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Ukwabiwa kwamasiko Akulungile

Mayelana Wikipedia

Ukwabiwa kwamasiko ukungahloniphi isici noma izici zesiko noma ubuwena kumalunga avela kwelinye isiko noma ubuwena. [1] Lokhu kwnzeka kakhulukazi kumalunga wamasiko abusayo kumanye amasiko amancane . [2] Ngokwabagxeki balo mkhuba, ukwabiwa kwamasiko kuyahluka ekwandiseni, ukufana, noma ukushintshana kwamasiko okulinganayo ngoba lokhu kusetshenziswa kuyindlela yobukoloniyali . Lapho izici zamasiko zikopishwa zisuka esikweni elincane ngamalungu esiko, futhi lezi zici zisetshenziswa ngaphandle kwengqikithi yazo yamasiko yasekuqaleni - ngezinye izikhathi ngisho ngokumelene nezifiso ezishiwo ngokucacile zamalungu esiko lendabuko - umkhuba uvame ukutholwa kabi

Ukwabiwa kwamasiko kuvezwe ngengobungozi kumaqembu amaningi ahlukile, kuhlanganisa abantu boMdabu abasebenzela ukulondolozwa kwamasiko, labo abamele amalungelo empahla yengqondo eyiqoqo lamasiko adabuka, amancane,   kanye nalabo abake baphila noma abaphila ngaphansi kombuso wamakoloni. [2] [3] Ukwaviwa kwamasiko kungabandakanya ukuxhaphaza amanye amasiko enkolo namasiko, izinyathelo zokudansa, imfashini, izimpawu, ulimi kanye nemiculo. amasiko awamelene noshintsho, ukucwasa amanye amasiko kuveza ukuyhi wena awuzimisele ngokufuna ukwazi amanye amasiko.

Labo ababona lokhu njengokuxhaphaza amasiko kusho ukuthi izici zamasiko ziyalahleka noma zihlanekezelwe lapho zisuswa khona ezimeni zazo zamasiko eziyindabuko, nokuthi ukubukisa okunjalo kuwukungahloniphi noma kuwuhlobo lokudelela. Izici zesiko ezingase zibe nencazelo ejulile yesiko lokuqala zingancishiswa zibe "imfashini" engavamile noma amathoyizi yilawo amasiko abusayo. [4] U-Kjerstin Johnson ubhale ukuthi, uma lokhu sekwenziwe, umlingisi, "ongaboni ukuthi ukucindezelwa uyakwazi 'ukudlala', okwesikhashana, okunye 'okungavamile', ngaphandle kokubhekana nanoma yikuphi ukucwaswa kwansuku zonke amanye amasiko abhekana nakho". [5] Isifundiswa saseMelika esimnyama, umculi kanye nentatheli u-Greg Tate waphikisa ngokuthi ukwabiwa kanye "nokukhohlisa" kwamasiko, empeleni, kuhlukanisa labo amasiko abo asetshenziswayo. [6]

Umqondo wokwabiwa kwamasiko ubhekane nokokugxekwa okukhulu kanye nenkulumo-mpikiswano. Abantu abagxekayo bayaqaphela ukuthi lo mbono uvamise ukuqondwa kabi noma usetshenziswe kabi ngumuntu wonke, nokuthi amacala "okwabiwa ngokwesiko" kwesinye isikhathi asetshenziswa kabi njengokudla kwesiko elihlukile noma ukufunda ngamasiko ahlukene, ubenalo ulwazi oluphusile ngamanye amasiko. Abantu abaningi bathi isenzo sokwabiwa kwesiko njengoba sichazwa ngokuvamile asihlanganisi ukulimala noma ukuhlukumeza komphakathi, noma igama alinakho ukuhambisana komqondo. Ukwengeza, leli gama lingabeka imingcele engenamthetho enkululekweni yobuhlakani, ukuziveza kwamaciko, liqinise ukuhlukana kwamaqembu, noma likhuthaze umuzwa wobutha noma wokukhononda esikhundleni senkululeko. [7] [8] 

Uhlolojikelele[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Indoda yaseCossack egqoke i- chocha, ingubo yamaCossacks eyabiwe kubantu bomdabu baseCaucasus kanye nezinye izici zamasiko

Ukwabiwa kwamasiko kungabandakanya ukusetshenziswa kwemibono, izimpawu,izinto zobuciko, noma ezinye izici zesiko elibonakalayo elenziwe umuntu noma elingabonwa. Njengomqondo onempikiswano ekusetshenzisweni kwawo, ukufaneleka kokwabiwa kwamasiko kube yinkulumo-mpikiswano enkulu. Abamelene nokwabiwa kwezamasiko babheka izimo eziningi njengokwabiwa okungalungile lapho isiko lesifundo kuyisiko elincane noma lingaphansi kwesimo senhlalo, sezombangazwe, sezomnotho, noma sezempi kusiko elibusayo noma uma kunezinye izindaba ezihilelekile, njengomlando. yokungqubuzana kobuhlanga noma ngokobuhlanga . U-Linda Martín Alcoff ubhala ukuthi lokhu kuvame ukubonakala kubantu abangaphandle kwamasiko abasebenzisa izimpawu zesiko elicindezelwe noma ezinye izici zamasiko, njengomculo, umdanso, imikhosi kamoya, izindlela zokugqoka, inkulumo, kanye nokuziphatha komphakathi lapho lezi zici zithathwa kalula futhi zisetshenziselwa imfashini, kunokuba ihlonishwe ngaphakathi komongo wayo wamasiko wasekuqaleni. Abamelene nabo babheka izindaba zobukholoniyali, umongo, kanye nomehluko phakathi kokwabiwa nokuhwebelana njengokubalulekile ekuhlaziyeni ukwabiwa kwamasiko. Baphikisa ngokuthi ukushintshana kwenzeka "nasendaweni yokudlala imbala", kuyilapho ukwaba kuhilela izingcezu zesiko elicindezelwe elikhishwa engqikithini yabantu ababekade becindezela labo abasuka kubo, futhi abangenawo umongo wamasiko ukuze bawuqonde kahle, hlonipha, noma sebenzisa lezi zici. [9]

Omunye umbono wokwabiwa kwezamasiko ukuthi ukucela ukuba kugxekwe "kuyiphrojekthi ejulile yokugcinwa kwemvelo", naphezu kwezimpande eziqhubekayo, ukuthi "okokuqala ifuna ukulondoloza ku-formaldehyde okuqukethwe kwesiko elisungulwe futhi okwesibili izama [ukuvimbela] abanye ukuthi baxhumane nalelo. isiko". Isibonelo, ifilimu i -Star Wars isebenzise izici ezivela ku -Akira Kurosawa ethi The Hidden Fortress, yona ngokwayo esebenzise izici ezivela ku -Shakespeare ; isiko ku-aggregate ngokungangabazeki ingcono esimweni ngasinye sokwabiwa. Ukuhlangana phakathi kwamasiko kukhiqize ukudla okufana ne -American Chinese cuisine, i-sushi yesimanje yaseJapani, kanye ne -bánh mì, ngakunye kwesinye isikhathi okuphikiswana ngakho ukuthi kukhombisa ingxenye yobunikazi bamasiko akhona. [10]

  1. Baker, KaDeidra. Indigenous Appropriation and Protection Provided by Intellectual Property Law. North Carolina Central University School of Law. https://archives.law.nccu.edu/siplr/vol11/iss1/4. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Fourmile, Henrietta (1996). "Making things work: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Involvement in Bioregional Planning" in Approaches to bioregional planning. Part 2. Background Papers to the conference; 30 October – 1 November 1995, Melbourne; Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories. Canberra. pp. 268–269: "The [western] intellectual property rights system and the (mis)appropriation of Indigenous knowledge without the prior knowledge and consent of Indigenous peoples evoke feelings of anger, or being cheated"
  3. Rainforest Aboriginal Network (1993) Julayinbul: Aboriginal Intellectual and Cultural Property Definitions, Ownership and Strategies for Protection. Rainforest Aboriginal Network. Cairns. Page 65.
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