Inhlanzi njengokudla

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Inhlanzi enamakhambi aseThai

Izinhlobo eziningi izinhlanzi babambeke njengoba ukudla cishe kuzo zonke izifunda emhlabeni wonke.Inhlanzi ibingumthombo obalulekile wamaprotheni nezinye izakhi zomuntu kubantu kuwo wonke umlando.

IsiNgisi asinalo igama elikhethekile lokupheka lokudla okulungiselelwe kusuka kulezi zilwane, njengoba kwenzeka ngengulube ne- ngulube, futhi njengoba kunjalo ne-Spanish pescado vs. pez.Ezimweni zokupheka nezokudoba, inhlanzi ingafaka izimbaza, ezinjenge- molluscs, ama-crustaceans nama- echinoderms ; Ngokunabile, ukudla kwasolwandle kuhlanganisa zombili izinhlanzi nokunye ukuphila kwasolwandle okusetshenziswa njengokudla.

Kusukela ngo-1961, ukwanda okumaphakathi konyaka kokusetshenziswa kokudla kwezinhlanzi okubonakalayo emhlabeni (amaphesenti angu-3.2) kudlule ukukhula kwabantu (amaphesenti ayi-1.6) futhi kweqa ukusetshenziswa kwenyama kuzo zonke izilwane zasemhlabeni, kuhlangene (amaphesenti angu-2.8) futhi ngawodwana (izinkomo, i-ovine, ingulube, nokunye ), ngaphandle kwenkukhu (amaphesenti angu-4.9).Ngokwemigomo ngayinye, ukusetshenziswa kwezinhlanzi kokudla kukhule kusuka ku-9.0 kg ngo-1961 kuya ku-20.2 kg ngo-2015, ngesilinganiso esilinganiselwa kumaphesenti ayi-1.5 ngonyaka.Ukunwetshwa kokusetshenziswa akwenziwanga ukukhiqizwa okwandisiwe kuphela, kodwa futhi yinhlanganisela yezinye izinto eziningi, kufaka phakathi ukumoshwa okuncishisiwe, ukusetshenziswa kangcono, izindlela ezithuthukisiwe zokusabalalisa kanye nesidingo esikhulayo, esixhumene nokukhula kwabantu, imali engenayo ekhulayo kanye nokufudukela emadolobheni. [1]

IYurophu, iJapane kanye ne-United States of America bebonke babamba amaphesenti angama-47 wezinhlanzi ezisetshenziswayo emhlabeni jikelele ngonyaka we-1961 kepha kuphela amaphesenti angama-20 ngo-2015.Esewonke amathani ayizigidi eziyi-149 ngonyaka ka-2015, i-Asia idle ngaphezu kwengxenye yesibili (amathani ayizigidi ezingama-106 ngo-24.0 kg ngomuntu ngamunye). [1] Oceania ne-Afrika kudle isabelo esiphansi kunazo zonke.Ukushintshwa kungumphumela wezinguquko ezakhiweni emkhakheni futhi ikakhulukazi indima ekhulayo yamazwe ase-Asia ekukhiqizeni izinhlanzi, kanye negebe elikhulu phakathi kwamazinga okukhula komnotho ezimakethe zezinhlanzi ezivuthiwe kakhulu emhlabeni kanye nalezo zezimakethe eziningi ezibaluleke kakhulu ezivelayo emhlabeni wonke, ikakhulukazi e-Asia. [1]

Izinhlobo zezinhlobo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Zingaphezu kwezinkulungwane ezingama-32,000 izinhlobo zezinhlanzi ezichazwe, [2] okwenza kube yiqembu lezilwane ezinomgogodla ezahlukahlukene kakhulu.Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunezinhlobo eziningi ze- shellfish.Kodwa-ke, zinhlobo ezimbalwa kuphela zezinhlobo ezivame ukudliwa ngabantu.

Ukulungiselela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izinhlanzi zingalungiswa ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene.Kungaphekwa (okuluhlaza) ( isb., Isashimi ).Singasho belashwa ngu zokuyithambisa (isib, ceviche ), pickling (isib, inhlanzi pickled ), noma ukubhema (isib, salmon ngibhema ). Noma ingaphekwa ngokubhaka, ukuthosa ( isb. Inhlanzi namachips ), ukosa, ukuzingela ngokungemthetho ( isb. Inkundla-i-bouillon ), noma ukubhayela.Amasu amaningi okulondolozwa asetshenziswa emasikweni ehlukene asuke engadingekile kepha asenzelwa ukunambitheka kwawo nokuthungwa kwawo lapho kudliwa.

Isazi-mlando saseBrithani uWilliam Radcliffe wabhala kuFishing from the Earliest Times :

"U-Emperor Domitian (Juvenal, IV.) Uyalele umhlangano oyisipesheli weSenate ukuba udingide futhi weluleke ngodaba olubaluleke kangaka njengoMbuso njengendlela engcono yokupheka i-turbot." [3]

Emhlabeni jikelele, imikhiqizo yezinhlanzi nezinhlanzi inikela ngesilinganiso sama-calories angama-34 kuphela ngomuntu ngosuku. Kodwa-ke ngaphezu kokuthi ungumthombo wamandla, umnikelo wokudla wezinhlanzi ubalulekile ngokwezinga eliphezulu, amaprotheni ezilwane agaywe kalula futhi ikakhulukazi ekulweni nokushoda kwemicronutrient. [1]Ingxenye ka-150g wezinhlanzi inikeza cishe amaphesenti angama-50 kuye kwangama-60 wemfuneko yamaprotheni yansuku zonke yabantu abadala.Amaprotheni ezinhlanzi abalulekile ekudleni kwamanye amazwe anabantu abaningi lapho inani lamaprotheni lonke liphansi, futhi libaluleke kakhulu ekudleni kweziqhingi ezincane ezisathuthuka States (SIDS). [1]

Intermediate Technology Publications yabhala ngo-1992 ukuthi "Inhlanzi inikeza umthombo omuhle wamaprotheni asezingeni eliphezulu futhi iqukethe amavithamini namaminerali amaningi.Kungabhekwa njenge-whitefish, inhlanzi enamafutha, noma i-shellfish.I-Whitefish, efana ne-haddock nomboni, iqukethe amafutha amancane kakhulu (imvamisa angaphansi kuka-1%) kanti izinhlanzi ezinamafutha, njengosardini, ziqukethe phakathi kuka-10-25%.Lokhu kokugcina, ngenxa yokuqukethwe okunamafutha amaningi, kuqukethe uhla lwamavithamini ancibilikayo anamafutha (A, D, E noK) kanye nama-acid abalulekile, konke lokhu okubalulekile ekusebenzeni kahle komzimba. "

Izinzuzo zezempilo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukudla izinhlanzi ezinamafutha eziqukethe i- omega-3 fatty acids enamaketanga amade kunganciphisa ukuvuvukala okuhlelekile futhi kwehlise ubungozi besifo senhliziyo.Ukudla kwezinhlanzi ezinamafutha ezinothe ngama-omega-3 fatty acids kabili ngeviki inani lokuncoma elinconywayo.Ukwanda kokudla kwama-omega-3 fatty acids kunganciphisa kancane ubungozi bokuhlaselwa yinhliziyo okubulalayo, kepha kungenzeka kube nomthelela omncane enanini eliphelele labantu abafa ngenxa yesifo senhliziyo. [4]

Izingozi zezempilo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Inhlanzi ingukudla okuvame kakhulu ukuvimba indlela yomoya futhi kubangele ukuminyana.Ukuminywa kwezinhlanzi kwaba nesandla ezingozini ezingaba ngu-4 500 ezibikwe e-UK ngo-1998.

Ama-Allergener[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

A yokungezwani komzimba kwasolwandle kuyinto hypersensitivity i allergen okungaba ekhona izinhlanzi, futhi ikakhulukazi izimbaza.Lokhu kungaholela ekusebenzeni ngokweqile kohlelo lokuzivikela komzimba futhi kuholele ezimpawu zomzimba ezinzima. [5] Iningi labantu elinokungezwani komzimba nokudla linokungezwani kokudla kwasolwandle. [6]Ukungezwani komzimba kungavela ekungeniseni ukudla kwasolwandle, noma ngokuphefumula umusi ngokulungiselela noma ekuphekeni kwasolwandle.Ukusabela okweqile kwasolwandle kokungezwani komzimba ne-anaphylaxis, isimo esiphuthumayo esidinga ukunakwa ngokushesha. Iphathwa nge- epinephrine .

Ama-Biotoxin[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isitsha esilungiswe ngokukhethekile se-blowfish fugu esinobuthi, eJapane

Ezinye izinhlobo zezinhlanzi, ikakhulukazi i-puffer fugu esetshenziselwa i- sushi, nezinhlobo ezithile ze-shellfish, zingaholela ekufakweni kobuthi obukhulu uma zingalungiswa kahle.Lezi zinhlanzi zihlala ziqukethe la poison njengesivikelo ezilwaneni ezidla ezinye; ayikho ngenxa yezimo zemvelo. Ikakhulukazi, i-fugu inomthamo obulalayo we- tetrodotoxin ezithweni zayo zangaphakathi futhi kufanele ilungiselelwe ngumpheki onelayisense ophumelele ukuhlolwa kukazwelonke eJapan.Ubuthi beCiguatera bungavela ekudleni inhlanzi emikhulu emanzini afudumele asezindaweni ezishisayo, njenge-sea bass, grouper, barracuda, ne- red snapper . [7]Ubuthi beScombroid bungadla ngokudla izinhlanzi ezinkulu ezinamafutha ezihlale isikhathi eside ngaphambi kokuba zifakwe esiqandisini noma zifriziwe.Lokhu kufaka phakathi ama- scombroids anjenge- tuna ne- mackerel, kodwa futhi angafaka ama-non-scombroids afana ne- mahi-mahi ne- amberjack . [7] Ubuthi abunaphunga futhi abunambitheki.

Izinhlanzi eziningi zidla ulwelwe nezinye izinto eziphilayo ezinama- biotoxin (izinto zokuzivikela ezilwaneni ezidla ezinye).Ama-biotoxin aqoqwe ezinhlanzini / ezinhlanzini afaka phakathi ama- brevetoxins, i- okadaic acid, ama- saxitoxin, i- ciguatoxin ne- domoic acid .Ngaphandle kwe-ciguatoxine, amazinga aphezulu alobu buthi atholakala kuphela ku-shellfish.Kokubili i-domoic acid ne-ciguatoxine kungabulala abantu; ezinye zizodala isifo sohudo, isiyezi kanye nomuzwa (wesikhashana) we-claustrophobia. [8]

Ama-Shellfish angabahlinzeki bokuhlunga futhi, ngakho-ke, aqoqa ubuthi obukhiqizwa ulwelwe oluncane, njengama- dinoflagellates nama- diatom, ne- cyanobacteria.Kunama-syndromes amane abizwa ngokuthi i- shellfish poisoning angaholela kubantu, ezilwaneni ezincelisayo zasolwandle, nasezinyonini kusukela ekungenisweni kwe-shellfish enobuthi. Lezi ngokuyinhloko elihlobene ne -molluscs bivalve, ezifana izimbaza, clams, oyster futhi scallop.Izinhlanzi ezinjenge- anchovies nazo zingagxila kubuthi obufana ne-domoic acid.Uma kusolwa, kufanele kutholakale usizo lwezempilo.

Izinhlanzi kanye ne- Shellfish poisoning
Uhlobo lobuthi Izimpawu Isikhathi Ubuthi Ikhambi Imithombo
Inhlanzi ICiguatera Ukucanuzela kwenhliziyo, ukuhlanza nokuhuda, okuvame ukulandela ukuphathwa yikhanda, ubuhlungu bemisipha, i- paresthesia, ukuba ndikindiki, i- ataxia, i-vertigo, kanye nemibono. Amaviki kuya eminyakeni I- Ciguatoxin nokufanayo: i-maitotoxin, i-scaritoxin ne- palytoxin Akekho owaziwayo [9]
I-Scombroid<br id="mwAas"><br><br><br></br> ukudla<br id="mwAaw"><br><br><br></br> ubuthi Ukuxubha isikhumba, ukushaywa ikhanda, ukushiswa ngomlomo, amajaqamba esiswini, isicanucanu, isifo sohudo, ukushaya kwenhliziyo, ukungakhululeki, futhi, kuyaqabukela, ukuwa noma ukungaboni kahle. Izimpawu zenzeka ngokuvamile kungakapheli imizuzu eyi-10-30 yokungenisa inhlanzi esonakele. Imvamisa amahora amane kuya kwayisithupha Umlando, mhlawumbe abanye Ama-anti-histamines omlomo [9]
Isifo seHaff I-Rhabdomyolysis, okungukuthi, ukuvuvukala nokuwohloka kwemisipha yamathambo ( enengozi yokwehluleka okukhulu kwezinso ) kungakapheli amahora angama-24 ngemuva kokudla inhlanzi Kusolwa imbangela enobuthi kepha ayikatholakali Akekho owaziwayo
Ichthyo-<br id="mwAcY"><br><br><br></br> lindokuhle Ukubona okucacile kokubuka nokubona okufanayo ezicini ezithile ku-LSD. Ingahlala izinsuku ezimbalwa
Imbaza Amnesic Ukulahleka kwenkumbulo okungapheli unomphela kanye nokulimala kobuchopho Kubulala ezimweni ezinzima I-Domoic acid, esebenza njenge- neurotoxin Akekho owaziwayo
Uhudo Uhudo futhi mhlawumbe isicanucanu, ukugabha kanye namajaqamba. Izimpawu zivame ukusethwa ngaphakathi kwengxenye yehora futhi zihlala cishe usuku I-Okadaic acid, evimbela i-de-phosphorylation yamaselula emathunjini. [10]
I-Neurotoxic Ukuhlanza kanye nesicanucanu kanye nezimpawu ezahlukahlukene zezinzwa njengokukhuluma okungacacile. Akubulali yize kungadinga ukulaliswa esibhedlela. Ama-Brevetoxins noma ama-analogs e-brevetoxin
Okhubazekile Kufaka isicanucanu, ukuhlanza, isifo sohudo, ubuhlungu besisu, nokushoshozela noma ukushisa . Ezinye izimpawu zingenzeka. Ngezikhathi ezithile kuyabulala Ubuthi obuyinhloko i-saxitoxin

Ubuthi obubangela iningi le-shellfish kanye nobuthi bezinhlanzi, kufaka phakathi i-ciguatera kanye ne-scombroid poisoning, abumelana nokushisa kuze kufinyelele lapho izindlela zokupheka ezijwayelekile zingabususi.

IMercury nezinye izinsimbi ezinobuthi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imikhiqizo yezinhlanzi ikhonjisiwe ukuthi iqukethe inani elihlukahlukene lezinsimbi ezisindayo noma ezinobuthi.Ubuthi buyindlela yokuncibilika, futhi izinhlanganisela ezingancibiliki zivame ukukhombisa ubuthi obungenakwa.Amafomu e- Organometallic afana ne-dimethyl mercury ne- tetraethyl lead angaba nobuthi obukhulu.

Ngokusho kwe- US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), ubungozi be-mercury ngokudla izinhlanzi ne-shellfish akuyona inkinga yezempilo kubantu abaningi.Kodwa-ke, ukudla kwasolwandle okuthile kuqukethe i-mercury eyanele yokulimaza ingane engakazalwa noma uhlelo lwezinzwa olusakhula.I-FDA yenza izincomo ezintathu zabesifazane abathwala izingane nezingane ezincane:

  1. Ungadli oshaka, i- swordfish, i- king mackerel, noma i- tilefish ngoba iqukethe amazinga aphezulu e-mercury.
  2. Yidla kuze kufike kuma-ounces ayi-12 (ukudla okulingene oku-2) ngesonto ezinhlobonhlobo zezinhlanzi nezimbaza ezisezingeni eliphansi le-mercury. Izinhlanzi ezine ezidliwa kakhulu ezingaphansi kwe-mercury yi- tuna ekheniwe ekhanyisiwe, i- salmon, i- pollock ne- catfish.Enye inhlanzi edliwa kakhulu, i- albacore ("i-tuna emhlophe") ine-mercury eningi kune-tuna ekhanyayo ekheniwe.Ngakho-ke, lapho ukhetha ukudla kwakho okumbili kwenhlanzi ne-shellfish, ungadla ama-ounces ayisithupha (isidlo esisodwa) se-albacore tuna ngesonto.
  3. Bheka izeluleko zendawo ngokuphepha kwezinhlanzi ezibanjwe umndeni nabangane emachibini asendaweni yakho, emifuleni nasezindaweni ezisogwini.Uma kungekho seluleko esitholakalayo, yidla ama-ounces ayisithupha (isidlo esisodwa) ngesonto lezinhlanzi ozibamba emanzini endawo, kodwa ungadli noma iyiphi enye inhlanzi phakathi nalelo sonto.

Lezi zincomo ziyelulekwa futhi lapho usuthisa izinhlanzi nezimbaza ezinganeni ezincane, kepha ezingxenyeni ezincane.

Ukushaywa kwemithetho[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngenkathi inhlangano yolondolozo lwasolwandle i-Oceana ihlola amasampula okudla kwasolwandle angaphezu kuka-1,200 okuthengiswa e-US phakathi kuka-2010 no-2012, bathole ukuthi ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu ibhalwe kabi.Izinga eliphakeme kakhulu lokulahlekiswa okungekho emthethweni livele nge-snapper ngamaphesenti angama-87, kwalandelwa i-tuna ngamaphesenti angama-57. [11]

Ukungcola okungapheli kwemvelo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Uma inhlanzi ne-shellfish zihlala emanzini angcolile, zingaqoqa amanye amakhemikhali anobuthi, ikakhulukazi ukungcola okuncibilikayo okunamafutha okuqukethe i-chlorine noma i-bromine, ama- dioxin noma ama-PCB . [12]Izinhlanzi ezizodliwa kufanele zibanjwe emanzini angangcolisiwe.Ezinye izinhlangano ezifana ne-SeafoodWatch, i-RIKILT, i-Environmental Defence Fund, i-IMARES inikeza ulwazi ngezinhlobo zezilwane ezingaziqongeleli ubuthi / izinsimbi eziningi.

Izimuncagazi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izimpawu ezihlukile zokutheleleka ngama-parasite ngenhlanzi eluhlaza. Zonke zinezimpawu zesisu, kodwa ezihlukile. [13] [14] [15] [16]

Izimuncagazi ezinhlanzini ziyinto engokwemvelo futhi ejwayelekile. Yize kungeyona inkinga yezempilo ezinhlanzini eziphekwe kahle, ama-parasites ayakhathazeka lapho abathengi bedla izinhlanzi eziluhlaza noma ezingalondoloziwe njenge- sashimi, i- sushi, i- ceviche ne- gravlax.Ukuthandwa kwalezi zitsha zezinhlanzi ezingavuthiwe kwenza kubalule ukuthi abathengi bazi ngale ngozi. Izinhlanzi ezingavuthiwe kufanele zifriziwe kufudumele ngaphakathi kuka- −20 ° C (-4 ° F) okungenani izinsuku eziyi-7 ukubulala izimuncagazi.Iziqandisi zasekhaya kungenzeka zingabandi ngokwanele ukubulala izimuncagazi.

Ngokwesiko, izinhlanzi eziphila konke noma ingxenye yempilo yazo emanzini ahlanzekile zithathwa njengezingafanele i-sashimi ngenxa yamathuba ezinambuzane (bheka indatshana yeSashimi ).Ukutheleleka ngamagciwane okuvela ezinhlanzi zasemanzini angenasawoti kuyinkinga enkulu kwezinye izingxenye zomhlaba, ikakhulukazi eNingizimu-mpumalanga ye-Asia.Izinhlanzi ezichitha ingxenye yomjikelezo wempilo yazo emanzini amunyu noma ahlanzekile, njenge-salmon, ziyinkinga ethile.Ucwaningo olwenziwe eSeattle, eWashington lukhombise ukuthi u-100% we-salmon wasendle unezimpungushe eziyizikelemu ezikwazi ukuthelela abantu. Esifundweni esifanayo salmon ephakanyiswe epulazini yayingenazo izibungu ze-roundworm. [17]

Ukudla kwemifino[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukudla kwaseHawaii: I-Seared ahi ne- wasabi beurre blanc sauce

Njengoba inhlanzi iyinyama yezilwane, i- Vegetarian Society isho ukuthi izidlo zemifino azikwazi ukuba nezinhlanzi.

Ama-neologism pescetarians ahlanganisa labo abadla izinhlanzi nokunye ukudla kwasolwandle, kepha hhayi izilwane ezincelisayo nezinyoni. [18]Ama-Pescatarians angadla izinhlanzi ngokususelwa emcabangweni wokuthi izinhlanzi azilinywa njengefektri njengezilwane zomhlaba (okungukuthi, inkinga yazo ikhiqiza inyama yongxiwankulu nezimboni, hhayi ngokusetshenziswa kokudla kwezilwane uqobo). [19] 

Idatha ye-metastudy ka-1999 ihlangene evela ezifundweni ezinhlanu ezivela emazweni asentshonalanga.I-metastudy ibike isilinganiso sokufa kwabantu, lapho amanani aphansi akhombise ukufa okumbalwa, kwabadliwayo abangochwepheshe ukuthi babe ngu-0.82, abadla imifino babe ngu-0.84, ngezikhathi ezithile abadla inyama babe ngu-0.84.Abadla inyama njalo kanye nemifino babelane ngesilinganiso sokufa esiphakeme kakhulu se-1.00.Kodwa-ke, "ukushona okuphansi kubangelwe ikakhulu ukusabalala okuphansi kokubhema kulawa maqembu [yemifino]". [20]

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 In brief, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2018 (PDF). FAO. 2018.
  2. FishBase: June 2012 update. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  3. Juvenal: The Satires Satire IV: Mock Epic, pages 25–29. Translated by A. S. Kline 2011.
  4. Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. 2018-11-30. 
  5. National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics 2005 https://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/allergystat.htm
  6. "Allergy Facts and Figures," Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=9&sub=20&cont=518
  7. 7.0 7.1 Poisoning – fish and shellfish US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  8. EOS magazine, July–August 2010
  9. 9.0 9.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named uhm
  10. . Oct 1999. 
  11. Warner K, Timme W, Lowell B and Hirshfield M (2013) Oceana Study Reveals Seafood Fraud Nationwide Oceana.
  12. PCBs in Fish and Shellfish Retrieved 22 March 2010.
  13. For Chlonorchiasis: Public Health Agency of Canada > Clonorchis sinensis – Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  14. For Anisakiasis: WrongDiagnosis: Symptoms of Anisakiasis Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  15. For Diphyllobothrium: MedlinePlus > Diphyllobothriasis Updated by: Arnold L. Lentnek, MD. Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  16. For symptoms of diphyllobothrium due to vitamin B12-deficiency University of Maryland Medical Center > Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia Archived 2011-11-26 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  17. Prevalence of larval Anisakis simplex in pen-reared and wild-caught salmon (Salmonidae) from Puget Sound, Washington. 1989-07-01. http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/3/416. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
  18. The Merriam-Webster dictionary dates the origin of the term pescetarian to 1993 and defines it as: "one whose diet includes fish but no other meat." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. s.v. pescatarian.[Online] Merriam Webster, Inc. Available at http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pescatarian [Accessed 17 July 2009]
  19. VegDining.com
  20. . September 1999.