Isifo sohudo

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Isifo sohudo
Isifo sohudoI-electron micrograph ye-rotavirus, yimbangela ecishe ibe-40% yokulaliswa esibhedlela ngenxa yesifo sohudo ebantwaneni abangaphansi kweminyaka yobudala emihlanu.[1]
I-electron micrograph ye-rotavirus, yimbangela ecishe ibe-40% yokulaliswa esibhedlela ngenxa yesifo sohudo ebantwaneni abangaphansi kweminyaka yobudala emihlanu.[1]
Ukuhlela ngohlobo oluthile kanye nezinsiza zangaphandle
ICD/CIM-10A09, K59.1 A09, K59.1
ICD/CIM-9787.91 787.91
DiseasesDB3742
MedlinePlus003126

Uhudo or ukukhishwa yisisu yisimo sokukaka into ethambile noma engamanzi okungenani izikhathi ezintathu ukunyakaza kwesisu ngosuku. Kujwayele ukuthi kube yizinsukwana ezimbalwa kanti futhi kungaholela ekuphelelweni amanzi emzimbeni ngenxa yokulahlekelwa amanzi amaningi. Izimpawu zokuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni zijwayele ukuqala ngokuphelelwa ukunwebeka okujwayelekile kwesikhumba kanye nokushintsha kwendlela umuntu ayiyo. Lokhu kungaqhubeka kunciphise ukuchama, ukulahlekelwa umbala wesikhumba, ukushaya kwenhliziyo ngamandla, kanye ukwehla kwezinga lokuphendula ngenkathi kuya kulokhu kukuqinisa.Amakaka athambile kodwa angemanzi ebantwaneni abancela ubisi lwebele, kungenzeka, kube yinto ejwayelekile.[2]

Imbangela ejwayelekile kuvamise ukuba ukutheleleka ngesifo samathumbu kungaba ngenxa yegciwane, ibhaktheriya, isilwanyana esiphila ngokudla igazi, noma isimo esaziwa gastroenteritis.Lokhu kutheleleka ngezifo kuvamise ukutholakala ekudleni noma emanzini angcoliswe amakaka, noma komunye umuntu naye othelelekile. Kungahlukaniswa kube yizinhlobo ezintathu: uhudo olungamanzi lwesikhathi esifishane, uhudo olunegazi lwesikhathi esifishane, kanti uma kuqhubeka kuze kuphele amasonto angaphezulu kwamabili, kubizwa ngohudo olubeleselayo. Uhudo olungamanzi lwesikhathi esifishane lungaba yimbangela yokuthelelwa ikholera. Uma kunegazi kuphinde kwaziwe ngokuthi dysentery.[2] Zikhona nezinye izinto eziningi ezingabanga uhudo kodwa ezingathelelani ngezifo ezifana: hyperthyroidism, okungezwani ne-esidi , isifo sokuvuvukala kwamathumbu, imithi eminingi, kanye nesifo samathumbu angakwazi ukubekezelela okuthile phakathi kokunye.[3] Ezikhathini eziningi izintwana ezihlala emakakeni azidingeki ukuze kutholakale ukuthi yizo yini imbangela.[4]

Indlela esingavikela ngayo ukutheleleka ngohudo kungaba ukwenza ngcono ukuthuthwa kwendle, ukuphuza amanzi ahlanzekile, kanye nokuwasha izandla.Ukuncelisa ubisi lwebele okungenani izinyanga eziyisithupha zokuqala kuyanconywa ngoba kuwumgomo wokugomela igciwane le-rotavirus. ingxube eyisisombululo sokoma ephuzwa ngomlomo (i-ORS), okungamanzi ahlanzekile anosawoti ongemningi kanye noshukela, yikona kwelapha ongakukhetha.amaphilisi e-zinc nawo ayanconywa.[2]Lokhu kwelapha kulinganiselwa ekusindiseni izingane eziyizigidi ezingama-50 eminyakeni engama-25 eyedlule.[1] Uma abantu benesifo sohudo kuyanconywa ukuthi baqhubeke nokudla ukudla okunempilo kanti nabantwana baqhubeke nokunceliswa ubisi lwebele.[2] Uma ingxube yokuphuza eyi-ORS edayisayo ingekho, ungasebenzisa ozenzele yona ekhaya.[5]Kulabo asebephelelwe amanzi kakhulu emzimbeni, kungase kudingeke ukuthi bafakelwe amanzi ngemithambo yegazi okwaziwa, intravenous fluids.[2] Isikhathi esiningi; kodwa, kungalungiseka nangokuphuza izinto eziluketshezi ngomlomo.[6] Okulwa namagciwanes, noma kungajwayele ukusetshenziswa, kunganconywa kulabo abanohudo olunegazi kanye nokushisa kakhulu komzimba, labo abakhishwa isisu kakhulu emva kohambo ngemotoukukhishwa yisisu emva kohambo ngemoto, kanye nalabo abamilwa yibhakutheriya ethile noma izilwanyana eziphila ngegazi emakakeni abo.[4] I-loperamide ingasiza ukunciphisa izikhathi zokunyakaza kwesisu kodwa akunconywa kulabo abanesifo esinamandla.[4]

Balinganiselwa ezigidini eziyi-1.7 kuya kwezi-5 abantu ababa nesifo sohudo ngonyaka.[2][3] Kujwayeleke kakhulu emazweni asathuthuka, lapho izingane ezincane ziba nesifo sohudo okungenani kathathu onyakeni.[2] Emhlabeni jikelele, ngonyaka wezi-2012, yikho okuyimbangela ejwayelekile yokushona ezinganeni ezingaphansi kweminyaka emihlanu yobudala (isigidi esiyi-0.76 noma 11%).[2][7] Iziqubu ezijwayelekile zohudo zivamise ukubangelwa ukungondleki kanti futhi yikho okuyimbangela kulabo abancane abangaphansi kweminyaka emihlanu yobudala.[2] Ezinye izinkinga zesikhathi eside zingaba imiphumela yokungakhuli kahle komzimba nengqondo.[7]

Amareferensi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "whqlibdoc.who.int" (PDF). World Health Organization. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598415_eng.pdf. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 "Diarrhoeal disease Fact sheet N°330". April 2013. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs330/en/. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Doyle, edited by Basem Abdelmalak, D. John (2013). Anesthesia for otolaryngologic surgery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 282–287. ISBN 1107018676. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 DuPont, HL (Apr 17, 2014). "Acute infectious diarrhea in immunocompetent adults.". The New England journal of medicine 370 (16): 1532–40. doi:10.1056/nejmra1301069. PMID 24738670. 
  5. Prober, edited by Sarah Long, Larry Pickering, Charles G. (2012). Principles and practice of pediatric infectious diseases (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders. p. 96. ISBN 9781455739851. http://books.google.ca/books?id=TN2Gu2Af1BIC&pg=PA96. 
  6. ACEP. "Nation’s Emergency Physicians Announce List of Test and Procedures to Question as Part of Choosing Wisely Campaign". http://www.choosingwisely.org/nations-emergency-physicians-announce-list-of-test-and-procedures-to-question-as-part-of-choosing-wisely-campaign/. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Global Diarrhea Burden". January 24, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/global/diarrhea-burden.html. Retrieved 18 June 2014.