Thomas Sankara

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UThomas Isidore Noël Sankara ( French pronunciation: [tɔma sɑ̃kaʁa] ; 21 December 1949 - 15 Okthoba 1987) wayengu Burkinabé yisosha futhi futhi isishoshovu sobusoshiyali, owasebenza njengoMongameli weBurkina Faso, ukusukela ethatha umbuso ngobuvukela bombuso ngobusosha ngo 1983 kuze kufikele lapho aketulwa khona ngokubulawa ngo 1987. Wayeyi-Marxist Leninist nokuba yi-pan Africanist, wayebona ngabasekeli bakhe njengomholi wedumela nowaziwayo njengerivolushinary ethathwa njengo-Che Guevara wase-Afrika". [1] [2] [3] [4]

Ngemuva kokuqokwa njengoNdunankulu ngo-1983, ukungezwani nohulumeni owayephethe kwaholela ekutheni uSankara agcine eboshiwe. Ngenkathi eboshelwe endlini, iqembu lamarivolushinary, lathatha amandla ombuso egameni lakhe, ngovukelambuso alalesekelwa kakhulu ngalowo nyaka.

Eminyakeni engama-33 ubudala, uSankara waba nguMongameli weRiphabhulikhi yase-Upper Volta . Ngokushesha wethula izinhlelo zokuguqula ezenhlalo yabantu, ezemvelo nezomnotho futhi waqamba kabusha leli zwe elisusa egameni lobukoloni baseFrance elithi Upper Volta walitha igama elithi eBurkina Faso ("Land of Incorruptible People"), nabantu balo babizwa ngamaBurkinabé ("abantu abaqotho"). Imigomo yakhe namazwe angaphandle yayigxile ekulweni ne-imperialism, kanti futhi wanqaba nezihlelo zosizo oluvela ngaphandle ezinhlanganweni ezifana ne- International Monetary Fund. USankara wamukele usizo lwangaphandle oluvela kweminye imithombo kodwa wazama ukunciphisa ukuthembela osizweni ngokukhuphula imali engenayo yasekhaya nangokuhlukanisa imithombo yosizo.

Imigomo yakhe yezasekhaya yayigxile ekuvimbeleni indlala ngokuzimela kwezwe kwezolimo kanye nokubuyiselwa komhlaba, ukubeka phambili imfundo ngomkhankaso kazwelonke wokufunda nokubhala nokukhuthaza impilo yomphakathi ngokugonya izingane ezingaphezu kwezigidi ezimbili kwizifo ze- meningitis, i-yellow fever nesimungumungwane . Kuphakathi kwezingane eziyi-18,000 nezingama-50 000 ezafa minyaka yonke ngesimungumungwane ne-meningitis. [5] [6] IBurkinabe yakha okokuqala izikole eziningi, izikhungo zezempilo, amadamu amanzi, futhi cishe u-100 km wemizila yezitimela, futhi ngaphandle kosizo oluvela ngaphandle kwezwe. Ingqikithi yokukhiqizwa kwamabele yakhuphuka ngamaphesenti angu-75% phakathi kuka-1983 no-1986.

Ezinye izingxenye zohlelo lwakhe lukazwelonke zazibandakanya ukutshala izihlahla ezingaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-10 ukulwa nokwanda kwehlane kweSahel, ukwabiwa kabusha komhlaba kubanikazi bomhlaba abazimele, ukumisa intela yezindawo zasemaphandleni nezintela zasekhaya nokusungula uhlelo lokwakhiwa kwemigwaqo nojantshi bezitimela. [6] Ezingeni lendawo, uSankara wanxusa yonke imizi ukuthi yakhe indawo yokwelapha futhi wakha namakhemisi ezigodini ezingama-5,384 kweziyi-7 500. Kusukela ngo-1982 kuya ku-1984 izinga lokufa kwezinsana lehla lisuka kwizinsana ezingu -208 kwezingu-1 000 ezinganeni ezizalwayo laya kwazingu-145. [7] Ukungenwa kwesikole ngaphansi kukaSankara kwakhuphuka kusuka ku-6% kuya ku-22%. [8]

Ngaphezu kwalokho, wakwenqabela ukucwiywa kwezitho zangasese zabesifazane, imishado ephoqelelwe kanye nesithembu. Wafakela abesifazane ezikhundleni eziphezulu zikahulumeni futhi wabakhuthaza ukuthi basebenze ngaphandle kwekhaya futhi baqhubeka nesikole, ngisho noma bekhulelwe.[9] USankara wakhuthaza ukushushiswa kwezikhulu ezisolwa ngenkohlakalo kwezezimali, abaphikisana nenguquko kanye "nabasebenzi abavilaphayo" kuma-Popular Revolutionary Tribunals.[8] Njengomthandi we-Cuban Revolution, uSankara waqala amaKomiti afana nawaseCuba wokuvikela i-Revolution.[1] Izinhlelo ezinjalo zaholela ekugxekweni yi-Amnesty International nezinye izinhlangano ezingekho ngaphansi kukahulumeni ngokwephulwa kwamalungelo abantu, ezazisola ukuthi kwakukhona ukubulawa okungekho emthethweni kanye nokuvalelwa ngokungemthetho kwabaphikisi bezepolitiki.[10]

Izinhlelo zakhe zenguquko zokuthi i-Afrika izimele zamenza waba ngumfanekiso omuhle kwabaningi abampofu base-Afrika.[9] USankara wahlala ethandwa iningi lezakhamuzi zezwe lakhe. Kodwa-ke, imigomo yakhe yahlukanisa futhi yaphikisana namaqembu amaningana, ayebandakanya isigaba esincane kodwa esinamandla saseBurkinabé esiphakathi, abaholi bezendabuko abaphucwa amalungelo abo endabuko asenesikhathi eside okusetshenziswa kwabantu ngempoqo nokukhokhisa intela yempoqo, kanye nohulumeni baseFrance nomlingani wayo i-Ivory Coast.[1] Amaqembu aphikisayo kanye nezinyunyana zavinjelwa futhi inkululeko yabezindaba yancishiswa. Othisha ababetelekile baxoshwa futhi esikhundleni sabo kwafakwa abantu abasha ababengenazipiliyoni. Ngomhla ka-15 Okthoba 1987, uSankara wabulawa amasosha ayeholwa nguBlaise Compaoré, owathatha ubuholi bombuso maduzane ngemuva kokubulawa kukaSankara.

Isiqalo sempilo yakhe[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ibalazwe elibonisa amadolobha amakhulu aseBurkina Faso

UThomas Sankara wazalwa enguThomas Isidore Noël Sankara ngomhlaka 21 Disemba 1949 eYako, eFrench Upper Volta njengengane yesithathu ezinganeni eziyishumi zikaJoseph noMarguerite Sankara. Ubaba wakhe, uJoseph Sankara, i-gendarme, wayengowokudabuka okuhlangene phakathi kweMossi-Fulani (Silmi-Moaga) ngenkathi umama wakhe, uMarguerite Kinda, wayengowokudabuka wohlanga lweMossi. Wachitha iminyaka yakhe yokuqala eGaoua, idolobha eliseningizimu-ntshonalanga elinomsokama lapho ubaba wakhe adluliselwa khona njengegendarme esizayo. Njengendodana yomunye wabasebenzi abambalwa base-Afrika ababeqashwe umbuso wamakoloni, waba nethubaa lesikhundla esiphezulu. Umndeni wawuhlala endlini yezitini nemindeni yamanye ama-gendarmes esiqongweni segquma elibheke lonke elaseGaoua.[11]

USankara wafunda esikoleni seprayimari eBobo-Dioulasso. Wazikhandla kakhulu emsebenzini wakhe wesikole futhi wasebenza kahle kakhulu kwimatemetikisi nesiFulentshi. Wayeya esontweni kaningi, futhi ehlabeke umxhwele ngamandla akhe nokulangazelela ukufunda, abanye babapristi bakhuthaza uThomas ukuthi aye esikoleni sobufundisi uma eseqedile isikole seprayimari. Ngisho noma wayevumile ekuqaleni, wathatha ukuhlolwa okudingekayo ukuze angene ebangeni lesithupha ohlelweni lwezemfundo yezwe futhi waphumelela. Isinqumo sikaThomas sokuqhubeka nemfundo yakhe esikoleni esiseduze i-Ouezzin Coulibaly (eyayiqanjwe ngegama lobuzwe bangaphambi kokuthola inkululeko) sabonakala siyinkathi yenguquko. Lesi sinyathelo samkhipha endlini kayise njengoba isikole sasiseBobo-Dioulasso, isikhungo sezohwebo lezwe. Esikoleni samabanga aphakeme, uSankara wenza abangani abakhulu, okubalwa kubo uFidèle Too, kamuva ambeka njengqongqoshe kuhulumeni wakhe; noSoumane Touré, owayesekilasini eliphambili.

Abazali bakhe abangamaRoma eKatolika babefuna abe ngumpristi, kodwa wakhetha ukungena ebusosheni. Ubusosha babuthandwa kakhulu ngaleso sikhathi, ngoba babesanda kuxosha umongameli owayezondwa. Ubusosha babubonwa yizazi ezisezintsha njengesikhungo sikazwelonke esingasiza ekuqondiseni izimilo zabasebenzi kabahulumeni ababekhohlakele, ukulinganisa ithonya elingelutho lezinduna zendabuko futhi ngokuvamile busize nokwenza izwe libe ngelesimanje. Nangaphandle kwalokho, ukwamukelwa esikoleni sezobusosha kwakuhambisana ne-scholarship; uSankara wayengakwazi ukukhokhela kalula izindleko zemfundo eqhubekela phambiili. Wathatha ukuhlolwa kokungena futhi waphumelela.[12]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Burkina Faso Salutes "Africa's Che" Thomas Sankara by Mathieu Bonkoungou, Reuters, 17 October 2007.
  2. Thomas Sankara Speaks: the Burkina Faso Revolution: 1983–87, by Thomas Sankara, edited by Michel Prairie; Pathfinder, 2007, pg 11
  3. "Thomas Sankara, Africa's Che Guevara" by Radio Netherlands Worldwide, 15 October 2007.
  4. "Africa's Che Guevara" by Sarah in Burkina Faso.
  5. Vaccination commando: Burkina Faso. October 1985. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12340574/. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Murrey (2020), Thomas Sankara and a Political Economy of Happiness, Springer International Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38922-2_10 
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :4
  8. 8.0 8.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :8
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Thomas Sankara: The Upright Man" by California Newsreel.
  10. Amnesty International, Burkina Faso: Political Imprisonment and the Use of Torture from 1983 to 1988 (London: Amnesty International, 1988).
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  12. Ray, Carina. "Thomas Sankara". Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Sankara.