Johann Sebastian Bach

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UJohann Sebastian Bach 1746, (inguqulo yesibili yomdwebo kawoyela ka- Elias Gottlob Haußmann)
Isiginesha kaBach
Uphawu lukaBach olwenzelwe yena olunezinhlamvu zokuqala zegama lakhe, i-JSB, luhlanganiswe ngesibuko

UJohann Sebastian Bach (Mashi 21, 1685 - Julayi 28, 1750) wayengumqambi waseJalimane wesikhathi samaBaroque. Uthathwa njengomunye wabaqambi abanethonya elikhulu futhi ababalulekile emlandweni wase-Europe, kanti umculo wakhe umele ukuphela kwesikhathi seBaroque. Amadodana amane kaBach aba ngabaculi abadumile futhi. UBach waba nomthelela omkhulu kubaqambi abeza ngemuva kwakhe, ngokwengxenye ngoba wakhuphula amafomu omculo esikhathi sakhe ezingeni eliphakeme lobuchwepheshe nobungcweti. Umculo kaBach waziwa ngobuhle bawo, ubuciko, ubukhazikhazi, ukuqina kwengqondo kanye namandla ezemizwa. Ngenxa yekhwalithi yomculo wakhe, abaqambi abangochwepheshe bavame ukumbiza ngokuthi umqambi omkhulu kunabo bonke emlandweni waseNtshonalanga. Umculo kaBach uyenziwa, ufundwe futhi uthokozelwe umhlaba wonke.[1]

indaba yokuphila[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UBach wazalelwa e-Eisenach ngo-1685. Wafundiswa ukudlala i-violin nguyise, uJohann Ambrosius, owayengumcilongo wasenkantolo osebenzela uMbusi wase-Eisenach. UBach wayengakabi neminyaka eyishumi ngesikhathi kushona uyise, emshiya eyintandane. Wahamba wayohlala ekhaya lomfowabo; umfowabo wayehlala e-Ohrdruf. Ngenxa yezwi lakhe elihle, uBach wathola umsebenzi esigodlweni sezindela saseMichaelis eLüneberg ngo-1700. Izwi lakhe lashintsha ngemuva kwesikhashana, kodwa waqhubeka njengomculi. Ngemuva kokuthatha umsebenzi wesikhashana eWeimar ngo-1703 njengomdlali we-violinist, uBach waba ngumdlali weNeue Kirche e-Arnstadt (1703-1707). Ubudlelwano bakhe nomkhandlu wesonto babunzima njengoba lo mculi osemncane wayevame ukungayinaki imisebenzi yakhe, ancamele ukujwayeza u-ogani. Enye i-akhawunti ichaza ikhefu lezinyanga ezine elinikezwe uBach, lokuya eLubeck lapho ezozijwayeza khona ngomculo kaDietrich Buxtehude. Ubuyele e-Arnstadt kade elindelwe, wathukuthelisa umkhandlu. Wabe esebenza isikhashana eSt.Blasius eMühlhausen njengodokotela, kusukela ngoJuni 1707, futhi washada nomzala wakhe, uMaria Barbara Bach, ekwindla leyo. UBach waqamba iToccata yakhe edumile neFugue kuD minor (BWV 565) nama-cantata akhe okuqala eseMühlhausen. Wabe esethatha umsebenzi kuMbusi waseSachsen-Weimar ngo-1708, esebenza njengomdlali wasenkantolo futhi edlala e-orchestra, ekugcineni waba ngumholi wayo ngo-1714. Wabhala izingoma eziningi zezinhlaka ngalesi sikhathi, kuhlanganise no-Orgel-Büchlein wakhe. UBach washiya iWeimar futhi wathola umsebenzi ngoDisemba 1717 njengoKapellmeister eCöthen. Ngo-1720, umkaBach wafa ngokuzumayo, wamshiya nezingane ezine (abanye abathathu bafa besebancane). Ngemuva kwesikhashana, wahlangana nonkosikazi wakhe wesibili, u-Anna Magdalena Wilcke, owashada naye ngoDisemba 1721. Wayezozala izingane eziyi-13, yize bebeyisihlanu kuphela abasinda ebuntwaneni. IBrandenburg Concertos (BWV 1046-51) eyisithupha, phakathi kweminye imisebenzi eminingi yezinsimbi, isukela eminyakeni yakhe yaseCöthen. UBach waba nguKantor weThomas School eLeipzig ngoMeyi 1723 futhi wawubamba lo msebenzi waze wafa. UBach wagcina engenelisekanga ngalo msebenzi, hhayi kuphela ngenxa yeholo lakhe eliphansi, kepha nangenxa yemisebenzi enzima nemishini emibi. Ngakho-ke, wamukela eminye imisebenzi, ehlanganisa nokuqondisa iCollegium Musicum yedolobha, iqembu labaculi abaqeqeshiwe nabafundisayo ababenikeza amakhonsathi masonto onke, ngo-1729. Wabuye waba ngumqondisi womculo eDresden Court ngo-1736, esebenzela uFrederick Augustus II. Yize wayenemisebenzi embalwa, wanikwa inkululeko yokuqamba lokho ayekufuna. Wagula isifo sikashukela, uBach washona ngoJulayi 28, 1750.[2][3][4][5]

Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. https://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-6002278195
  2. https://www.biographyonline.net/music/j-s-bach.html
  3. http://www.baroquemusic.org/biojsbach.html
  4. http://www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/bachjs.php
  5. https://www.bach-cantatas.com/