WP:IPA for Spanish
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See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.
Notes[hlela | Hlela umthombo]
- Other than in loanwords (e.g. hámster; hachís; hawaiano), the letter ‹h› is always silent in Spanish except in a few dialects that retain it as Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink (halar / jalar; Sáhara).
- /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are fricatives or approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts Template:Harvcol.
- In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, /ʎ/ has merged into Template:IPAslink; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink. See yeísmo and Template:Harvcoltxt for more information.
- The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only /n/ occurs.
- The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with Template:IPAblink occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, before consonants, and word-finally; Template:IPAblink is found elsewhere.
- In Latin America, Canary Islands and some regions in Andalusia /θ/ has merged into Template:IPAslink. See seseo and Template:Harvcoltxt for more information.
- [x] is pronounced Template:IPAblink in many dialects, in Andalusia, Canary Islands, and most of Latin America; like ham.
- Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
- In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
- The Spanish /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- The Spanish /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- In Spanish, the semivowels Template:IPAblink and Template:IPAblink can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs though; e.g. aire, rey, auto, are transcribed with Template:IPAslink and Template:IPAslink.
- Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /ɡ/; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].
- "Grapheme h". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española.
See also[hlela | Hlela umthombo]
References[hlela | Hlela umthombo]
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255-259
[hlela | Hlela umthombo]
- Animations and video demonstrations of the IPA for Spanish by The Departments of Spanish and Portuguese, German, Speech Pathology and Audiology, and Academic Technologies at the University of Iowa.