Wikipedia:IPA for Spanish

Mayelana Wikipedia

Template:IPAkeys The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

IPA Examples English approximation
Template:IPAlink bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia best
Template:IPAlink bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva [1] between baby and bevy
Template:IPAlink dedo; cuando; aldaba dead
Template:IPAlink diva; arder; admirar [1] this
Template:IPAlink fase; café face
Template:IPAlink gato; lengua; guerra got
Template:IPAlink trigo; amargo; sigue; signo [1] between a light go and ahold
Template:IPAlink ayuno; poyo [1] as in yes or
between beige and due in RP English
Template:IPAlink caña; laca; quise; kilo scan
Template:IPAlink lino; alhaja; principal lean
Template:IPAlink llave; pollo [2] roughly like million (merged with Template:IPAslink in
most dialects)
Template:IPAlink madre; comer; campo; convertir [3] mother
Template:IPAlink nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum [3] need
Template:IPAlink ñandú; cabaña; enyesar [3] roughly like canyon
Template:IPAlink cinco; venga; conquista [3] sink
Template:IPAlink pozo; topo spouse
Template:IPAlink rumbo; carro; honra; subrayo; amor [4] trilled r
Template:IPAlink caro; bravo; amor eterno [4] ladder in American English
Template:IPAlink saco; casa; deshora; espita xenón sack
Template:IPAlink cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz [5] thing (in Peninsular Spanish only;
elsewhere, merged with Template:IPAslink)
Template:IPAlink tamiz; átomo stand
Template:IPAlink chubasco; acechar choose
Template:IPAlink jamón; eje; reloj general; México loch[6]
Template:IPAlink isla; mismo; deshuesar [7] prison
Marginal phonemes
IPA Examples English approximation
Template:IPAlink Kirchner; Xelajú; sherpa; show [8] shack
Template:IPAlink tlapalería; cenzontle; Popocatépetl somewhat like cattle
Template:IPAlink Ertzaintza; abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats
IPA Examples English approximation
Template:IPAlink azahar father
Template:IPAlink vehemente play (Yorkshire dialect)[9]
Template:IPAlink dimitir; mío; y see
Template:IPAlink boscoso coat (Yorkshire dialect)[10]
Template:IPAlink cucurucho; dúo food
IPA Examples English approximation
Template:IPAlink aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad you
Template:IPAlink cuadro; fuego; Huila[12] arduo wine
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
Template:IPAlink ciudad [θjuˈðað] / [sjuˈðað] domain
. mío [ˈmi.o] moai
Other than in loanwords (e.g. hámster; hachís; hawaiano), the letter ‹h› is always silent in Spanish except in a few dialects that retain it as Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink (halar / jalar; hara).[13]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are fricatives or approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts Template:Harvcol.
  2. In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, /ʎ/ has merged into Template:IPAslink; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink. See yeísmo and Template:Harvcoltxt for more information.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only /n/ occurs.
  4. 4.0 4.1 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with Template:IPAblink occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, before consonants, and word-finally; Template:IPAblink is found elsewhere.
  5. In Latin America, Canary Islands and some regions in Andalusia /θ/ has merged into Template:IPAslink. See seseo and Template:Harvcoltxt for more information.
  6. [x] is pronounced Template:IPAblink in many dialects, in Andalusia, Canary Islands, and most of Latin America; like ham.
  7. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  8. In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  9. The Spanish /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  10. The Spanish /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  11. In Spanish, the semivowels Template:IPAblink and Template:IPAblink can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs though; e.g. aire, rey, auto, are transcribed with Template:IPAslink and Template:IPAslink.
  12. Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /ɡ/; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].
  13. "Grapheme h". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española.

See also[Hlela umthombo]

References[Hlela umthombo]

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255-259 

External links[Hlela umthombo]

Template:External links