Ubusha

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Iqembu labesifazane basekolishi e-United States, ngo-1973. Igama elithi ubusha livame ukubhekwa njengokufana nentsha .
Intsha egqoke okokugqoka okuvamile ihambela iWoodstock Festival yomculo we-rock, ePoland, ngo-2011

Ubusha yisikhathi sempilo lapho umuntu esemncane, futhi kuvame ukusho isikhathi esiphakathi kobuntwana nobudala ( ukuvuthwa ). [1]Kuchazwa futhi ngokuthi "ukubukeka, ukuqabuleka, ubungqabavu, umoya, njll., Uphawu lomuntu osemncane".Izincazelo zayo zobubanzi obuthile beminyaka ziyahlukahluka, njengoba intsha ingachazwa ngokulandelana kwesikhathi njengesiteji esingahlanganiswa neminyaka ethile yobudala; futhi iphuzu laso lokugcina alinakuxhunyaniswa nemisebenzi ethile, njengokuthatha umsebenzi ongakhokhelwa noma ukuya ocansini.[2]

Intsha ingokuhlangenwe nakho okungakha izinga lokuncika komuntu, okungamakwa ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene ngokuya ngemibono ehlukene yamasiko.Personal nakho kugcwele nenkambiso yamasiko komuntu noma amasiko, kuyilapho level yentsha ye ukuncika kusho elingakanani benza basathembele zabo umndeni ngokomzwelo futhi kwezomnotho.

Amagama nezincazelo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Abafundi basenyuvesi yase-US benza isigaba sangaphandle, lapho baxoxa khona ngezihloko ngenkathi behamba.
Intsha e-Afghanistan

Jikelele[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Emhlabeni jikelele, amagama esiNgisi athi yintsha, eyeve eshumini nambili, eyeve eshumini nambili, eyengane, nentsha ayashintshaniswa, okuvame ukusho into efanayo, [3]kepha ahlukaniswa ngezikhathi ezithile.Intsha kungabhekiswa kuyo njengesikhathi sempilo lapho umuntu esemncane. Lokhu kufaka ubuntwana, nesikhathi sempilo okungebona ubuntwana noma ukuba mdala, kepha kunalokho phakathi nendawo.[4]Intsha ibuye ikhombe umqondo othile wesimo sengqondo, njengokuthi "He is very young ful".Ukuze uthole ukusebenziswa ezithile, ezifana izibalo umsebenzi, igama elithi futhi ngezinye izikhathi libhekisela kubantu ngabanye kusuka kwengu-14 kuya 21.Kodwa-ke, igama elithi ubusha lisho ibanga elithile leminyaka ngesikhathi esithile sentuthuko empilweni yomuntu, ngokungafani nentsha okuyisigaba esakhiwe ngokwenhlalo.

IZizwe Ezihlangene zichaza intsha njengabantu abaphakathi kweminyaka eyi-15 nengama-24 nazo zonke izibalo ze-UN ezincike kulolu hlu, i-UN ithi imfundo ingumthombo walezi zibalo.I- UN iyabona futhi ukuthi lokhu kuyehluka ngaphandle kokubandlulula kwamanye amaqembu wobudala afakwe ohlwini lwamazwe angamalungu afana no-18-30. Umehluko owusizo ngaphakathi kwe-UN uqobo ungenziwa phakathi kwentsha (okusho leyo eneminyaka ephakathi kuka-13 no-19) nabantu abadala (labo abaphakathi kweminyaka engama-20 nengama-29). Ngenkathi ifuna ukubeka ukufana okuthile ezindleleni zezibalo, i-UN uqobo iyakwazi ukuphikisana phakathi kwezindlela ezimisweni zayo.Ngakho-ke ngaphansi kwencazelo engu-15-24 (eyethulwa ngo-1981) izingane zichazwa njengalezo ezingaphansi kweminyaka engu-14 ngenkathi zingaphansi kweSivumelwano Samalungelo Engane sango-1979, labo abangaphansi kweminyaka engu-18 bathathwa njengezingane.I-UN futhi ithi bayazi ukuthi kunezincazelo eziningana ezikhona ezinganeni ezingaphansi kwezinhlangano ze-UN ezifana ne- Youth Habitat 15-32 ne-African Youth Charter 15-35.

NgoNovemba 11, 2020, uMbuso Duma weRussian Federation wagunyaza iphrojekthi yokwenyusa ikephi eminyakeni yobudala yabantu abasha kusuka eminyakeni engama-30 kuye kwengama-35 (ibanga manje elisukela eminyakeni eyi-14 kuye kwengama-35). [5]

Yize kuxhunyaniswe nezinqubo zebhayoloji zokukhula nokuguga, ubusha buchazwa futhi njengesikhundla senhlalo esibonisa izincazelo amasiko nemiphakathi eyahlukene enikezwa abantu phakathi kobuntwana nokuba mdala.Igama ngokwalo uma kubhekiswe kulo ngendlela yesimo senhlalo lingaba mbumbulu uma lisetshenziswa kothile osemdala onesikhundla esiphansi kakhulu senhlalo; kungenzeka lapho kusencike kubanakekeli babo.Izazi zithi izincazelo ezisuselwa eminyakeni yobudala bezingaguquguquki kumasiko noma ezikhathini ezithile futhi ngenxa yalokho kunembe kakhudlwana ukugxila kuzinqubo zomphakathi ekuguqukeleni kwinkululeko yabantu abadala ekuchazeni intsha.

"Leli zwe lifuna izimfanelo zobusha: hhayi isikhathi sempilo kepha isimo somqondo, umoya wentando, ikhwalithi yomcabango, ubukhulu besibindi kunokwesaba, ukulangazelela ukuzijabulisa ngaphezu kokuphila kalula." - URobert Kennedy

Intsha yisigaba sokwakha umqondo wokuzimela.Umbono wokuzimela wobusha uthonywe okuguqukayo okufana nontanga, indlela yokuphila, ubulili namasiko. [6]Yisikhathi sempilo yomuntu lapho ukukhetha kwakhe kungathinta ikusasa lakhe. [7] [8]

Ezinye izincazelo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-skateboarding yentsha eMexico
Abafundi basePeru baxoxa ngezinkinga zezolimo.

Engxenyeni enkulu ye-Afrika eseningizimu yeSahara, igama elithi "intsha" lihlotshaniswa nezinsizwa ezisukela eminyakeni engu-15 kuya kwengama-30 noma engama-35.Intsha yaseNigeria ifaka wonke amalungu eFederal Republic of Nigeria aneminyaka eyi-18-35.Amantombazane amaningi ase-Afrika abhekana nentsha njengesiphazamiso esifushane phakathi kokuqala kokuthomba nokushada nokuba ngumama.Kepha ezindaweni zasemadolobheni, abesifazane abahlwempu bavame ukubhekwa njengabasha isikhathi eside, noma ngabe bathola izingane ngaphandle komshado.Ngokushintshashintsha ngokwesiko, ukwakhiwa kobulili kwentsha eLatin America naseNingizimu-mpumalanga ye-Asia kwehlukile kokwase-Afrika eseningizimu yeSahara.EVietnam, imibono evamile yentsha iyizakhiwo zenhlalo yabantu bobulili obuphakathi kweminyaka eyi-15 nengama-35. [9]

EBrazil, igama elithi intsha lisho abantu bobulili bobabili abaneminyaka yobudala eyi-15 kuye kwengama-29.Le bracket yobudala ikhombisa ithonya emthethweni waseBrazil wezinhlangano zamazwe omhlaba njengeWorld Health Organisation (WHO).Iphinde yakhiwa ngumqondo wobusha obangena empilweni yansuku zonke eBrazil ngenkulumo ngamalungelo ezingane. [9]

Inhlangano eyehlukene kohulumeni i- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ichaza intsha ngokuthi "yilezo ezineminyaka ephakathi kwengu-15 nengama-29 ubudala". [10]

Umhla ka-12 ku-Agasti wamenyezelwa yiNhlangano Yezizwe ngoSuku Lomhlaba Lwentsha.

Amalungelo abantu abasha[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Amalungelo ezingane ahlanganisa wonke amalungelo angawezingane.Lapho bekhula banikezwa amalungelo amasha (njengokuvota, imvume, ukushayela, njll.) Nemisebenzi (ukuphendula ngobugebengu, njll. ).Kunemikhawulo emincane ehlukene yobudala lapho intsha ingakhululekile, izimele noma inekhono ngokomthetho lokuthatha izinqumo noma ukwenza okuthile.Eminye yale mikhawulo yile: iminyaka yokuvota, iminyaka yokhetho, iminyaka yokuvuma, iminyaka yobuningi, iminyaka yokuba necala lobugebengu, iminyaka yokuphuza, iminyaka yokushayela, njll.Ngemuva kokuthi intsha ifinyelele kule mikhawulo ikhululekile ukuvota, ukuya ocansini, ukuthenga noma ukuphuza iziphuzo ezidakayo noma ukushayela izimoto, njll.

Iminyaka yokuvota[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Iminyaka yokuvota ubuncane beminyaka esungulwe ngumthetho umuntu okufanele ayithole ukuze afanelekele ukuvota okhethweni lomphakathi.Imvamisa, iminyaka isethwe eminyakeni eyi-18; kodwa-ke, iminyaka ephansi njenge-16 futhi ephezulu njenge-21 ikhona (bona uhlu olungezansi).Ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi ama-21% abo bonke abaneminyaka engu-18 abanolwazi lokuvota.Leli yilungelo elibalulekile ngoba, ngokuvota, bangasekela ezombusazwe ezikhethwe yibo hhayi abantu bezizukulwane ezindala kuphela.

Iminyaka yokuzimela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Iminyaka yobandlululo ubuncane beminyaka umuntu angafaneleka ngayo ngokusemthethweni ukuba namahhovisi athile kahulumeni akhethiwe.Ezimweni eziningi, kubuye kunqume iminyaka umuntu angafaneleka ngayo ukumela ukhetho noma anikezwe ukufinyelela kuvoti .

Iminyaka yokuvuma[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Iminyaka yokuvuma yiminyaka lapho umuntu ethathwa njengonelungelo ngokomthetho ukuthi avume ezenzweni zocansi, ngakho-ke ubuncane beminyaka yomuntu ovunyelwe ngokomthetho ukuhlanganyela naye ocansini.Isici esihlukanisayo seminyaka yemithetho yemvume ukuthi umuntu ongaphansi kweminyaka ephansi yobudala uthathwa njengesisulu, nozakwabo wobulili njengomuntu owonile.

Ukuvikela usana[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I ukuvikela usewusana kuwuhlobo ukuzivikela eyaziwa izaba ukuze abamangalelwa abangena ngaphansi kwencazelo " Usana " bayakhishwa kusukela lobugebengu isibopho sezomthetho ngenxa yabo nezenzo, uma ngesikhathi esifanele, ayengakafiki nakufika enkathini umthwalo lobugebengu.Lokhu kusho ukuthi izingane zintula ukwahlulela okuza nobudala kanye nesipiliyoni sokubekwa icala ngobugebengu.Ngemuva kokufinyelela eminyakeni yokuqala, kungahle kube khona amazinga wesibopho ashiwo yiminyaka nohlobo lwecala elenziwe.

Iminyaka yokuphuza[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Iminyaka yokuphuza esemthethweni yiminyaka umuntu angaphuza noma athenge ngayo iziphuzo ezidakayo .Le mithetho ihlanganisa izingqinamba eziningi nezindlela zokuziphatha, ibhekise ukuthi utshwala bungaphuzwa nini futhi kuphi.Ubuncane beminyaka yobudakwa obungasetshenziswa ngokusemthethweni bungahluka kuneminyaka lapho buthengwa kwamanye amazwe.Le mithetho iyehluka phakathi kwamazwe ahlukene futhi imithetho eminingi inokukhululwa noma izimo ezikhethekile. Imithetho eminingi isebenza kuphela ekuphuzeni utshwala ezindaweni zomphakathi, ukusetshenziswa kotshwala ekhaya okungalawulwa kakhulu (okuhlukile ukuthi yi-UK, eneminyaka okungenani emihlanu esemthethweni yokusetshenziswa okugadiwe ezindaweni ezizimele).Amanye amazwe futhi anemikhawulo yeminyaka ehlukene yezinhlobo ezahlukene zeziphuzo ezidakayo.

Iminyaka yokushayela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Iminyaka yokushayela yiminyaka umuntu angafaka ngayo isicelo selayisense yokushayela.Amazwe aneminyaka yobudala ephansi yokushayela (ngaphansi kuka-17) yi-Argentina, Australia, Canada, El Salvador, Iceland, Israel, Estonia, Macedonia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom. (Mainland) nase-United States.Isifundazwe saseCanada i-Alberta kanye nezifundazwe eziningi zase-US zivumela intsha ukuthi ishayele amabanga aphansi njenge-14.INiger inesikhathi esiphakeme kunazo zonke sokushayela emhlabeni eminyakeni engama-23.ENdiya, ukushayela kusemthethweni ngemuva kokuthola ilayisense uneminyaka engu-18.

Iminyaka yokusebenza ngokusemthethweni[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Yomthetho yobudala yokusebenza yobudala evumelekile kudingwa umthetho umuntu emsebenzini ngamunye ezweni noma yomthetho.Umkhawulo wokuba mdala, noma " ubudala beningi " njengoba baziwa noma kumenyezelwa ngokomthetho emazweni amaningi, usethwe uneminyaka engu-18.Ezinye izinhlobo zabasebenzi zivame ukuvinjelwa ngisho nalabo abangaphezu kweminyaka yobudala yokusebenza, uma bengakafiki eminyakeni yobudala.Imisebenzi eyingozi, eyingozi empilweni noma engathinta isimilo sezingane iwela kulesi sigaba.

Amalungelo abafundi emfundweni ephakeme[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Amalungelo abafundi ngalawo malungelo, njengamalungelo omphakathi, omthethosisekelo, awenkontileka nawabathengi, alawula amalungelo nenkululeko yabafundi futhi avumela abafundi ukuthi basebenzise utshalomali lwabo kwezemfundo.Lokhu kufaka phakathi izinto ezinjengelungelo lokukhuluma ngokukhululeka nokuhlangana, ukwenza inqubo efanele, ukulingana, ukuzimela, ukuphepha nobumfihlo, kanye nokuziphendulela kwizivumelwano nokukhangisa, okulawula ukuphathwa kwabafundi ngothisha nabaphathi.

Iminyaka yokubhema[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Iminyaka yokubhema iminyaka ephansi umuntu angayithenga ugwayi kanye / noma ukubhema emphakathini.Amazwe amaningi alawula lo mthetho ezingeni likazwelonke kanti kwesinye isikhathi wenziwa nguhulumeni noma yisifundazwe.

Isikole nemfundo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Abantu abasha basebenzisa iningi lempilo yabo ezimweni zemfundo, futhi amava abo ezikoleni, emakolishi nasemanyuvesi angakha impilo yabo elandelayo.Ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi ubumpofu nemali etholakalayo kuthinta amathuba okuthi kuqedwe isikole esiphakeme.Lezi zinto zikhulisa namathuba okuthi intsha ingayi ekolishi noma enyuvesi. [11]E-United States, amaphesenti ayi-12.3 wabantu abasha abaneminyaka engu-16 kuya kwengu-24 anqanyuliwe, okusho ukuthi abekho esikoleni futhi abasebenza. [12]

Impilo nokufa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Intsha yaseNingizimu Afrika iya emicimbini

Izimbangela ezihamba phambili zokugula nokufa phakathi kwentsha nabantu abadala kungenxa yokuziphatha okuthile okuyingozi engozini.Lokhu kuziphatha kuvame ukusungulwa ngesikhathi sobusha futhi kudlulele ebudaleni.Njengoba izindlela zokubeka engcupheni ebudaleni nasebusheni zihlobene, izinkinga ebudaleni ziyavikeleka ngokuthonya indlela yokuziphatha kwentsha.

Ucwaningo lokufa kwabantu abasha lwango-2004 (oluchazwe kulolu cwaningo njengabantu abaneminyaka eyi-10 kuya kwengu-24) lokufa emhlabeni wonke luthole ukuthi u-97% wabantu abafayo kwenzeka emazweni aphansi kuya kwabangenayo ephakathi, iningi labo liseningizimu-mpumalanga ye-Asia nase-Afrika eseningizimu yeSahara.Lokubhekela impilo yomama zaba 15% abantu ababulawa esifazane khashana -HIV / AIDS kanye nesifo sofuba ababenomthwalo wemfanelo 11% nokufa ; U-14% wabesilisa nabangu-5% wokushona kwabantu besifazane kubangelwe yizingozi zomgwaqo, okuyimbangela enkulu kunazo zonke.Udlame lube yi-12% lokufa kwabantu besilisa. Ukuzibulala kwakuyimbangela yokufa kwabantu abangu-6%. [13]

Izikhungo ze- US zokuLawulwa nokuVinjelwa kwezifo zithuthukise uhlelo lwazo lokuhlola ubungozi bokuziphatha kwabantu abasha (YRBSS) ngo-2003 ukusiza ukuhlola indlela yokuziphatha okuyingozi.I-YRBSS iqaphe izigaba eziyisithupha zokuziphatha okuyingozi kakhulu kwezempilo phakathi kwentsha nasebancane.Lezi yizindlela zokuziphatha ezinomthelela ekulimaleni okungahlosiwe nodlame ;

I-YRBSS ifaka phakathi ucwaningo lukazwelonke olususelwa ezikoleni olwenziwe yiCDC kanye nocwaningo olwenziwe ezikoleni nasemakhaya olwenziwa yizinhlaka zezemfundo nezempilo. [14]

Ukungenelela okwenziwa ezikoleni jikelele okufana nezifundo ezihlelekile zasekilasini, izindlela zokuziphatha, ukudlala indima, nokubeka izinhloso kungasebenza ekuvimbeleni ukusetshenziswa kukagwayi, ukusetshenziswa kotshwala, ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa ezingekho emthethweni, ukungaziphathi kahle kwabantu, nokwenza ngcono ukusebenza komzimba kwabantu abasha. [15]

Ukukhuluphala ngokweqile[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukukhuluphala manje kuthinta ingane eyodwa kwezinhlanu e-United States, futhi yisifo esondla kakhulu sezingane nentsha e-United States.Yize izifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala zivela kaningi kubantu abadala, imiphumela ebalulekile yokukhuluphala kanye nokuphikiswa kwesifo sabantu abadala kwenzeka ezinganeni nasezintweni ezikhuluphele ngokweqile.

Ukucwaswa kubantwana abakhuluphele ngokweqile kuqala zisencane futhi kuyaqhubeka kube sesikhungweni.Izingane ezikhuluphele zingaba zinde kunezontanga ezingakhuluphalako, lapho-ke zikulungele ukubukwa njengezikhulile ngokwedlulele.Ukulindela okungafanele okuvelayo okungaba nomthelela omubi ekuzihlanganiseni kwabo.

Imiphumela eminingi yenhliziyo ebonakalisa ukukhuluphala kokuqala kwabantu abadala yandulelwa yizinto ezingezizo eziqala ebuntwaneni. I-Hyperlipidemia, umfutho wegazi ophakeme , kanye nokubekezelelana okungavamile kwe-glucose kwenzeka ngokuvama okwandayo ezinganeni ezikhuluphele kakhulu nasebusheni. Ubudlelwano bezinto ezinobungozi benhliziyo nemithambo ye-visceral ezimele kumafutha womzimba aphelele abukacaci. I-apnea yokulala, i- pseudotumor cerebri, nesifo sikaBlount zimele imithombo emikhulu yokugula okudinga ukunciphisa isisindo ngokushesha nangokusimama. Yize izinkathi eziningana zobungozi obandayo zivela ebuntwaneni, akucaci ukuthi ukukhuluphala ngokuqala ekuqaleni kobuntwana kunengozi enkulu yokugula kwabantu abadala nokufa. [16]

Ukuqinela abanye[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukuxhashazwa phakathi kwentsha esesikoleni kuya ngokuya kuthathwa njengenkinga ebalulekile ethinta inhlalakahle nokusebenza komphakathi.Ngenkathi inani elithile lokungqubuzana nokuhlukunyezwa kuyinto ejwayelekile ebudlelwaneni bontanga bentsha, ukuxhashazwa kubeka engcupheni enkulu kakhulu ekukhuleni kwentsha enempilo.Incazelo yokuhlukumeza kuvunyelwene kabanzi ngayo ezincwadini ngokuhlukumeza. [17] [18] [19] [20]

Ukuhlukumeza kuvame ukwenzeka ezikoleni

Iningi locwaningo mayelana nokuxhashazwa lwenziwe eYurophu nase-Australia.Ukwehlukahluka okubonakalayo phakathi kwamazwe ekusakazeni kokuxhashazwa kubikiwe.Ocwaningweni lwamazwe omhlaba lokuziphatha okuhlobene nempilo kwentsha, iphesenti labafundi ababike ukuthi bahlukunyezwa okungenani kanye phakathi nesikhathi samanje lisuka kokuphansi okungu-15% kuya ku-20% kwamanye amazwe kuya kuma-70% kokunye. [21] [22]Okukhathaza kakhulu ukuxhashazwa okuvamile, okuchazwa njengokuhlukumeza okwenzeka kanye ngesonto noma ngaphezulu.Ukudlanga kokuxhashazwa okuvamile kubikwa kumabanga omhlaba kusuka kokuphansi okungu-1.9% phakathi kwesampula eyodwa yase-Ireland kuye phezulu ku-19% esifundweni saseMalta. [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]

Ucwaningo oluhlola izici zentsha ebandakanyeka ekuhlukumezeni luhlale luthola ukuthi bobabili abahlukumezi nalabo abahlukunyezwayo bakhombisa ukusebenza kwengqondo empofu kunontanga yabo abangabandakanyeki.Intsha ehlukumeza abanye ijwayele ukukhombisa amazinga aphezulu okuziphatha futhi ingasithandi isikole, kanti intsha ehlukunyezwayo ngokuvamile ikhombisa amazinga aphezulu okungazethembi, ukukhathazeka, ukudangala, isizungu, ukungajabuli, izimpawu zomzimba nezengqondo, nokuzethemba okuphansi .Abesilisa abaxhashazwa bavame nokuba buthakathaka ngokomzimba kunabesilisa ngokujwayelekile.Izifundo ezimbalwa ezihlolisise izici zentsha ezihlukumezayo nezihlukunyezwayo zithole ukuthi laba bantu babonisa ukusebenza kwengqondo okuntenga kakhulu ngokomqondo. [29] [30] [31] [32]

Impilo yezocansi nezepolitiki[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Jikelele[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukusatshalaliswa komhlaba kanye nokugeleza kwamazwe omhlaba kube nemiphumela ebonakalayo ebudlelwaneni bezocansi, ubunikazi, nasezintweni ezibalulekile.Ngemuva kokuhleleka komhlaba okwandayo komhlaba wonke ngaphansi kokubusa okunciphayo kwaseNtshonalanga, ngaphakathi kwemibono yesimanjemanje, impucuko, nezinhlelo zokuthuthukisa umphakathi, izinkulumo ngokulawulwa kwabantu, ' ucansi oluphephile ', kanye ' namalungelo ezocansi '. [33]Izinhlelo zokufundisa ngocansi ezisekelwe ezindleleni ezisuselwa ebufakazini ziyitshe legumbi ekunciphiseni izindlela zokuziphatha ezinobungozi kwezocansi ezisencane nokukhuthaza impilo yezocansi.Ngaphezu kokunikeza imininingwane eyiyo ngemiphumela yezifo ezithathelwana ngocansi noma izifo zocansi kanye nokukhulelwa kwangaphambi kwesikhathi, lezo zinhlelo zakha amakhono empilo okuxhumana nabantu nokwenza izinqumo.Izinhlelo ezinjalo zivame ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni, ezifinyelela enanini elikhulu lentsha ezindaweni lapho amazinga okubhaliswa kwezikole ephezulu kakhulu.Kodwa-ke, njengoba kungeyona yonke intsha esesikoleni, izinhlelo zokufundisa ngocansi nazo seziqalile ukusetshenziswa emitholampilo, ezikhungweni zokuboshwa kwezingane nasezinhlanganweni zomphakathi ezigxile entsheni.Ngokuphawulekile, ezinye izinhlelo zitholwe ukunciphisa imikhuba eyingozi yezocansi lapho isetshenziswa kuzo zombili izilungiselelo zesikole nezomphakathi ngokuguqulwa okuncane kuphela ezifundweni. [34]

IPhilippines[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I- Sangguniang Kabataan ("uMkhandlu Wentsha" ngesiNgisi ), owaziwa kakhulu nge-SK, yayingumkhandlu wentsha ku- barangay (isigodi noma isifunda) ngasinye ePhilippines, ngaphambi kokuthi "imiswe", kepha ayiqediwe, ngaphambi konyaka ka- 2013 ukhetho lwe-barangay .Lo mkhandlu ubumele intsha esukela eminyakeni engu-15 kuya kwengu-17 ubudala ehlale ebarangay yabo okungenani izinyanga eziyisithupha futhi ibhalisele ukuvota.Kwakuyisishayamthetho sentsha sendawo esigodini ngakho-ke sahola uhlelo lwentsha yendawo namaphrojekthi kahulumeni.I-Sangguniang Kabataan yayiyigatsha le-KB noma i- Kabataang Barangay (Village Youth) elaqedwa ngenkathi kumiswa i- Local Government Code ka-1991.

Ezweni Lomhlaba Wonke[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Iningi labantu abasha lihlala emazweni asathuthuka : ngokusho kweZizwe Ezihlangene, emhlabeni jikelele cishe amaphesenti angama-85 abaneminyaka engu-15 kuya kwengama-25 ubudala ahlala emazweni asathuthuka, okuyisibalo esilinganiselwe ukuthi sikhule ngamaphesenti angama-89.5 ngonyaka ka-2025.Ngaphezu kwalokho, leli nani lihluke kakhulu: abanye bahlala ezindaweni zasemakhaya kepha abaningi bahlala emadolobheni agcwele ngokweqile eNdiya, eMongolia nakwezinye izingxenye ze- Asia naseNingizimu Melika, abanye baphila impilo yendabuko emiphakathini yezizwe, kanti abanye babamba iqhaza kumasiko wentsha emhlabeni wonke e- ghetto okuqukethwe.

Impilo eningi yabantu abasha emazweni asathuthuka ichazwa ubuphofu, abanye bahlushwa indlala kanye nokushoda kwamanzi ahlanzekile, kanti ukubandakanyeka ezimpini kuhlomile kuyinto ejwayelekile.Izinkinga zezempilo zigcwele, ikakhulukazi ngenxa yokudlanga kwe- HIV / AIDS ezindaweni ezithile.INhlangano Yezizwe ilinganisela ukuthi abantu abasha abayizigidi ezingama-200 baphila ngobumpofu, abayizigidi eziyi-130 abafundile kanti abayizigidi eziyishumi baphila ne-HIV / AIDS.

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

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