Umalaleveva

From Wikipedia
Umalaleveva
UmalalevevaI-plasmodium esematheni kamasikido wesifazane ehamba ezicubini zikamasikido.
I-plasmodium esematheni kamasikido wesifazane ehamba ezicubini zikamasikido.
Ukuhlela ngohlobo oluthile kanye nezinsiza zangaphandle
ICD/CIM-10 B50-B54 B50-B54
ICD/CIM-9 084 084
OMIM 248310
DiseasesDB 7728
MedlinePlus 000621

Umalaleveva isifo esithelelanayo esithwalwa omasikido esiphatha abantu kanye nezinye izilwane esibangelwa ukucinzwa umasikido protozoans (uhlobo lwesicubu esisodwa i-microorganism) sohlobo lwe-Plasmodium.[1] Umalaleveva ubanga izimpawu ezibandakanya umkhuhlane, ukutubeka, ukuphalaza kanye nokuphathwa yikhanda. Uma kukubi kakhulu kungabangela isikhumba esiphuzi, ukuxhuzula, i-coma noma ukufa.[2] Lezi zimpawu zivamise ukuqala ezinsukwini ezilishumi kuya kwezilishumi nanhlanu emva kokuncinzwa umasikido.Kulabo abangalashwanga kahle isifo singaphinde sibuye emva kwezinyanga.[1] Kulabo abasindile ekuthelelekeni, uma uphinda utheleleka kuvamise ukuba nezimpawu ezincane. Lokhu kuvimbeleka kwesikhashana kuyaphela emva kwezinyanga noma iminyaka uma ungaphindanga waba sendaweni engaba nomalaleveva.[2]

Imvamisa, isifo sihanjiswa ukuncizwa umasikido wesifazane onesifo owaziwa nge-Anopheles. Lokhu kuncizwa kungenisa izilwane eziphila ngegazi ezisuka ematheni kamasikido ziye kumuntuegazini.[1] Izilwane eziphila ngegazi zibe seziya esibindini lapho ezifike zikhule khona zizalane zande. Izinhlobo ezinhlanu ze-Plasmodium zingathelela abantu baphinde bazisabalalise.[2] Ukufa imvamisa kubangelwa P. falciparum ne P. vivax, P. ovale, kanye P. malariae okujwayele ukubangela umalaleveva ongenawo amandla kakhulu.[1][2] Lezi zilwanyana P. knowlesi azivamisile ukubanga isifo kubantu.[1] Umalaleveva uvamise ukuxilongwa ngokuhlola ngezipopolo kwegazi kusetshenziswa amafilimu egazi, noma nge-antigen- ukuhlola okusheshayo.[2] izindlela ezisebenzisa i-polymerase chain reaction ukuze kutholakale izilwanyana eziphila ngegazi DNA isisunguliwe, kodwa azikasetshenziswa ezindaweni ezinomalaleveva ojwayele ngenxa yezindleko zayo kanye nokuba nzima kwayo.[3]

Ubungozi besifo bungancipha ngokuvimbela ukuncinzwa omasikido ngokusebenzisa inethi yomasikido kanye nemithi exosha izilwanyana, noma ngezindlela zokulawula omasikido ezifana nokufutha imithi ebulala izilwanyana kanye nokumoma amanzi amile.[2] Imithi eminingi ikhona yokuvikela umalaleveva kulabo abavakashayo ezindaweni ezijwayele ukuba nalesi sifo. Ukuphuza umuthi ngezikhathi ezithile sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine kuyadingeka ezinganeni kanye nasemva kwezinyanga ezintathu zokuqala uma ukhulelwe ezindaweni ezinesibalo esiphezulu samalaleveva. Yize isidingo sikhona, awukho umuthi okhona, kodwa-ke kusenziwa imizamo yokuwuthola.[1] Ukwelashwa okunconywayo kokwelapha umalaleveva ukuhlanganisa imithi elwisana nomalaleveva ebandakanya artemisinin.[1][2] Umuthi wesibili kungaba yi mefloquine, lumefantrine, noma i-sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.[4] Quinine ndawonye ne doxycycline ingasetshenziswa uma i-artemisinin ingatholakali.[4] Kunconywa ukuthi ezindweni lapho isifo sivamise khona, umalaleveva uqinisekisiwe ukuthi ukhona ngaphambi kokuthi uqale nokwelashwa ngenxa yokunyuka kokungasebenzi komuthi.Ukungazweli sekuvamile emithini eminingi; isibonelo, ukungazweli kwe-chloroquine P. falciparum sekusabalale cishe izindawo eziningi ezinomalaleveva, kanti nokungazweli kwe-artemisinin sekube yinkinga kwezinye izingxenye ze-Asia eseNingizimumpumalanga .[1]

Isifo sisabalele ezifundeni ezizungeze i-equator|zizungeze i-equator tropical kanye nezifunda eziphakathi kwe-equator ne-temperate subtropical ezikhona emhlabeni jikelele ezizungeze equator.[2] Lokhu kubandakanya eziningi Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, kanye Latin America. Inhlangano yezeMpilo yoMhlaba ilinganisa ukuthi ngonyaka wezi-2012, kwaba khona abantu abayi-207 wezigidi ababenomalaleveva. Ngalowo nyaka, isifo kulinganiselwa ukuthi sabulala abantu abaphakathi kuka-473,000 no-789,000, abaningi babo kwakuyizingane zase-Afrika.[1] Umalaleveva ujwayele ukuhlanganiswa nenhlupheko kanti futhi unomthelela omubi ekuthuthukeni komnotho.[5][6] E-Africa kulinganiselwa ukuthi balahlekelwa $12 wezigidigidi zase-USD ngonyaka ngenxa yokunyuka kwezindleko zokunakekelwa kwezempilo, ukungakwazi ukusebenza kanye nomthelela kwezokuvakasha.[7]

Amareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Malaria Fact sheet N°94". March 2014. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Caraballo, Hector (May 2014). "Emergency Department Management Of Mosquito-Borne Illness: Malaria, Dengue, And West Nile Virus". Emergency Medicine Practice 16 (5). http://www.ebmedicine.net/topics.php?paction=showTopic&topic_id=405. 
  3. Nadjm B, Behrens RH (2012). "Malaria: An update for physicians". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 26 (2): 243–59. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2012.03.010. PMID 22632637. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Organization, World Health (2010). Guidelines for the treatment of malaria (2nd ed. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. ix. ISBN 9789241547925. 
  5. Gollin D, Zimmermann C (August 2007). Malaria: Disease Impacts and Long-Run Income Differences (PDF) (Report). Institute for the Study of Labor. 
  6. Worrall E, Basu S, Hanson K (2005). "Is malaria a disease of poverty? A review of the literature". Tropical Health and Medicine 10 (10): 1047–59. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01476.x. PMID 16185240.  open access publication - free to read
  7. Greenwood BM, Bojang K, Whitty CJ, Targett GA (2005). "Malaria". Lancet 365 (9469): 1487–98. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66420-3. PMID 15850634.