Jump to content

Inhlaka

Mayelana Wikipedia
Refer to caption
Ubuso bombijongo benhlaka

Inhlaka isithako esiqinile esingakhandwa sibe umumo ohlukahlukene. Ivame ukuba luntwentwe, kodwa ingenziwa sibe mibalabala, futhi isetshenziswa kabanzi kwezobuchwepheshe, nasekwenzeni imihlobiso. Izinhlobo zenhlaka elunjiwe ezaziwayo, nezindala ngokomlando, yilezo zenhlaka ekhandwe ngeSiphehlalu esekwe kumxube wevanga (iSiphemba esintuhlambili, noma igcaki), okuyisakhi esiyinhloko sesihlabathi. Inhlaka yeNasidemcako (soda-lime), iqukethe iSiphehlalu esingaba ama-70 ekhulwini, futhi enhlakeni elunjiwe sinobuningi obungama-90 ekhulwini. Zikhona nezinye izinhlobo zenhlaka ezenziwe ngezinye izindlela nangezinye izithako, futhi eziqine kakhulu. Ngokuvamile ngesiZulu esikhulunywa nsukuzonke, imikhiqizo yenhlaka ibizwa ngokuthi 'eyengilazi' okuyibizo elisuselwa kwelesilumbi.

Naphezu kokuba uvendle, igcaki lenhlaka eligqibiwe lingahlala isikhathi eside uma lingaphazanyisiwe, futhi ziningi izibonelo zezivingi zenhlaka ezikhona okungezasendulo. Ubufakazi bezemivubululo isikisela ukuthi ukwenziwa kwenhlaka isenzo esaqala emuva ngokungenanai eminyakeni yezi-3,600 BC kwelaseMesopotamiya, eGibhithe naseSiriya. Izinto zokuqala zenhlaka kwakungubuhlalu, cishe obabenzeke ngengozi lapho kucandulwa noma kukhiqizwa i-fayensi. Ngenxa yokubumbeka kwayo kube yinoma yisiphi isimo, inhlaka kusetshenziswa yona ukwenza amagobongo, afana nemicengezi, amakhamba, amagabha, nezindebe zenhlaka. Inhlaka ingafakwa umbala ngokujoba amatswayi wenkimbi noma ibhacekwe futhi ishicilwe njengenhlaka ecwebeziwe (enamel glass). Izakhi ezigwincizayo, ezikhwentuzayo nezifufukisayo zenhlaka zenza inhlaka efaneleke ekulunjweni kwamaqwangwa ezibuko, izincwamanzi (prisms), nezithako zamazubokukhanya (optoelectronics).

uHlaka lwayo olusimoncinci[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

A graphic showing the lack of periodic arrangement in the microscopic structure of glass
inswelasimo yohlaka lwegcakinhlaka (SiO2) luvezwe ngemiyinge emibili
A graphic visually showing the difference between the microscopic arrangement of single crystals, polycrystals, and amorphous solids, as explained in the caption
Ngokwesimoncinci, umncwebe owodwa unamachwe ahlelenjwe eduze nesimo esiphelele; umncwebegcezi wakhiwa imincwebe eminingi esimoncinci; bese isinqumela esiswelisimo esifana nenhlaka asinakuhlelenjwa nakusimoncinci.

Incasiselo eyamuekelwe yenhlaka (noma isinqumela esiluntwentwe) ithi, iyisinqumela esibunjwa ngesicima kuncibilika esisheshayo.