Ukubuyiselwa kwejwabu

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Isibuyisi esivusa imbandezelo esimbili sisetshenziswe kupipi elisokiwe ekubuyiselweni kwejwabu okungelona elokuhlinzwa

Ukubuyiselwa kwesikhumba kuyinqubo yokwandisa isikhumba esithweni sangasese sokwakha kabusha isitho esifana nejwabu, elisuswe ngokusoka noma ukulimala.Ukubuyiselwa kwesikhumba kufezwa ngokuyinhloko ngokwelula isikhumba esisele senhloko yendoda, kepha izindlela zokuhlinza zikhona futhi.Ukubuyiselwa kwakha isithombe sejwabu, kepha izicubu ezikhethekile ezisuswe ngesikhathi sokusoka azikwazi ukubuyiselwa.Ukuvuselelwa kwangempela kwejwabu kusalingwa ngalesi sikhathi.Ezinye izinhlobo zokubuyiselwa zibandakanya ukuvuselelwa okuyingxenye kuphela ezimweni zokusika okuphezulu lapho osokile ezwa khona ukuthi osokile ususe isikhumba esiningi kakhulu nokuthi asikho isikhumba esanele ukuze ama-erections akhululeke. [1]

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Emhlabeni wamaGrikhi namaRoma izitho zangasese eziphelele, kuhlanganisa nejwabu, zazithathwa njengezimpawu zobuhle, ezenhlalakahle, nezobudoda. [2] Emiphakathini yakudala yamaGrikhi neyamaRoma (ngekhulu lesi-8 BC kuya kwelesi-6 leminyaka AD), ukuvezwa kwama-glans kwakuthathwa njengokunyanyezelayo nokungafanele, futhi akuhambisani nenhloso yamaGreki yobunqunu be-gymnastic. [2]Amadoda anamajwabu amafushane ayegqoka i -kynodesme ukuvimbela ukuvezwa.Njengomphumela walolu hlazo emphakathini, indlela yokuqala yokubuyiselwa kwejwabu eyaziwa ngokuthi i- epispasm yayenziwa phakathi kwamaJuda athile eRoma lasendulo (ngekhulu lesi-8 BC kuya kwelesi-5 leminyaka AD). [3]

Ukubuyiselwa kwesikhumba kungumsuka wasendulo futhi kusukela emuva ekubuseni koMbusi waseRoma uTiberius (AD 14-37), lapho izindlela zokuhlinza zazithathwa ukwelula ijwabu labantu abazalwa benesikhumba sejwabu esifushane esingazange simboze i-glans ngokuphelele [2] noma i-glans evezwe ngokuphelele ngenxa yokusoka . [4]Futhi, phakathi neMpi Yezwe II amanye amaJuda aseYurophu afuna ukubuyiselwa kwejwabu ukuze agweme ukushushiswa ngamaNazi.

Amasu angahlinzeki[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukunwetshwa kwezicubu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukubuyiselwa kwejwabu okungasetshenziswanga, okwenziwe ngokunwetshwa kwezicubu, kuyindlela esetshenziswa kakhulu. [5]

Ukunwetshwa kwezicubu kudala kwaziwa ukukhuthaza i- mitosis, kanti ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi izicubu zomuntu ezivuselelwe zinezimpawu zesicubu sokuqala. [6]Ngokungafani namasu ajwayelekile wokunwetshwa kwesikhumba, noma kunjalo, inqubo yokubuyiselwa kwejwabu ngokuhlinzwa ingathatha iminyaka eminingana ukuphothulwa. 

Izindlela namadivayisi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

File:Tugahoy1.jpg
Ukusetshenziswa kwensimbi ejwayelekile yokubuyiselwa, i-TugAhoy, ebizwa ngokuthi 'iphazili yaseChina' ngumqambi wayo.

Ngesikhathi sokubuyiselwa ngokwandiswa kwezicubu, isikhumba se-penile esisele sidonswa phambili phezu kwe-glans, futhi ukungezwani kugcinwa ngesandla noma ngosizo lwento yokubuyiselwa kwejwabu.

Izindlela ezenziwa ngesandla zivame ukusetshenziswa ngamadoda kuqala ukuqala ukubuyiselwa, kepha zingasetshenziswa kunoma yisiphi isigaba senqubo yokubuyisela, futhi zibhekise kusidingo sombuyisi ukuze azigcinele mathupha ukubamba isikhumba ngeminwe esebenzisa enye yezindlela ezahlukahlukene ukubekwa ngomunwe.

Amadivayisi amaningi wokubuyiselwa kwejwabu abamba isikhumba nge- tape noma ngaphandle kwawo nawo ayatholakala kwezentengiso.Ukungezwani okuvela kulawa madivayisi kungasetshenziswa ngezisindo, imichilo enwebeka, noma ukwehla kwamandla emali njengendlela yokusunduza isikhumba siye phambili endondeni, noma ngokuhlanganiswa kwalezi zindlela.

I-T-tape ngentambo yomlenze

Isibonelo sedivayisi esebenzisa izintambo ezinwebeka indlela ye-T-Tape, eyakhiwa ngeminyaka yama-1990s ngomqondo wokuvumela ukubuyiswa kwenzeke ngokushesha okukhulu. 

Izindlela zokwehla kwamandla emali zibandakanya ukuvala indawo ephakathi kwe-glans nesikhumba esidonswe phezu kwayo kusetshenziswa okokuqinisa (okuvame ukusetshenziswa izingono zamabhodlela ezingane), futhi kungagcwala isikhumba noma ibhaluni elibekwe ngaphansi kwesikhumba.

Izinyathelo zokuzivikela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Inani lokungezwani elikhiqizwe nganoma iyiphi indlela kumele lilungiswe ukugwema ukubanga ukulimala, ubuhlungu, noma ukungaphatheki kahle, futhi linikeze umkhawulo ezingeni lapho isikhumba esisha singakhuliswa khona. Kukhona ingozi yezicubu ezilimaza kakhulu ngokusebenzisa ukungezwani okweqile noma ukufaka ingcindezi isikhathi eside kakhulu.Amawebhusayithi mayelana nokubuyiselwa kwejwabu ayahlukahluka ezincomweni zawo, kusukela ekuphakamiseni uhlobo lwemali elinganisene yokuqina olusetshenziswe amahora amaningana ngosuku,kuye ezincomeni zezikhathi zokungezwani okuphezulu okufakwa imizuzu embalwa ngosuku, njengamasu wezandla.

Ukugcina amadivayisi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Esikhundleni sokukhulisa isikhumba esisha noma kuze kube yilapho isikhumba esanele sesikhulile ngokwandiswa kwezicubu, amanye amadoda angakhetha ukusebenzisa okokugcina ukubamba isikhumba esisele, uma sikhona, ngaphezu kwama-glans ngendlela efana ne- kynodesme yasendulo yamaGrikhi.Njengoba i-glans ulwelwesi lwangaphakathi, ekuqaleni luvikelwe ijwabu lize lisuswe ngesikhathi sokusoka, inhloso yokugcina izindlela ukuphindaphinda isembozo esivikelayo se-glans.

Uma inani elanele lesikhumba likhona ukugcina ukumbozwa kwe-glans ngesikhumba se-penile esisele, umuntu angasebenzisa ikhava yokufakelwa etholakalayo ethengiswayo.Izibonelo zokumbozwa okunjalo okufakelwayo zifaka ijwabu lokufakelwa elenziwe nge- latex elimboza izingcwecwe endaweni enomswakama, nesembatho sangaphansi esisonga ipipi ngendwangu ethambile ekabili ehighod "hood" ukunciphisa ukungqubuzana glans.

Izindlela zokuhlinza[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukwakhiwa kabusha kweForeskin[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izindlela zokuhlinza zokubuyiselwa kwejwabu, ezaziwa ngokuthi ukwakhiwa kabusha kwejwabu, imvamisa zibandakanya indlela yokuxhunyelelwa kwesikhumba engxenyeni esekude ye-penile shaft.Isikhumba kuwo ngokuvamile othathwe scrotum, equkethe okufanayo imisipha bushelelezi (eyaziwa ngokuthi dartos fascia ) njengoba enza isikhumba wenduku. Enye indlela ifaka inqubo eneziteji ezine lapho i-penile shaft ingcwatshwa khona esikhwameni isikhathi esithile.Amasu anjalo ayabiza, futhi anamandla okuveza imiphumela engagculisi noma izinkinga ezinkulu ezihlobene nokuxhunyelelwa kwesikhumba.I- frenulum nayo ingakhiwa kabusha. [7]

Isakhamuzi saseBritish Columbia uPaul Tinari wabanjwa phansi wasokwa eneminyaka eyisishiyagalombili kulokho athe "kuyindlela ejwayelekile yokujezisa" ukushaya indlwabu ezikoleni zokuhlala .Ngemuva kwenkantolo ukubuyiselwa kwejwabu likaTinari kwahlanganiswa nguMnyango Wezempilo waseBritish .Udokotela ohlinzayo wepulasitiki owenza ukubuyiselwa kwaba ngowokuqala eCanada ukwenza lo msebenzi, futhi wasebenzisa inqubo efana naleyo echazwe ngenhla. [8] [9]

Ukuvuselelwa kwesikhumba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Kube nentshisekelo ekhulayo emithini yokuvuselela kabusha njengendlela yokuvuselela ijwabu lesilisa lomuntu.Le nketho, ngokungafani nokubuyiselwa kwejwabu, ingaholela ekubuyisweni kabusha kwejwabu lesilisa lomuntu.Amaphayona emkhakheni wemithi yokuzivuselela afaka phakathi uDkt Anthony Atala weWake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM).

Ekuqaleni kuka-2010, Foregen, i-Italian engenzi-nzuzo kuqala ekuhlanganiseni inhlangano esizinikezele ukuthola amaqembu nesithakazelo ucwaningo ngenjongo yokuthandana regrowing iduna womuntu ijwabu usebenzisa amakhono okuzivuselela we -matrix extracellular, e amathemba ekugcineni akwazi ukondla ukuvuselelwa ukuze abantu besilisa abasokile, yasungulwa.Ayikwazi ukwenza kanjalo, u-Foregen ushintshele enhlanganweni engenzi nzuzo, encike eminikelweni yokusiza ukufeza ucwaningo lwayo, ngezikhungo zayo. Isilingo somtholampilo sasihlelelwe ukuphela kuka-2010, ngaphambi kokuthi sishintshele kunhlangano yaso yocwaningo, kepha kwakungekho minikelo eyenele yokuyilandela.Inhloso yafinyelelwa ngoJuni 2012 futhi bakwazile ukuthola ilabhorethri nokubambisana kososayensi bamakhemikhali ezinto eziphilayo kanye nochwepheshe bemithi yokuzivuselela.Imiphumela evela esivivinyweni sabo sokuqala somtholampilo, ukuhlukanisa amajwabu ezinkomo ukudala i-matrix yangaphandle, yakhishwa ngoFebhuwari 2013 futhi kusukela ngoMashi 2018, yayiphothule ukuvivinywa kwejwabu lomuntu, elashicilelwa ngo-2017, futhi lalisendleleni yokubuyekezwa kontanga njengoba wango-2018.Ukuhlolwa kwemitholampilo ezifundweni zabantu kungafinyelelwa ngasekupheleni kuka-2021.

Indlela ehlongozwayo izobandakanya ukubeka isiguli ngaphansi kwe-anesthesia ejwayelekile.Isikhumba se-penile sizovulwa esikhungweni sokusoka, kuyilapho izicubu zesibazi zonakele ngokuhlinzwa.Kuzobe sekusetshenziswa isixazululo se-biomedical kuzo zombili izinhlangothi zesilonda, okwenza ijwabu liphinde livuseleleke ne- DNA kumaseli wesiguli.Isikafula esibolayo esibolayo (okusho ukuthi, ijwabu elingasetshenziswanga le- cadaver ) lizosetshenziselwa ukunikela ukwesekwa kwejwabu elisha kabusha.Ngenkathi izinkundla zomphakathi zisizile engxoxweni yamathuluzi amanje nezithiyo ezibheke kule ndlela,

Ukuvuselelwa kwe-Foreskin kanye ne-penise ekhuliswe elebhu (ukuvuselelwa kwawo wonke umthondo) kungenzeka kungekudala.Ngo-2014, kwamenyezelwa ukuthi kungenzeka kube yiminyaka emihlanu kusukela kusimemezelo sokuqala.Akukacaci ukuthi ukungabi nejwabu elibuyiselwe noma ukumbozwa ngokugcwele kwama-glans kungaphazamisa yini ukufaka iscaffold sejwabu esithweni sangasese nokuvuselelwa okulandelayo.

Ukuvuselelwa kwe-Foreskin kungukuhlola ngalesi sikhathi futhi kusukela ngoNovemba 2020, akukho mithombo yezokwelapha eshicilelwe echaza ukuvuselela ngokuphelele noma ukufaka kabusha ijwabu elisebenzayo.

Imiphumela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izigaba zokubuyiselwa okungasetshenziswanga

Isikhathi esidingekayo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isikhathi esidingekayo ukubuyisa ijwabu kusetshenziswa izindlela ezingezona ezokuhlinzwa sincike enanini lesikhumba esikhona ekuqaleni kwenqubo, izinga lokuzibophezela kwendaba, amasu asetshenzisiwe, izinga lemvelo lomzimba lepulasitiki, nobude bejwabu izifiso zomuntu ngamunye.

Imiphumela yokubuyiselwa kokuhlinzwa iyashesha, kepha ivame ukuchazwa njengamaqembu angagculisi futhi amaningi ayeluleka ngokuhlinzwa.

Izici zomzimba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ijwabu elibuyiswe ngokwengxenye ngemuva kweminyaka emine yokubuyiselwa okungakahlinzwa

Ukubuyiselwa kwakha isithombe se- prepuce, kepha izicubu ezikhethekile ezisuswe ngesikhathi sokusoka azikwazi ukubuyiselwa.Izinqubo zokuhlinza zikhona ukunciphisa usayizi wokuvula lapho ukubuyiselwa sekuqediwe (njengoba kubonisiwe esithombeni ngenhla), noma kungancishiswa ngokuzibophezela okude kumbuso wokunweba isikhumba ukuvumela isikhumba esithe xaxa ukuqoqa ichopho.

Ijwabu lemvelo lakhiwa izicubu zemisipha ezibushelelezi ze-dartos (ezibizwa nge- peripenic muscle [10] ), imithambo yegazi emikhulu, ukubekwa ngaphakathi okukhulu, isikhumba sangaphandle, ne-mucosa yangaphakathi. [11]

Ijwabu lemvelo linezinto ezintathu eziyinhloko, ngaphezu kwemithambo yegazi, izinzwa nezicubu ezixhumene : isikhumba, esidalulwa ngaphandle; ulwelwesi lwamafinyila, okuyindawo ebusweni ethintana nepipi le-glans lapho ipipi liyi-flaccid; nebhande lemisipha ngaphakathi kwesihloko sejwabu.Ngokuvamile, isikhumba sikhula kalula ngokuphendula ukunwebeka kunokwakha ulwelwesi lwamafinyila.Indandatho yemisipha evamise ukubamba ijwabu livaliwe isuswe ngokuphelele kuningi lokusoka futhi ayikwazi ukuphinda ibhalwe kabusha, ngakho-ke ukumbozwa okuvela kuzindlela zokwelula kuvame ukukhululeka kakhulu kunalokho kwejwabu lemvelo.Yize kunjalo, ngokusho kwezinye izingqapheli, kunzima ukuhlukanisa ijwabu elibuyisiwe nejwabu lemvelo ngoba ukubuyiselwa kukhiqiza "isikhuthazo esivela njengokujwayelekile." [12]

Inqubo yokubuyiselwa kwejwabu ifuna ukuvuselela ezinye izicubu ezisuswe ngokusoka, kanye nokuhlinzeka ngembozo yeglans.Ngokuya ngocwaningo, ijwabu liqukethe ngaphezu kwengxenye yesikhumba kanye ne-mucosa yelungu lomuntu. [13]

Kwamanye amadoda, ukubuyiselwa kwejwabu kunganciphisa izinkinga ezithile abazibanga ekusokeni kwabo.Izinkinga ezinjalo zibandakanya ukusikeka okuvelele (i-33%), isikhumba esanele se-penile sokwakhiwa okunethezeka (27%), i-erectile curvature kusuka ekulahlekelweni isikhumba okungalingani (16%), nobuhlungu nokopha lapho kwakhiwa / kuxhashazwa (17%).I-poll ibuye yabuza mayelana nokwaziswa noma ukubandakanyeka ekubuyiselweni kwejwabu futhi kwafakwa isigaba sokuphawula esivulekile.Abaphenduli abaningi namakhosikazi abo "babike ukuthi ukubuyiswa kuxazulule ukoma kwendoda esokiwe okungeyona eyemvelo, okubangele ukuhuzuka, ubuhlungu noma ukopha ngesikhathi sokuya ocansini, nokuthi ukubuyiselwa okunikeza ubumnandi obuhlukile, obukhulisa ukusondelana ngokocansi." [14]Indoda eyodwa ibike ukuthi ilahlekelwe kakhulu yimizwa ku-glans ngoba ijwabu lakhe belingekho. [15]

Izici ezingokomzwelo, ezengqondo nezengqondo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ijwabu elibuyiswe ngokwengxenye ngemuva kweminyaka emine kusetshenziswa idivaysi yokubuyisela engahlinzi

Ukubuyiselwa kwesikhumba kubikwe ukuthi kunemiphumela enenzuzo engokomzwelo kwabanye besilisa, futhi kuhlongozwe njengokwelashwa kwemizwa emibi kwabanye besilisa abadala mayelana nokusokwa kwabo kwezinsana omunye umuntu anqume ukukwenza kubo. [16] [12] [17] [18]

Izinhlangano[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  Kusungulwe amaqembu ahlukahlukene kusukela ngasekupheleni kwekhulu lama-20, ikakhulukazi eNyakatho Melika lapho ukusoka kwenziwe khona njalo ezinganeni.Ngo-1989, iNational Organisation of Restoring Men (NORM) yasungulwa njengeqembu elenza inzuzo elingenzi nzuzo lamadoda enza ukuvuselelwa kwejwabu.Ngo-1991, iqembu le-UNCircumcising Information and Resource Centres (UNCIRC) lasungulwa, [19] elahlanganiswa ne-NORM ngo-1994.Izahluko ze-NORM zisungulwe kulo lonke elase-United States, kanye nase-Canada, e-United Kingdom, e-Australia, e-New Zealand nase-Germany. EFrance, kunezinhlangano ezimbili ngalokhu. I- "Association contre la Mutilation des Enfants" AME (inhlangano elwa nokusikwa kwezingane), futhi muva nje i- "Droit au Corps" (kwesokudla emzimbeni).

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. "Neonatal circumcision". Pediatric Clinics of North America 48 (6): 1539–57. December 2001. doi:10.1016/s0031-3955(05)70390-4. PMID 11732129. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2  
  3. "Celsus' decircumcision operation: medical and historical implications". Urology 16 (1): 121–4. doi:10.1016/0090-4295(80)90354-4. PMID 6994325. 
  4. "Sexology, body image, foreskin restoration, and bisexual status". Journal of Sex Research 28 (1): 145–56. doi:10.1080/00224499109551600. 
  5. "Whole again: the practice of foreskin restoration". CMAJ 183 (18): 2092–3. doi:10.1503/cmaj.109-4009. PMID 22083672. 
  6. "Tissue Expanders". University of Texas Medical Branch Department of Otolaryngology Grand Rounds. 
  7. . February 2015. 
  8. "BC Health Pays to Restore Man's Foreskin". The Tyee. 
  9. "BC man's foreskin op a success". Natl Rev Med 3 (12). 
  10. "The peripenic muscle: some observations on the anatomy of phimosis". Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 23: 177–81. 1916. 
  11. "The prepuce". BJU International 83 (Suppl 1): 34–44. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Uncircumcision: a technique for plastic reconstruction of a prepuce after circumcision". The Journal of Urology 144 (5): 1203–5. November 1990. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(17)39693-3. PMID 2231896. Goodwin WE (November 1990). "Uncircumcision: a technique for plastic reconstruction of a prepuce after circumcision". The Journal of Urology. 144 (5): 1203–5. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(17)39693-3. PMID 2231896. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Goodwin" defined multiple times with different content
  13. "The prepuce: specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision". British Journal of Urology 77 (2): 291–5. February 1996. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.1996.85023.x. PMID 8800902. 
  14. "A preliminary poll of men circumcised in infancy or childhood". BJU International 83 (Suppl 1): 85–92. 
  15. "The Joy of Uncircumcising! Restore Your Birthright and Maximize Sexual Pleasure". BMJ 309 (6955): 676–7. 1994. 
  16. "A technique for foreskin reconstruction and some preliminary results". The Journal of Sex Research 18 (4): 324–30. 2010. doi:10.1080/00224498209551158. JSTOR 3812166. 
  17. "PENILE REFORM". British Journal of Plastic Surgery 16: 287–8. doi:10.1016/S0007-1226(63)80123-X. 
  18. "Male circumcision: pain, trauma and psychosexual sequelae". Journal of Health Psychology 7 (3): 329–43. doi:10.1177/135910530200700310. 
  19. "Uncircumcising: undoing the effects of an ancient practice in a modern world". Mothering: 36–60.