Ukuvuvukala kwesibindi A

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Ukuvuvukala kwesibindi A
Ukuvuvukala kwesibindi AIsifo sejondisi esibangwa ukuvuvukala kwesibindi A
Isifo sejondisi esibangwa ukuvuvukala kwesibindi A
Ukuhlela ngohlobo oluthile kanye nezinsiza zangaphandle
ICD/CIM-10B15 B15
ICD/CIM-9070.0, 070.1 070.0, 070.1
DiseasesDB5757
MedlinePlus000278

I-Hepatitis A (kudala eyayaziwa ngesifo ngokuvuvukala kwesibindi okuthelelanayo) yisifo sibucayi isifo esithelelanayo sesibindi esidalwa ukuvuvukala kwesibindi okwaziwa nge-hepatitis A virus (HAV).[1] Izikhathi eziningi kuba nezimpawu ezincane noma zingabi khona nhlobo ikakhulukazi kulabo abancane.[2] Isikhathi phakathi kokutheleleka nokuvela kwezimpawu, kulabo ababa nazo izimpawu, kuba yisikhathi esiphakathi kwamasonto amabili nayisithupha.[3] Uma izimpawu zikhona zivamise ukubonakala kuze kuphele amasonto ayisishiyagalombili kanti kungabandakanya lezi: ukucanuzelelwa yinhliziyo, ukuphalaza, ukukhishwa yisisu, isikhumba esiphuzi, umkhuhlane, kanye nokuphathwa yiqolo.[2] Bangalinganiselwa phakathi kuka-10 -15% abantu abangaba nezimpawu ezifanayo esikhathini esiyizinyanga eziyisithupha emva kokutheleleka kokuqala.[2] Ukuhluleka kwesibindi okubucayi akuvamisile ukwenzeka kuvamise kakhulu kubantu abadala.[2]

Imvamisa sisatshalaliswa ukudla noma ukuphuza okuphuzwayo noma amanzi angcolile anamakaka athelelekile.[2] I-Shellfish engaphekiwe yavuthwa kahle ivamise ukuba yiyona mbangela ejwayelekile.[4] Ingaphinde isabalale ngokusondelana eduze nomuntu othelelekile.[2] Njengoba isikhathi esiningi izingane zingavamisile ukuba nezimpawu ezibonakalayo uma zithelelekile nazo ziyakwazi kodwa ukuthelela abanaye.[2] Emva kokutheleleka kanye umuntu akabe esatheleleka impilo yakhe yonke.[5] Ukuxilongwa kudinga ukuthi kuthathwe igazi ngoba izimpawu ziyafana nezinye zezinye izifo eziningi.[2] Ingeyodwa yamagciwane aziwayo e-hepatitis: A, B, C, D, kanye ne- E.

Umjovo wokugomela i-hepatitis A isivikeli esisebenzayo.[2][6] Amanye amazwe ancoma ukuthi kwenziwe kuzo zonke izingane kanye nalabo abasengcupheni kakhulu abangakaze bajovelwe ukugomela lesi sifo.[2][7] Kubonakala kusebenza isikhathi eside.[2] Ezinye izindlela zokuvikela zibandakanya ukugeza izandla kanye nokupheka ukudla kuvuthwe kahle.[2] Akukho okwelapha okuqondene ngqo, kunconywa ukuphumula nemithi yokucanuzelelwa yinhliziyo noma ukukhishwa yisiu uma kunesidingo.[2]

Emhlabeni jikelele kuba khona izimpawu ezingaba izigidi eziyi-1.5 ezibonakala unyaka nonyaka[2] okungaba izigidi ezingamashumi amaningi ezithelelekile kuzo zonke.[8]Kuvamise kakhulu ezifundeni ezisendaweni ezingenazo izinsiza zokuthuthwa kwendle nalezi ezingenawo amanzi ahlanzekile.[7] Emhlabeni osathuthuka zilinganiselwa ku-90% izingane ezithelelekayo uma zineminyaka e-10 yobudala bese lokho kwenza ukuthi zingabe zisatheleleka uma sezindala.[7] Kuvamise ukuqubuka emazweni asemaphakathi nentuthuko lapho izingane zingalitholi leli gciwane ngenkathi zisencane kuphinde futhi kungabi khona mijovo yemigomo ekhishwayo.[7] Ngonyaka wezi-2010, i-hepatitis A ebucayi yabulala abantu abayi-102,000.[9] Usuku lomhlaba lwe-Hepatitis lugujwa njalo unyaka nonyaka mhla zingama-28 kuNtulikazi ukuze kuxwayiswe abantu ngegciwane lokuvuvukalelwa yinhliziyo elaziwa nge-hepatitis.[7]

Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 541–4. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Matheny, SC; Kingery, JE (1 December 2012). "Hepatitis A.". Am Fam Physician 86 (11): 1027–34; quiz 1010–2. PMID 23198670. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1027.html. 
  3. Connor BA (2005). "Hepatitis A vaccine in the last-minute traveler". Am. J. Med. 118 (Suppl 10A): 58S–62S. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.07.018. PMID 16271543. 
  4. Bellou, M.; Kokkinos, P.; Vantarakis, A. (March 2013). "Shellfish-borne viral outbreaks: a systematic review.". Food Environ Virol 5 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1007/s12560-012-9097-6. PMID 23412719. 
  5. The Encyclopedia of Hepatitis and Other Liver Diseases. Infobase. 2006. p. 105. ISBN 9780816069903. http://books.google.ca/books?id=HfPU99jIfboC&pg=PA105. 
  6. Irving, GJ.; Holden, J.; Yang, R.; Pope, D. (2012). "Hepatitis A immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis A.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7: CD009051. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009051.pub2. PMID 22786522. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 "Hepatitis A Fact sheet N°328". World Health Organization. July 2013. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs328/en/. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  8. Wasley, A; Fiore, A; Bell, BP (2006). "Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination.". Epidemiol Rev 28: 101–11. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxj012. PMID 16775039. http://epirev.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/1/101.long. 
  9. Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.