = Cağaloğlu, Fatih | parts_type = Izigodi | izingxenye = 39 | leader_party = CHP | leader_title = Mayor | leader_name = Ekrem İmamoğlu | leader_title1 = Governor | leader_name1 = Ali Yerlikaya | area_footnotes = [1] | indawo_amanzi_km2 = | indawo_yedolobha_km2 = 2,576.85 | area_metro_km2 = 5,343.22 | elevation_max_footnotes = [2] | elevation_max_m = 537 | inani_labantu = 15,462,452 | inani labantu basedolobheni = 15,149,358 | inani_labantu = 31 December 2020 | population_footnotes = [3] | population_density_urban_km2 = 5,879 | population_density_metro_km2 = 2,894 | labantu_izinga = owoku-1 eTurkey | population_demonym = Istanbulite

(Template:Lang-tr) | postal_code_type = Ikhodi yeposi | postal_code = 34000 kuya ku-34990 | area_code = +90 212 (European side)

+90 216 (Uhlangothi lwase-Asia) | registration_plate = 34 | blank_name_sec2 = GeoTLD | blank_info_sec2 = .ist, .istanbul | iwebhusayithi = ibb.istanbul

www.istanbul.gov.tr | blank_name = GDP (Nominal) | blank_info = 2019[4] | blank1_name =  - Isamba | blank1_info = US$ 237 ibhiliyoni | blank2_name =  - Umuntu ngamunye | blank2_info = US$ 15,285 | blank3_name = HDI (2019) | blank3_info = 0.846[5] (phezulu kakhulu) · 1st | indawo yesikhathi = TRT | utc_offset = +3 | module = Template:Infobox UNESCO World Heritage Site | igama = | government_type = Mayor-council government | governing_body = UMkhandlu Kamasipala wase-Istanbul | image_shield = CoA Istanbul.svg }}

Istanbul' (/ˌɪstænˈbʊl/ Template:Respell, [6] [7] /[unsupported input]ˈɪstænbʊl/ Template:Repell; I-Template:Lang-tr Template:IPA-tr), eyayaziwa ngokuthi [[[Constantinople]], ingu-idolobha elikhulu kunawo wonke Turkey kanye nesikhungo sezwe sezomnotho, amasiko kanye nomlando. Leli dolobha linqamula i-Bosporus istrait, futhi likhona kokubili [[[Europe]]] kanye [[[E-Asia]], nezakhamuzi ezingaphezu kwezigidi ezingu-15, ezihlanganisa u-19% wabantu baseTurkey.< ref name="Population of Turkey"/> I-Istanbul idolobha elinabantu abaningi eYurophu,[lower-alpha 2] kanye nezwe idolobha leshumi nanhlanu ngobukhulu.

Yasungulwa njenge-Byzantion ngamakoloni Megarian ngekhulu lesi-7 BCE,[8] futhi yaqanjwa kabusha ngu-Constantine Omkhulu kuqala ngokuthi IRoma Entsha ( I-Nova Roma) phakathi nokunikezelwa ngokusemthethweni kwedolobha njengenhloko-dolobha entsha WamaRoma ngo-330 CE, i[8] asheshe wayishintsha yaba iConstantinople (Constantinopolis ),[8][9] idolobha lakhula ngobukhulu nomthelela, laba isibani se-Silk Road kanye nelinye lamadolobha abaluleke kakhulu emlandweni. Yasebenza njengenhloko-dolobha yombuso cishe amakhulu eminyaka ayishumi nesithupha, phakathi Roman/Byzantine (330-1204), Latin (1204-1261), [[Byzantine]. Umbuso ongaphansi kobukhosi be-Palaiologos|Byzantine]] (1261–1453), kanye Ottoman (1453–1922) imibuso.[10] Idolobha laba neqhaza elikhulu ekuthuthukisweni kobuKristu ngezikhathi zamaRoma nezaseByzantium, lasingatha ezine (kuhlanganise ne-Chalcedon (Kadıköy) ohlangothini lwase-Asia) [[kuqala] imikhandlu yenkolo eyisikhombisa]] (yonke eyayiseTurkey yanamuhla), ngaphambi kokuguqulelwa kwayo ekubeni inqaba yamaSulumane elandela Ukuwa kweConstantinople ngo-1453 CE, ikakhulukazi ngemva kokuba ikomkhulu [I-Ottoman Caliphate]] ngo-1517.[11] Ngo-1923, ngemva Impi Yokuzimela YaseTurkey , I-Ankara yathatha indawo yedolobha njengenhloko-dolobha yezwe elalisanda kwakhiwa Republic of Turkey. Ngo-1930, igama laleli dolobha lashintshwa ngokusemthethweni laba yi-Istanbul, igama elithi Greek elalisetshenziswa kusukela ngekhulunyaka leshumi nanye.

bheka idolobha ngokuhlanganyela.[12]

Ngaphezulu kwe-13.4 million izivakashi zakwamanye amazwe zeza e-Istanbul ngo-2018, eminyakeni eyisishiyagalombili ngemuva kokuthi ibizwe ngokuthi Inhloko-dolobha Yase-Europe Yamasiko, okuyenza ibe idolobha lesishiyagalombili elivakashelwa kakhulu emhlabeni.[13] I-Istanbul iyikhaya UNESCO] INdawo Yamagugu Omhlaba], futhi isingatha ikomkhulu lezinkampani eziningi zaseTurkey, ezibalwa ngaphezu kwalokho. amaphesenti angamashumi amathathu umnotho wezwe.[14][15]

I-Toponymy[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Template:Okuyinhloko

[[Ifayela:Ikholomu KaConstantine 2.JPG|isithupha|kwesokunxele|kwesokudla|Ikholomu LikaConstantine[16]]]

Igama lokuqala elaziwayo ledolobha lithi Byzantium (Template:Lang-el}, Byzántion), igama elanikezwa kulo ekusekelweni kwalo ngu-[[Megara|Megarian] ] amakoloni cishe ngo-657 BCE.[17][18] Amakholoni aseMegaran athi umugqa oqondile obuyela emuva abasunguli bedolobha, i-Byzas, indodana kankulunkulu u-Poseidon kanye ne-nymph Ceroëssa. idolobha elibalekayo.[19] IConstantinople isuka egameni lesiLatini elithi Constantinus, elisuselwa egameni uConstantine Omkhulu, umbusi waseRoma owasungula kabusha leli dolobha ngo-324. CE.[18] I-Constantinople yahlala iyigama elivame kakhulu ledolobha eliseNtshonalanga kwaze kwaba ngawo-1930, lapho iziphathimandla zaseTurkey ziqala ukucindezela ukusetshenziswa kwe-"Istanbul" ezilimini zakwamanye amazwe. Kostantiniyye (Template:Lang-ota), Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah (okusho "Indawo Evikelwe yaseConstantinople") kanye nethi İstanbul kwakungamagama asetshenziswa ngenye indlela. ngama-Ottoman ngesikhathi sokubusa kwawo.[20]

Igama elithi İstanbul (Template:IPA-tr, colloquially Template:IPA-tr) livamise ukubanjwa ngokuthi lisuselwa ku IsiGreece SaseNkathi Ephakathi ibinzana "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν" (liphinyiselwa Template:IPA-el}), okusho ukuthi "edolobheni"[21] futhi yindlela iConstantinople eyayibhekiselwa kuyo amaGreki endawo. Lokhu kubonise isimo salo njengedolobha elikhulu kuphela endaweni. Ukubaluleka kweConstantinople emhlabeni wase-Ottoman kuphinde kwaboniswa isiteketiso sayo sase-Ottoman esithi Der Saadet okusho "Isango Eliya Empumelelweni" ngesi-Ottoman Turkish.[22] Okunye ukubuka ukuthi igama livele ngqo lisuka ku- igama elithi Constantinople, elinohlamvu lokuqala nelesithathu liyehliswa.[18] Eminye imithombo ye-Ottoman yekhulu le-17, njengokuthi Evliya Çelebi, ilichaza njengegama elivamile lesiTurkey isikhathi; phakathi kwekhulu le-17 nasekupheleni kwekhulu le-18, yayisetshenziswa futhi ngokusemthethweni. Ukusetshenziswa kokuqala kwegama elithi Islambol emalini kwenzeka ngo-1730 phakathi nokubusa kukaSultan Mahmud I.[23] Ngesimanje Turkish, igama libhalwe ngokuthi İstanbul, elinechashazi elithi İ, njengoba izinhlamvu zezinhlamvu zesi-Turkish ihlukanisa phakathi kwe-dotted kanye ne-dotless I. . NgesiNgisi ukucindezeleka kuselungeni lokuqala noma lokugcina, kodwa ngesi-Turkish kuselungwini lwesibili (tan).[24] Umuntu ovela edolobheni uyi-'İstanbullu (ubuningi: İstanbullular); I-Istanbulite isetshenziswa ngesiNgisi.[25]

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Template:Okukhulu Template:Bona futhi [[Ifayela:Keystone_Constantine_Forum_Istanbul.JPG|isithupha|qondile|Leli tshe elingukhiye elikhulu kungenzeka ukuthi bekungele-ikhothamo lokunqoba Iforamu ka-Constantine (yanamuhla Çemberlitaş). [26]


Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "lower-alpha", but no corresponding <references group="lower-alpha"/> tag was found

  1. "YETKİ ALANI". Istanbul Buyuksehir Belediyesi. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 4 February 2020. ref><ref>IsiFundazwe sase-İstanbul = 5,460.85 km² Indawo ewumhlaba = 5,343.22 km² Lake/Dam = 117.63 km² Europe (izifunda ezingu-25) = 3,5m²n²p. br/>Asia (izifunda ezingu-14) = 1,868.87 km² I-Urban (izifunda ezingu-36) = 2,576.85 km² [I-Metro (izifunda ezingu-39) – (Çatalca+Silivri+Şile)]
  2. "İstanbul'un En Yüksek Tepeleri". Hava Forumu. Hava Durumu Forumu. 15 Ephreli 2020. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  3. -Kay%C4%B1t-Sistemi-Sonu%C3%A7lar%C4%B1-2020-37210&dil=1 "Imiphumela Yesistimu Yokubhaliswa Kwabantu Ngekheli, 2020" Check |url= value (help). Turkish Statistical Institute. 31 December 2020. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 5 February 2021.[dead link]
  4. "Kişi başına GSYH ($) ( 2019)". Turkish Statistical Institute. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 30 January 2021.
  5. {{cite web|url=https://hdi.globaldatalab.org/areadata/shdi/%7Ctitle=Sub-national[dead link] HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab|website=hdi.globaldatalab.org} }
  6. Template:Caphuna incwadi
  7. Upton, Clive; Kretzschmar, Jr., William A. (2017). The Routledge Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 704. ISBN 978-1-138-12566-7.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 /place/Istanbul "Istanbul" Check |url= value (help). britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  9. {{ODB|title=Constantinople|last=Mango|first=Cyril|authorlink=Cyril Mango|pages=508–512} }
  10. Template:Harvnb
  11. Template:Harvnb
  12. "Istanbul". Encyclopedia Britannica. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 4 December 2020.
  13. Template:Caphuna iwebhu
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named hisdic
  15. -it.php?REF=5KZSL2MLL49Q&TYPE=browse OECD Territorial Reviews: Istanbul, Turkey Check |url= value (help). Policy Briefs. Inhlangano Yekusebenzisana Kwezomnotho Nentuthuko. March 2008. ISBN 978-92-64 -04383-1.
  16. /forum-c.html "Forum of Constantine" Check |url= value (help). www.byzantium1200.com. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 31 January 2021.
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Britannica-Istanbul2
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Template:Harvnb
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  21. Necdet Sakaoğlu (1993/94a): "İstanbul'un adları" ["Amagama e-Istanbul"]. Ku: Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi, ed. Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul.
  22. Grosvenor, Edwin Augustus. Constantinople. Vol. 1: Roberts Brothers. p. 69. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 15 March 2021. Unknown parameter |idethi= ignored (help)
  23. Template:Harvnb
  24. Template:Harvnb
  25. Template:Harvnb
  26. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Inkundla kaConstantine