Ithoyilethe lomgodi

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Ukudweba indlu yangasese yomgodi okulula ngokusebenzisa ipani lokuzikhulula kanye nesembozo.[1]

I-ndlu yangasese yomgodi noma ithoyilethe lomgodi wuhlobo lwendlu yangasese eqoqa indle yabantu emgodini emhlabathini. Aziwasebenzisi amanzi noma zisebenzisa amancane angaba amalitha amathathu abawathelayo ukuhambisa indle endlini yangasese enomgodi.[2] Uma zakheke kahle futhi zinakekeleka kahle zingakunciphisa ukusabalala kwezifo ngokunciphisa inani lendle yabantu endalweni okutholakala ngokuhlala kwendle obala.[3][4] Lokhu kunciphisa ukudluliseka kwamagciwane phakathi kwendle kanye nokudla kwezimpukane.[3] Lawa magciwane yiwona ayimbangela enkulu yesifo sohudo kanye nokuba nezikelemu.[4] Isifo sokuho esithathelanayo sabangela ukushona kwezingane eziyizigidi eziyi-0.7 ezineminyaka engaphansi kwemihlanu ngonyaka wezi-2011 kanye nokuphutha esikoleni izinsuku eziyizigidi ezingama-250.[4][5] Izindlu zangasese zomgodi yiyona ndlela eshibhile yokuhlukanisa indle nabantu.[3]

Indlu yangasese yomgodi ivamise ukuba nezingxenye ezintathu ezinkulu: umgodi emhlabathini, itshe noma iphansi elinembob encane, kanye nesembozo.[2] Indlu yangasese yomgodi ivamise ukuba ngamamitha ama-3  (izinyawo ezi-10 ) ukuya phansi kanaye nemitha eli-1 (izinyawo ezi-3.2) ukuya eceleni.[2] INhlangano yezempilo yomhlaba incoma ukuthi kwakhiwe kuqhelelane nomuzi ukuze kungatholakali amagciwane ahogelwayo.[3] Ukuba kude kusuka emanzini angaphansi kanye namanzi angaphezulu kumele kube kukhulu ukuze kugwemeke ukunukubezeka kwamanzi. Imbobo esetsheni eliphansi akumele ibe ngaphezulu kwamasentimitha angama-25 (9.8 amayintshi) ukuvikela izingane zingaweli phakathi. Kumele ukugweme ukungena kwelanga emgodini wendlu yangasese ukuze kunciphe ukungena kwezimpukane. Lokhu kungadinga ukuthi kusetshenziswe isivalo ukuze simboze umgodi uma ungasetshenziswa.[3] Uma umgodi ugcwala uze ufike ku-0.5 wemitha (izinyawo eziyi-1.6) phezulu, kumele uthululwe noma kumbiwe umgodi omusha endaweni entsha.[6] Ukulawula udaka lwendle olukhishwe emgodini kunzima. Kungaba nobungozi endalweni nakwezempilo uma kungenziwanga ngendlela eyiyo.

Indlu yangasese yomgodi ingathuthukiswa ngezindlela eziningi. Eyokuqala kungaba ukufaka ipayipi elizokhipha iphunga lisuke ngaphakathi emgodini liphumele ngaphandle ngaphezulu kwesakhiwo leso. Lokhu kwenza ngcono ukungena komoya kuphinde kunciphise nephunga lendlu yangasese. Kuphinde kunciphise nezimpukane uma ingaphezulu lepayipi livalwe ngento ebizwa nge-mesh (imvamisa isuke yakhiwe nge-fiberglass (ukhethe olusangilasi oluxutshwe noplastiki)). Kulezi zinhlobo zezindlu zangasese asidingeki isivalo sokuvalaumgodi ophansi.[6] Okunye okungenziwa ukwenza ngcono lezi zindlu zangasese kubandakanya iphansi elakhiwe ngendlela yokuthi uketshezi lungene emgodini bese kuthi ingaphezulu lomgodi lakhiwe ngezitini noma ngosimende ukuze liqine kahle.[2][6]

Ngokwezibalo zangowezi-2013 izindlu zangasese zomgodi zisetshenziswa abantu abayizigidigidi ezingu.1.77.[7] Lokhu kujwayeleke kakhulu emhlabeni osathuthuka kanjalo nasezindaweni zasemakhaya kanye nasezindaweni ezisemaphandleni. Ngonyaka wezi-2011 abantu abangalinganiselwa ezigidigidini ezingu-2.5 babengenazo izindlu zangasese ezisesimweni esihle kwathi abayisigidigidi esisodwa baqoma ukuzikhulula ezindaweni ezivulekile ngalapho behlala khona.[8] E-Asia eseNingizimu kanye ne-Afrika ese-Sub-Saharan yizona zindawo ezingenazo izindlu zangasese.[8] Emazweni asathuthuka indlu yangasese yomgodi ibiza phakathi kuka-25 no-60 USD.[9] Ukuyinakekela okuqhubekayo kubiza phakathi kuka-1.5 no-4 USD umuntu ngamunye ngonyaka okuyizinto ezingavamisile ukubhekwa.[10] Kwezinye izingxenye zezindawo zasemakhaya e-India kusetshenziswe umkhankaso obizwa nge-"No Toilet, No Bride" (okungukuthi uma ungenayo indlu yangasese angeke umthole umfazi) ukukhuthaza ukwakhiwa kwezindlu zangasese ngokugqugquzela abesifazane ukuthi banqabe ukushada nendoda engenayo indlu yangasese.[11][12]

Amareferensi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. WEDC. Latrine slabs: an engineer’s guide, WEDC Guide 005. Water, Engineering and Development Centre The John Pickford Building School of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University. pp. 22. ISBN 978 1 84380 143 6. http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/resources/booklets/G005-Latrine-slabs-on-line.pdf. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Lüthi, C., Reymond, Ph. and Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2 ed.). Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). ISBN 9783906484570. http://www.sandec.ch/compendium. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Simple pit latrine (fact sheet 3.4)". 1996. http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Js13461e/3.4.html. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Call to action on sanitation" (pdf). http://sanitationdrive2015.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/DSG_Sanitation_Fast-Facts_final.pdf. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  5. Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H et al (Apr 20, 2013). "Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.". Lancet 381 (9875): 1405–16. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60222-6. PMID 23582727. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 François Brikké (2003). Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation. World Health Organization. p. 108. ISBN 9241562153. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241562153.pdf. 
  7. Graham, JP; Polizzotto, ML (May 2013). "Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review.". Environmental health perspectives 121 (5): 521–30. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206028. PMID 23518813. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 (pdf) Progress on sanitation and drinking-water - 2014 update.. WHO. 2014. pp. 16–20. ISBN 9789241507240. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/JMP_report_2014_webEng.pdf. 
  9. Selendy, Janine M. H. (2011). Water and sanitation-related diseases and the environment challenges, interventions, and preventive measures. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 25. ISBN 9781118148600. http://books.google.ca/books?id=nZlS4ZfUOZUC&pg=PA25. 
  10. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa Where Do We Stand?. Intl Water Assn. 2013. p. 161. ISBN 9781780405414. http://books.google.ca/books?id=_CkDAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA161. 
  11. Global Problems, Smart Solutions: Costs and Benefits. Cambridge University Press. 2013. p. 623. ISBN 9781107435247. http://books.google.ca/books?id=g9tRAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA623. 
  12. Stopnitzky, Yaniv (12 December 2011). "Haryana's scarce women tell potential suitors: "No loo, no I do"". Blog of World Bank. http://blogs.worldbank.org/impactevaluations/haryanas-scarce-women-tell-potential-suitors-no-loo-no-i-do-guest-post-by-yaniv-stopnitzky. Retrieved 17 November 2014.