Ubulili Besilisa

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Ubulili besilisa buhlanganisa imizwa ehlukahlukene kanye nokuziphatha. Imizwa yamadoda yokuheha ingahle idalwe yizici ezahlukahlukene zomzimba nezenhlalo zomlingani wabo. Ukuziphatha kwabesilisa kwezocansi kungathinteka ezintweni eziningi, kufaka phakathi ukuvela kokuvela, ubuntu bomuntu ngamunye, ukukhuliswa namasiko. Ngenkathi iningi lamadoda lingabobulili obuhlukile, abambalwa abalulekile bangongqingili noma amazinga ahlukene abesilisa nabesifazane. Boy_Face_from_Venezuela

Ukukhangwa ngokocansi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izici zomzimba

Ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi abesilisa bathambekele ekuheheni abesifazane abasebancane abanokulingana komzimba.Ukulinganiswa kobuso, ubufazi, kanye ne-averageness nakho kuhlotshaniswa nokuheha. Abesilisa ngokujwayelekile bathola amabele abesifazane ekhanga futhi lokhu kuqinisile kumasiko ahlukahlukene. Ukukhethwa kwabesifazane abanesikhumba esikhanyayo kubhalwe emasikweni amaningi.

Ukuqhathanisa umkhawulo wesinqe ofiselekayo okhalweni (0.7) nobubanzi besinqe obungathandeki (0.9).


Abesifazane abanesilinganiso esiphansi okhalweni kuya okhalweni (WHR) babhekwa njengokuheha kakhulu. Isilinganiso esiqondile siyahlukahluka phakathi kwamasiko, kuya nge-WHR yabesifazane besiko lendawo. Emasikweni aseNtshonalanga, kukhethwa i-WHR engu-0.70. Ezinye izinto ezingakhanga ngokomzimba zifaka phakathi inkomba yomzimba ophansi, ububanzi bokhalo obuphansi, imilenze emide, nokugobeka komhlane okuphansi.Ukuncamela ukwakha umzimba omncane noma okhuluphele kuyahlukahluka ngokwesiko, kepha ngendlela ebikezelayo. Emasikweni lapho ukudla kuyindlala khona, ukukhuluphala kuhlotshaniswa nezinga eliphakeme futhi kuyakhanga, kepha okuphambene nalokho kuyiqiniso kumasiko acebile.

Abesilisa ngokuvamile bathanda abafazi babo ukuthi babe bancane kunabo, kepha ngokuhluka kakhulu kangakanani phakathi kwamasiko. Amadoda amadala akhetha ukwehluka kweminyaka yobudala, kuyilapho abesilisa abasebasha bekhetha abesifazane abancane kunabo.

Izinga eliqondile ukubukeka komzimba elibhekwa njengelibalulekile ekukhetheni umlingani wesikhathi eside liyahlukahluka phakathi kwamasiko.

Izici ezingezona ezomzimba

Lapho kukhethwa abalingani besikhathi eside, amadoda afisa labo abahlakaniphile, abanomusa, abaqondayo nabaphilile. Bafuna nokuthi abalingani babo babelane ngamanani abo futhi bafane ezimweni zengqondo nobuntu.

Ukubaluleka kobumsulwa bangaphambi komshado kuyahluka kakhulu ngokwesiko, kepha kuwo wonke amasiko, ukungathembeki emshadweni kuyabacasula kakhulu abantu besilisa kunanoma yibuphi ubuhlungu obungahlukunyezwa ngumkabo.

Ukuziphatha ngokocansi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ziningi izinto ezinomthelela ekuziphatheni kwabantu besilisa ngokocansi. Lokhu kufaka phakathi ukuthambekela okuguqukile, okufana nentshisekelo enkulu kwezocansi, kanye nezinto ezizimele nezenhlalo ezihlobene nokukhuliswa, ubuntu nesimo sobudlelwano.

Intshisekelo yocansi olungakahleleki

Uma kuqhathaniswa nabesifazane, abesilisa banesithakazelo esikhulu kwezocansi. Ngokwesilinganiso, abesilisa baveza isifiso esikhulu sabalingani bezocansi abahlukahlukene, makudlule isikhathi esincane ngaphambi kokufuna ucansi, behlise izindinganiso zabo ngokuphawulekayo lapho befuna ukukhwelana isikhathi esifushane, babe nemicabango eminingi yezocansi neminye imibono eminingi ehilela abalingani bezocansi abahlukahlukene, kubika ukuqhuba ucansi oluphakeme, thola izinkomba zokuxhashazwa ngokocansi ukuthi kube okukhangayo ekuhlanganyeleni isikhathi esifushane, ukuzwa ukuzisola ngokocansi ngokwengeziwe ngamathuba okuphuthelwa ngokocansi, ube nenani elikhudlwana lezindaba zocansi futhi kungenzeka ukuthi ufune ukuxhumana nabantu nabangane ngezinzuzo, futhi uvakashele izifebe kaningi.

Ukukhuliswa nobuntu

Ucwaningo olulodwa lunezici eziningana ezinomthelela eminyakeni yokuqala kocansi phakathi kwentsha eneminyaka eyi-13-18. Labo abavela emindenini enabazali bobabili abakhona, abavela emikhakheni ephakeme yezomnotho, abenza kangcono esikoleni, babekholwa kakhulu, ababenamathemba aphezulu kubazali, futhi bezizwa njengabazali babo, bayabonisa amazinga aphansi ezenzo zocansi kuyo yonke iminyaka yobudala esifundweni. Ngokuphambene nalokho, labo abanamazinga aphezulu wokuziqhenya ngomzimba babonisa amazinga aphezulu ezenzo zocansi.

Ukuhlelwa kobungqingili

Abesilisa abasebudlelwaneni bokuzibophezela banokuziphatha okuvinjelwe kobungqingili, futhi bazoba nokuziphatha okwehlukile kwezocansi uma kuqhathaniswa nabesilisa abanokuthambekela kobungqingili okungavinjelwe. Abesilisa abanesimo esivinjelwe sokuthanda ubungqingili ngeke bathande ukuya ocansini ngaphandle kobudlelwano babo futhi baziphathe ngokwesifiso sabo sokuzibophezela nokusondelana ngokomzwelo nomlingani wabo.

Abesilisa abakhawulelwe ngokobulili abanamathuba amancane okusondela kwabesifazane abanama-ratios aphansi okhalweni kuya okhalweni (i-0.68-0.72), evame ukukalwa njengokukhanga ngokwengeziwe ngokomzimba.

Ukutshalwa kokulindelwe komzali

U-Elizabeth Cashdan uphakamise ukuthi amasu omlingani phakathi kwabo bobabili ubulili ahluke kuye ngokuthi kungakanani ukutshalwa kwemali okulindelwe kulowo wesilisa, futhi wanikeza nokwesekwa kocwaningo ngemicabango yakhe. Lapho abesilisa belindele ukuhlinzeka ngezinga eliphezulu lokutshalwa kwemali kwabazali, bazozama ukuheha abesifazane ngokugcizelela amandla abo okutshala imali. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amadoda alindele ukutshala imali azokwazi ukugqamisa ubumsulwa nokwethembeka kwawo kunamadoda alindele ukungatshali imali. Abesilisa abalindele ukutshalwa kwezimali okuphansi kwabazali bazobukisa ngobulili babo kwabesifazane. UCashdan uphikisa iqiniso lokuthi ucwaningo lusekela umbono wokuthi amadoda alindele ukutshala imali agcizelela ubumsulwa nokwethembeka kwabo, okuyindlela ebiza kakhulu (ngoba yehlisa amathuba okuzala), kusikisela ukuthi lolo hlobo lokuziphatha kumele lusizakale, noma lokho kuziphatha bekungeke zikhethiwe.

Ukuqiniseka kobuzali

Bheka futhi: Isikhwele socansi

Ukuqiniseka ngobuzali yibanga lapho owesilisa azi noma akholelwe ukuthi ingane yowesifazane ngeyakhe.

Emiphakathini yesithembu, amadoda azizwa enesikhwele esikhulu ngocansi uma kunokuqiniseka kobaba okuphansi. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi abafuni ukubeka engcupheni yokuchitha isikhathi, amandla nezinsizakusebenza enganeni okungeyona eyayo.

Ukwehluka kwezenhlalo nezomnotho phakathi kwamasiko nakho kuthinta ukuqiniseka kobaba. Ezweni "lokuzala ngokwemvelo" njengeNamibia, ama-96% wabesilisa akhombisa umhawu wezocansi.

Ukwengeza, kunamathuba amakhulu okulahleka kobaba nokungaqiniseki kobaba lapho kunesidingo semithi yokuvimbela inzalo.

Udlame lwezocansi

Isihloko esikhulu: Izimbangela zodlame lwezocansi

Baningi kakhulu abantu besilisa abadlwengulayo.Kungenzeka ukuthi ukudlwengulwa kungumkhiqizo ongaguquguquki wezinye izindlela eziguqukile, njengesifiso sokwehluka ngokocansi kanye nocansi ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali, ukuzwela emathubeni ezocansi, kanye nomthamo ojwayelekile wokuhlukunyezwa ngokomzimba. Izindima zobulili besilisa kanye nomuzwa wokufaneleka okujwayelekile nowezocansi kubikezela izimo zengqondo nokuziphatha okuhlobene nokudlwengulwa emadodeni. Kodwa-ke, kungenzeka ukuthi ukukhethwa kokuziphendukela kwemvelo endaweni yokhokho kwezinye izimo kuvuna abesilisa abadlwengulile, okuholele ekudlwengulweni uqobo kube ukuzijwayeza. Izazi ezivela emikhakheni eminingi ziwugxekile lo mbono. UDavid Buss uthi ubufakazi obucacile bokuthi iyiphi indlela buyashoda.

Ubungqingili (Ubutabane)[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukuya ocansini nokuzazisa ngokocansi Hlela

I-athikili enkulu: Ukuya ocansini

Bheka futhi: i-LGBT, amadoda angamaGay, kanye namasiko abesilisa abangoGay

Ukuya ocansini kubhekisa ekukhangeni komuntu okuhlobene nabesilisa, kwabesifazane, noma kubo bobabili. Abacwaningi abaningi abafunda ngokuya ocansini bagxila emaphethini wokukhanga kunokuziphatha noma ubunikazi, ngoba isiko lithinta ukubonakaliswa kokuziphatha noma ubunikazi futhi kungukuheha okugqugquzela isimilo nokuziphatha, hhayi okunye. [1]

Ngaphandle kokuba ngabobulili obuhlukile noma ubungqingili, abantu bangaba ngamazinga ahlukene wobungqingili. [1] [26] UBailey et al. wathi balindele ukuthi kuwo wonke amasiko abantu abaningi bathambekele ekuziphatheni ngokobulili kuphela kolunye ubulili, lapho idlanzana lithambekele ebulilini obufanayo, noma ngabe kukhethekile noma cha. Ocwaningweni lwaseNtshonalanga, cishe amadoda angama-93% akhomba njengabobulili obuhlukile ngokuphelele, ama-4% njengabobulili obuhlukile, u-0.5% njengabesilisa nabesifazane abalinganayo, u-0.5% njengongqingili, no-2% njengobungqingili ngokuphelele. Ukuhlaziywa kwezifundo ezingama-67 kutholakale ukuthi ukusabalala kobulili phakathi kwabesilisa (kungakhathalekile ukuthi ubhekephi) bekungu-3-5% we-East Asia, u-6-12% weNingizimu ne-South East Asia, u-6-15% we-Eastern Europe, no-6– I-20% yeLatin America. I-World Health Organisation ilinganisela ukwanda kwabantu besilisa emhlabeni abalala nabesilisa phakathi kuka-3 no-16%.

Ukuya ocansini kungalinganiswa ngokuzibika ngokwakho noma ngokomzimba. Kunezindlela eziningi zomzimba ezikhona, kufaka phakathi ukukalwa kwe-penile erection, isikhathi sokubuka, i-fMRI, kanye ne-dilation yomfundi. Emadodeni, konke lokhu kukhombisa ukuhlangana okuphezulu nezinyathelo zokuzibika, kufaka phakathi amadoda azibika ngokuthi "aqonde kakhulu" noma "ikakhulukazi ayizitabane."

Yimuphi umthelela ocansini wobulili obufanayo ekuzihlukaniseni kwakho nomphakathi kuyehluka kuye ngamasiko. Umbuzo wokuthi amasiko ngomlando wasicacisa kanjani isifiso nokuziphatha kobungqingili udaba lwenkulumompikiswano ethile.

Emhlabeni omningi wanamuhla, ubunikazi bezocansi buchazwa ngokuya ngobulili bomlingani wakho. Kwezinye izingxenye zomhlaba, noma kunjalo, ubulili buvame ukuchazwa emphakathini kususelwa endimeni yezocansi, noma ngabe umuntu ungena noma ungene.

Izimbangela

I-athikili enkulu: I-Biology kanye nokuthambekela kwezocansi

Yize kungekho mbono we-causal osuthole ukwesekwa okusabalele, kunobufakazi obuningi obusekela izimbangela ezingezona ezomphakathi zokuthambekela kwezocansi kunokwenhlalo, ikakhulukazi kwabesilisa. Lobu bufakazi bufaka phakathi ukuhlangana phakathi kwamasiko obungqingili nokungalingani kobulili bobuntwana, ukuthonya okulinganiselayo kwezakhi zofuzo okutholakala ezifundweni ezingamawele, ubufakazi bemiphumela yamahomoni ngaphambi kokubeletha enhlanganweni yobuchopho, umphumela wokulandelana kokuzalwa kwabazali, nokuthola ukuthi ezimweni ezingavamile lapho kukhuliswa khona abesilisa bezinsana njengamantombazane ngenxa yokukhubazeka komzimba, nokho baheha abesifazane. Izimbangela zomphakathi ezicasuliwe zisekelwa ubufakazi obubuthakathaka kuphela, obuhlanekezelwe yizinto eziningi eziphambanisayo. Ubufakazi beziphambano namasiko buxhomeke kakhulu kwabangekho kanjalo Amasiko abubekezelela kakhulu ubungqingili awanamazinga aphezulu kakhulu. Ukuziphatha kobungqingili kuvame kakhulu kubafana baseBrithani ezikoleni ezihlala abantu bobulili obubodwa, kepha abantu abadala baseBrithani abafunda kulezi zikole akunamathuba amaningi okuthi baziphathe njengobungqingili kunalabo abangazange baye. Esimeni esibi kakhulu, ngokwesiko iSambia idinga ukuthi abafana babo baziphathe ngendlela yobungqingili ngesikhathi sokuthomba ngaphambi kokuba babe nokufinyelela kwabesifazane, kepha iningi lalaba bafana lithandana nabobulili obuhlukile.

Akuqondakali ngokugcwele ukuthi kungani izakhi zofuzo zobungqingili, noma zikuvumela ukuthi zikhule, noma ngabe ziyini, ziphikelela esizalweni sezakhi zofuzo. I-hypothesis eyodwa ifaka ukukhethwa kwezihlobo, kusikisela ukuthi ongqingili batshale imali eningi ngokwanele ezihlotsheni zabo ukukhokha izindleko zokungakhiqizi ngqo ngqo. Lokhu akusekelwa yizifundo zamasiko aseNtshonalanga, kepha izifundo eziningana eSamoa zithole ukusekelwa kwalesi sizathu. Enye inkolelo-mbono ifaka izakhi zofuzo eziphikisana nezocansi, ezibangela ubungqingili lapho zivezwa kwabesilisa kepha zandise ukuzala lapho kuvezwa kwabesifazane. Izifundo kuzo zombili izinkambiso zaseNtshonalanga nezingezona ezeNtshonalanga zithole ukwesekwa kwale mbono.

Kucatshangwe ukuthi isimilo sobungqingili ngokwaso kungaba ukujwayela ukuzibandakanya kobulili obufanayo noma ukwakheka kombimbi, yize lesi simo singahluka ngokwezakhi zofuzo phakathi kwabantu futhi senzeke kaningi lapho ukuncintisana kwabalingani besifazane kunzima kakhulu .Isazi sokusebenza kwengqondo sokuziphendukela kwemvelo uDavid Buss wayigxeka le mbono, wathi abukho ubufakazi bokuthi iningi lezinsizwa emasikweni amaningi zisebenzisa indlela yokuziphatha kwabantu besifazane ukwakha ubuhlobo; esikhundleni salokho, okujwayelekile ukuthi ukuhlangana kwabobulili obufanayo kungahambisani nanoma yimuphi umsebenzi wezocansi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uthi abukho ubufakazi bokuthi abesilisa abaziphatha ngendlela ethandwa ngabantu besifazane benza kangcono kunamanye amadoda ekwakheni imifelandawonye noma ekukhuphukeleni ezikhundleni. Abanye abacwaningi nabo bayigxekile, bephawula ukuthi imininingwane ephathelene namasiko ngezenzo zocansi ayifani futhi ayilingani; ukuthi asikho isidingo sokucabanga ukuthi ukuziphatha kobungqingili, ngaphezu kwanoma yikuphi okunye ukuziphatha ngokobulili, kungaphansi kokukhethwa okuqondile kunokuba kube umkhiqizo ongathathi hlangothi; ukuthi i-hypothesis ayikunaki ukuba khona kokuthambekela kwezocansi; ukuthi kuyaphikisana nokutholakele ukuthi abesilisa abathandana nabobungqingili noma abesilisa nabesifazane banamazinga aphansi kakhulu obubaba; ukuthi ukuziphatha kobungqingili be-primate akuyona into efanayo futhi kuyahlukahluka ngaphakathi nangaphakathi kwezinhlobo zonke; nokuthi njengoba abalingani bobulili obufanayo bekhethwa ngokwesisekelo somzwelo wezocansi (ngokungafani ne-bonobos, ngokwesibonelo), imifelandawonye yalolu hlobo izokwenzeka kaningi njengokukhangana kwezocansi, futhi lokho kwehluka kungabonakala kukhombisa ukungabi bikho idizayinwe ngokukhetha kwemvelo.

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izixhumanisi zangaphandle

Izigaba: I-Evolutionary PsychologyIzocansi zabantuAmadoda nezocansiImpilo yamadoda

Kugcine ukuhlelwa enyangeni engu-1 edlule ngu-Allforrous

IZIHLOKO EZIHLOBENE[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukukhangwa ngokocansi

Ukuheha ngesisekelo sesifiso sobulili

Ubungqingili

UDavid Buss

Isazi sokusebenza kwengqondo saseMelika sokuziphendukela kwemvelo, ukucabanga nokucwaninga ngomehluko wobulili babantu ekukhetheni abalingani.