Inkolo

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Inkolo uhlelo lwezenhlalo namasiko lokuziphatha nemikhuba ebekiwe, isimilo, izinkolelo, ukubukwa komhlaba, imibhalo, izindawo ezingcwelisiwe, iziphrofetho, izimiso zokuziphatha, noma izinhlangano, ezihlobanisa ubuntu nezinto ezingaphezulu kwemvelo, ezedlulele, nezingokomoya; kepha-ke, akukho ukuvumelana kwezazi phezu kwalokho okuyinkolo ngqo.

Izinkolo ezahlukahlukene zingaqukatha noma zingaqukathi izinto ezahlukahlukene ezisukela kokungcwele, izinto ezingcwele, ukholo, isidalwa esingaphezu kwemvelo noma izidalwa ezingaphezu kwemvelo noma "uhlobo oluthile lokugcina nolwedlulele oluzohlinzeka ngezinkambiso namandla impilo yonke". [] Imikhuba yezenkolo ingafaka amasiko, izintshumayelo, isikhumbuzo noma ukuhlonishwa (konkulunkulu kanye / noma abangcwele), imihlatshelo, imikhosi, amadili, imikhuba, ukuthwasa, izinkonzo zomngcwabo, izinsizakalo zomshado, ukuzindla, umkhuleko, umculo, ubuciko, umdanso, inkonzo yomphakathi, noma ezinye izici zesiko lomuntu. Izinkolo zinemilando nokulandisa okungcwele, okungagcinwa emibhalweni engcwele, nezimpawu nezindawo ezingcwele, ezihlose kakhulu ukunikeza injongo empilweni. Izinkolo zingaqukatha izindaba ezingokomfanekiso, kwesinye isikhathi okushiwo abalandeli ukuthi ziyiqiniso, ezingazama nokuchaza ngemvelaphi yokuphila, indawo yonke, nezinye izinto. Ngokwesiko, ukukholwa, ngaphezu kokucabanga, kubhekwe njengomthombo wezinkolelo zenkolo.

Isichuse sika-Ganesha

Kunezinkolo ezilinganiselwa ku-10 000 emhlabeni wonke. Cishe ama-84% wabantu emhlabeni ahlobene nobuKrestu, amaSulumane, amaHindu, amaBuddha, noma uhlobo oluthile lwenkolo yabantu. Ngenkathi labo abangazihlanganisi ngokwenkolo bekhule emhlabeni wonke, iningi labangahlangene nenkolo lisenezinkolelo ezahlukahlukene zenkolo.

Ukutadisha inkolo kuqukethe imikhakha eyahlukahlukene yezemfundo, kufaka phakathi imfundiso yenkolo, inkolo yokuqhathanisa kanye nezifundo zesayensi yezenhlalo. Imibono yenkolo inikeza izincazelo ezahlukahlukene ngemvelaphi nokusebenza kwenkolo, kufaka phakathi izisekelo zenkolo yenkolelo nenkolelo.

Dülmen,_St.-Viktor-Kirche,_Innenansicht_--_2018_--_0596-8

Ubudlelwano Nesayensi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isayensi iyakuvuma ukucabanga, ubuciko, nobufakazi; futhi izinkolo zifaka isambulo, ukholo nobungcwele kanti futhi zivuma izincazelo zefilosofi nezokumaqondana maqondana nokufundwa kwendawo yonke. Kokubili isayensi nenkolo akuyona i-monolithic, ayiphelelwa yisikhathi, noma i-static ngoba yomibili iyimizamo eyinkimbinkimbi yezenhlalo namasiko aguqukile ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kuzo zonke izilimi namasiko.

Imiqondo yesayensi nenkolo yinto esungulwe muva nje: igama elithi inkolo lavela ngekhulu le-17 phakathi kwekoloni kanye nokuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke kanye neNguquko yamaProthestani. Igama elithi isayensi lavela ngekhulu le-19 kwifilosofi yemvelo phakathi kwemizamo yokuncipha chaza labo abafunda imvelo (isayensi yemvelo), futhi inkulumo ethi inkolo nesayensi yavela ngekhulu le-19 ngenxa yokuvuselelwa kwemiqondo yomibili.Kwangekhulu le-19 lapho kwavela khona amagama athi Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, and Confucianism. umhlaba wasendulo nowasendulo, izimpande ze-Latin etymological zazo zombili isayensi (i-science) nenkolo (i-religio) zaqondwa njengezimpawu zangaphakathi zomuntu ngamunye noma izimfanelo ezinhle, ezingakaze zibe izimfundiso, imikhuba, noma imithombo yangempela yolwazi.

Ngokuvamile indlela yesayensi izuza ulwazi ngokuhlola imicabango yokuthuthukisa imicabango ngokucaciswa kwamaqiniso noma ngokuhlolwa ngemizamo futhi ngaleyo ndlela iphendula kuphela imibuzo yezomkhathi mayelana nendawo yonke engabonwa futhi ilinganiswe. Kuthuthukisa imibono yezwe ebufanela kahle kakhulu ubufakazi obubonwa ngokomzimba. Lonke ulwazi lwesayensi lungaphansi kokucwengwa kamuva, noma ngisho nokwenqatshwa, lapho kubhekwa obunye ubufakazi. Imibono yezesayensi enokuqina okukhulu kobufakazi obuhle ivame ukuphathwa njengezinto ezisetshenziswayo ngomqondo ojwayelekile, njengezinkolelo zokuhlobana okujwayelekile nokukhethwa kwemvelo ukuchaza ngokulandelana izindlela zamandla adonsela phansi nokuziphendukela kwemvelo.

Inkolo ayinayo indlela ngayinye ngayinye ngenxa yokuthi izinkolo zivela ngezikhathi ezivela emasikweni ahlukahlukene futhi kuyimizamo yokuthola injongo emhlabeni, nokuchaza indawo yabantu kuyo nobudlelwano nayo nakunoma yiziphi izinhlangano ezikhona. Ngokuya ngemfundiso yenkolo yobuKristu kanye namaqiniso wokugcina, abantu bathembela ekucabangeni, ekuhlangenwe nakho, emibhalweni, nasenkambeni yokuhlola nokulinganisa lokho abahlangabezana nakho nokuthi yini okufanele bayikholelwe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amamodeli enkolo, ukuqonda, nezingathekiso nakho kuyabuyekezwa, njengamamodeli wesayensi.

Ngokuphathelene nenkolo nesayensi, u-Albert Einstein uthi (1940): "Ngoba isayensi ingathola kuphela ukuthi yini, kepha hhayi okufanele ibe khona, futhi ngaphandle kwesizinda sayo ukwahlulela kwenani lazo zonke izinhlobo kusadingeka. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, inkolo, isebenza kuphela ngokuhlolwa komcabango womuntu nezenzo zakhe; akunakuthetheleleka ukukhuluma ngamaqiniso nobudlelwano phakathi kwamaqiniso Manje, yize izindawo zenkolo nezesayensi ngokwazo zimakwe ngokusobala komunye nomunye, nokho kukhona phakathi kwalokhu okubili ubudlelwano obuqinile bokubuyisana nokuncika.Nakuba inkolo kungaba yileso esinquma izinjongo, kodwa-ke, ifunde kwisayensi, ngomqondo obanzi, ukuthi yiziphi izindlela ezizonikela ekufinyeleleni ezinhlosweni ezizibekele zona.

I-Agnosticism[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

nokungakholelwa ebukhoneni bukaNkulunkulu

Izindatshana eziyinhloko: Ukungakholelwa kuNkulunkulu, i-Agnosticism, i-Irreligion, i-Antireligion, ne-Humanism

Bheka futhi: Ukugxekwa kokungakholelwa ebukhoneni bukaNkulunkulu

Amagama athi uNkulunkulu akekho (ukungakholelwa kunoma yibaphi onkulunkulu) ne-agnostic (ukukholelwa ekungazini kobukhona bonkulunkulu), noma ngabe aphikisana ngqo nezimfundiso zenkolo (isib. UbuKrestu, ubuJuda kanye namaSulumane), ngokwencazelo akusho okuphambene nalokho zenkolo. Kunezinkolo (kufaka phakathi ubuBuddha, ubuTao, nobuHindu), eqinisweni, ezibeka abanye babalandeli bazo njengabakholelwa ekutheni uNkulunkulu akekho, abangakholelwa ebukhoneni bukaNkulunkulu noma abangakholelwa ebukhosini. Okuphisana ngokweqiniso nenkolo yigama elingeyona inkolo. I-Irreligion ichaza ukungabi bikho kwanoma iyiphi inkolo; I-antireligion ichaza ukuphikisana okusebenzayo noma ukwenyanya izinkolo ngokujwayelekile.

Umthetho[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isihloko esikhulu: Umthetho nenkolo

Ukufundwa komthetho nenkolo kuyinkambu entsha, enezifundiswa eziyizinkulungwane eziningana ezibandakanyeka ezikoleni zomthetho, kanye neminyango yezemfundo kubandakanya isayensi yezepolitiki, inkolo nomlando kusukela ngo-1980. Izazi emkhakheni azigxili kuphela ezindabeni zomthetho eziphathelene nenkululeko yezenkolo noma ukungasungulwa, kepha futhi zifundisisa izinkolo njengoba zifanelekile ngezinkulumo zokwahlulela noma ukuqonda okusemthethweni kwezimo zezenkolo. Abachazayo babheka umthetho we-canon, umthetho wemvelo, nomthetho wezwe, imvamisa ngokubuka okuthe xaxa.Ochwepheshe bahlole izingqikithi emlandweni waseNtshonalanga maqondana nobuKrestu nobulungiswa nesihe, ukubusa nokulingana, nokuziphatha nothando. [168] Izihloko ezivamile ezithakazelisayo zifaka umshado nomndeni namalungelo esintu Ngaphandle kobuKristu, izazi zibheke ukuxhumana kwezomthetho nezenkolo eMuslim Middle East naseRoma yamaqaba.

Izifundo zigxile kakhulu ekukwenzeni ubuhlanga, ikakhulukazi udaba lokugqoka izimpawu zenkolo emphakathini, njengamakhakhasi avinjelwe ezikoleni zaseFrance, seluthole ukunakekelwa kwabafundi ngokomongo wamalungelo abantu nobufazi.

Ezombusazwe[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umthelela:

Inkolo ibe nomthelela omkhulu ohlelweni lwezepolitiki emazweni amaningi. Amanye amazwe aze azichaze ngokwenkolo, njenge-Islamic Republic of Iran. I-sharia ngaleyo ndlela ithinta kuze kufike kuma-23% wabantu bomhlaba wonke, noma abantu abayi-1.57 billion abangamaSulumane. Kodwa-ke, inkolo iyazithinta nezinqumo zezombusazwe emazweni amaningi asentshonalanga. Isibonelo, e-United States, u-51% wabavoti angaba mancane amathuba okuvotela umuntu ozongenela ukhetho lobumongameli ongakholelwa kuNkulunkulu, bese kuba namathuba angu-6% kuphela. AmaKrestu enza amalungu angama-92% e-US Congress, uma kuqhathaniswa nama-71% womphakathi jikelele (kusukela ngo-2014). Ngasikhathi sinye, ngenkathi ama-23% abantu abadala base-U.S. Bengahlobene ngokwenkolo, lilungu elilodwa kuphela leCongress (Kyrsten Sinema, D-Arizona), noma u-0.2% walowo mzimba, ongazibandakanyi nenkolo. Emazweni amaningi ase-Europe, noma kunjalo, inkolo inethonya elincane kakhulu kwezepolitiki [188] yize ibikade ibaluleke kakhulu. Isibonelo, ukushada kwabantu bobulili obufanayo nokukhipha isisu kwakungekho emthethweni emazweni amaningi aseYurophu kuze kube muva nje, kulandela imfundiso yobuKristu (imvamisa eyamaKatolika). Abaholi abaningana base-Europe abakholelwa ebukhoneni bukaNkulunkulu (isib. Owayengumongameli waseFrance uFrancois Hollande noma undunankulu waseGrisi u-Alexis Tsipras). E-Asia, indima yenkolo yehluka kakhulu phakathi kwamazwe. Isibonelo, i-India iselinye lamazwe akholwa kakhulu futhi inkolo isenomthelela omkhulu kwezepolitiki, uma kubhekwa ukuthi abashisekeli bobuzwe bamaHindu bebelokhu bekhomba abantu abambalwa njengamaSulumane namaKristu, ngokomlando ababengabaphansi. Ngokuphambene nalokho, amazwe anjengeChina noma iJapane akakholwa kakhulu ngakho inkolo inomthelela omncane kakhulu kwezepolitiki.

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