Imali

Mayelana Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Isithombe sesampula sekhadi le-ATM eliqanjiwe. Ingxenye enkulu kunazo zonke yemali yomhlaba ikhona kuphela njengezinombolo zokubalwa kwemali ezidluliswa phakathi kwamakhompyutha wezezimali. Amakhadi epulasitiki ahlukahlukene namanye amadivayisi anika abathengi ngamunye amandla okudlulisela leyo mali ngekhompyutha baye noma babuyele kuma-akhawunti abo asebhange, ngaphandle kokusebenzisa imali.
Ngo-1786 uJames Gillray caricature, izikhwama zemali eziningi ezanikezwa uKing George III zaqhathaniswa nesinxibi esanqunywa imilenze nezingalo, ekhoneni elingakwesobunxele

Imali iyiphi into noma irekhodi aqinisekiswe olwamukelwa njengoba ukukhokhelwa ngoba izimpahla namasevisi kanye ukubuyiswa kwemali of izikweletu, ezifana izintela, ezweni elithile noma izimo zenhlalo yomphakathi nezomnotho umongo.Imisebenzi esemqoka yemali ihlukaniswa njenge: indlela yokushintshanisa, iyunithi ye-akhawunti, isitolo senani futhi kwesinye isikhathi, izinga lokukhokha elihlehlisiwe .Noma iyiphi into noma irekhodi eliqinisekisiwe eligcwalisa le misebenzi lingathathwa njengemali.

Izici[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukufeza imisebenzi yayo ehlukahlukene, imali kufanele ibe nezakhiwo ezithile:

  • Ukubonakala : izingxenye zayo ngazinye kufanele zikwazi ukufaka ngokuvumelana (okungukuthi, ukushintshana).
  • Ukuqina : uyakwazi ukumelana nokusetshenziswa okuphindaphindiwe.
  • Ukuhlukaniswa: kuhlukaniswa ngamayunithi amancane.
  • Ukuphatheka: kuthwalwa kalula futhi kuthuthwe.
  • Ukwaziwa: inani layo kufanele likhonjwe kalula.
  • Ukushoda: ukutholakala kwayo ekusakazeni kufanele kukhawulelwe.

Ukunikezwa kwemali[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IMoney Base, iM1 neM2 eMelika kusuka ngo-1981 kuya ku-2012
Ukuphrinta imali yamaphepha kumshini wokunyathelisa ePerm
Umuntu ubala inqwaba yamaphepha emali aseSweden ahlukile.

Ukudalwa kwemali[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Kuzinhlelo zamanje zezomnotho, imali idalwa ngezinqubo ezimbili:

Ithenda yezomthetho, noma imali encane (M0) yimali eyenziwe yiCentral Bank ngokudweba izinhlamvu zemali nokuphrinta imali engamaphepha.

Imali yasebhange, noma imali ebanzi (M1 / M2) yimali eyenziwe ngamabhange azimele ngokuqoshwa kwemali mboleko njengamadiphozi amaklayenti abolekayo, ngokuxhaswa okuyingxenye okukhonjiswe isilinganiso semali.Njengamanje, imali yasebhange yenziwa njengemali ye-elektroniki.

Emazweni amaningi, iningi lemali lenziwa kakhulu njenge-M1 / M2 ngamabhange ezentengiselwano enza imalimboleko.Ngokuphikisana neminye imibono eyiphutha ethandwayo, amabhange awasebenzi nje njengabalamuli, abolekisa ngamadiphozithi awagcina kuwo, futhi awancikile emalini yasebhange emaphakathi (M0) ukwenza imali mboleko entsha kanye nemali efakwa.

Ukuthengiswa kwemali emakethe[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

"Ukuthengiswa kwemali emakethe" kuchaza ukuthi into ingathengiswa kalula kanjani ngenye into, noma ibe yimali efanayo ngaphakathi komnotho.Imali iyimpahla ewuketshezi kakhulu ngoba yaziwa emhlabeni wonke futhi yamukelwa njengemali ejwayelekile.Ngale ndlela, imali inika abathengi inkululeko yokuhweba izimpahla nezinsizakalo kalula ngaphandle kokuhwebelana.

Okokusebenza kwezezimali okungamanzi kuyathengiseka kalula futhi kunezindleko zokuthenga eziphansi.Akufanele kube khona ukusabalalisa (noma okuncane) phakathi kwamanani ukuthenga nokuthengisa ithuluzi elisetshenziswa njengemali.

Izinhlobo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Impahla[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umbusi wegolide waseBrithani u-1914

Ummeleli[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngo-1875, isazi sezomnotho saseBrithani uWilliam Stanley Jevons wachaza imali eyayisetshenziswa ngaleso sikhathi njenge " mali emele ".Imali emele imali equkethe izinhlamvu zemali zamathokheni, imali yamaphepha noma amanye amathokheni aphathekayo njengezitifiketi, angashintshelwa ngokuthembekile ngenani elinqunyiwe lezimpahla ezifana negolide noma isiliva. Inani lemali emele limi maqondana ngqo futhi elingaguquki nempahla elisekelayo, kuyilapho lingelona uqobo lwalo lakhiwa leyo mpahla.

Fiat[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izinhlamvu zemali zegolide ziyisibonelo sethenda elisemthethweni elithengiswa ngenani lalo elingaphakathi, kunokuba libe yinani lobuso balo.

Imali ye-Fiat noma imali ye-fiat yimali enenani elingasuselwa kunoma yiliphi inani elingaphakathi noma isiqinisekiso sokuthi lingaguqulwa libe impahla ebalulekile (njengegolide).Esikhundleni salokho, inenani kuphela nge-oda likahulumeni (fiat).Imvamisa, uhulumeni umemezela ukuthi imali ye-fiat (imanothi ejwayelekile kanye nezinhlamvu zemali ezivela ebhange elikhulu, njengeFederal Reserve System e-US) iyithenda elisemthethweni, okwenza kungabi semthethweni ukungayemukeli imali ye-fiat njengendlela yokukhokha zonke izikweletu, yomphakathi neyangasese. [1]

Ezinye izinhlamvu zemali ezifana ne- Australian Gold Nugget ne- American Eagle ziyithenda elisemthethweni, kepha, zidayisa ngokususelwa enanini lentengo lokuqukethwe kwensimbi njengempahla, kunenani lobuso bethenda elisemthethweni (okuvamise ukuba yingxenyana encane yabo inani le-bullion). [2]

Imali ye-Fiat, uma imelwe ngokomzimba ngendlela yemali (iphepha noma izinhlamvu zemali), ingalimala ngephutha noma icekelwe phansi.Kodwa-ke, imali ye-fiat inenzuzo ngaphezu kwemali emele noma yempahla, ngoba leyo mithetho efanayo eyenze imali ingachaza nemithetho yokuyishintsha uma kwenzeka umonakalo noma umonakalo. Isibonelo, uhulumeni wase-US uzothatha isikhundla seFederal Reserve Notes (imali ye-US fiat) uma okungenani uhhafu wenothi ungakhiwa kabusha, noma uma kungafakazelwa ngenye indlela ukuthi ubhujisiwe. [3]Ngokuphambene, imali yempahla elahlekile noma eyonakalisiwe ayinakutholwa.

Imali ehlwezi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Lezi zinto zaholela ekushintsheni kwesitolo senani kuyinsimbi uqobo lwayo: ekuqaleni isiliva, kwase kuthi kokubili isiliva negolide, futhi ngesinye isikhathi kwakukhona nethusi.Manje sinezinhlamvu zemali zethusi nezinye izinsimbi ezingabalulekile njengezinhlamvu zemali. Izinsimbi zazigaywa, zilinganiswe, futhi zifakwe ezinhlamvwini zemali.Lokhu kwakungukuqinisekisa lowo owayethatha uhlamvu lwemali ukuthi wayethola isisindo esithile esaziwayo sensimbi eyigugu.Izinhlamvu zemali zingaba ngumkokotelo, kepha futhi zakha neyunithi entsha ye-akhawunti, esize yaholela ekubhangeni.Isisekelo sika-Archimedes sinikeze isixhumanisi esilandelayo: izinhlamvu zemali manje sezingavivinywa kalula ngesisindo sayo esihle sensimbi, futhi ngaleyo ndlela inani lohlamvu lwemali lalinganqunywa, noma ngabe laliphuciwe, lonakalisiwe noma laphazanyiswa ngenye indlela (bheka iNumismatics ).

Indawo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imali yasebhange yamaphepha ayi-10 yaseFinland kusuka ngo-1980. UMongameli uJK Paasikivi uboniswe encwadini yamaphepha.

Incazelo yemali ithi yimali kuphela "ezweni elithile noma kumongo wezenhlalo nezomnotho".Ngokuvamile, imiphakathi isebenzisa kuphela isilinganiso esisodwa senani, esingakhonjwa kumanani ezimpahla ezifakwe kuhlu ezithengiswayo.Kungaba nemidiya eminingi yokushintshisana, engabonwa yilokho okunikezwayo ukuthenga izimpahla ("indlela yokushintshanisa"), njll. .Emazweni amaningi, uhulumeni uthatha isinyathelo sokukhuthaza izinhlobo ezithile zemali, njengokuyidinga intela nokujezisa ukukhwabanisa .

Ezinye izindawo zigcina ezimbili noma zezimali, ikakhulukazi emadolobheni asemngceleni noma ezindaweni ezihamba kakhulu.Izitolo ezikulezi zindawo zingahle zibhale izintengo futhi zamukele inkokhelo ngezimali eziningi.Ngaphandle kwalokho, imali yakwamanye amazwe iphathwa njengempahla yezezimali emakethe yendawo.Imali yakwamanye amazwe ivame ukuthengwa noma ukuthengiswa ezimakethe zokushintshaniswa kwamanye amazwe ngabahambi nabahwebi.

Imiphakathi ingashintsha imali eyisebenzisayo, eyaziwa ngokuthi ukufaka imali esikhundleni.Lokhu kungenzeka ngenhloso, lapho uhulumeni ekhipha imali entsha. Isibonelo, lapho iBrazil isuka e- cruzeiro yaseBrazil iya kwangempela yaseBrazil

Kungenzeka futhi ngokuzenzekelayo, lapho abantu benqaba ukwamukela imali ehlangabezana ne- hyperinflation (noma ngabe ukusetshenziswa kwayo kukhuthazwa uhulumeni).

  1. Black, Henry Campbell (1910). A Law Dictionary Containing Definitions Of The Terms And Phrases Of American And English Jurisprudence, Ancient And Modern, p. 494. West Publishing Co. Black’s Law Dictionary defines the word "fiat" to mean "a short order or warrant of a Judge or magistrate directing some act to be done; an authority issuing from some competent source for the doing of some legal act"
  2. usmiNT.gov. Retrieved July-18-09.
  3. Shredded & Mutilated: Mutilated Currency, Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Retrieved 2007-05-09.