Inkunzi

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Inkunzi yakwaCharolais

Inkunzi kuyinkomo abephule (ie, hhayi wawungabavumeli ) omdala wesilisa kwezinhlobo Bos taurus.Imisipha futhi inolaka kakhulu kunabesifazane bezinhlobo ezifanayo, izinkomo, izinkunzi sekuyisikhathi eside kuwuphawu olubalulekile emasikweni amaningi, futhi zibambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekufuyeni inyama yenkomo, ekufuyeni ubisi, nakweminye imisebenzi ehlukahlukene yamasiko, kufaka phakathi ukulwa nenkunzi ukugibela .

Izici[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Inkunzi yaseScotland yaseHighland

Izinkunzi zinemisipha kakhulu kunezinkomo, ezinamathambo amakhulu, izinyawo ezinkudlwana, intamo enemisipha kakhulu, nekhanda elikhulu elinamathambo elinemihosha evikelayo phezu kwamehlo.Lezi zici zisiza izinkunzi ekulweleni ukubusa phezu komhlambi, zinikeze ophumelele ukufinyelela okuphezulu ezinkomeni ezizalisayo. [1]Uboya ngokuvamile bufushane emzimbeni, kodwa intamo nekhanda kuvame ukuba ne- "mane" yezinwele ezisontayo, ezinoboya.Izinkunzi ngokuvamile zicishe zilingane nezinkomo noma zide kancane, kodwa ngenxa yesisindo esengeziwe samathambo, zivame ukuba nesisindo esikhulu kakhulu.Isikhathi esiningi, inkunzi iba ne-hump emahlombe.

Ezinkomeni ezinezimpondo, izimpondo zezinkunzi zivame ukuba zincane futhi zibe mfushane ngaphezudlwana kunezo zezinkomo, [2] futhi ezinhlotsheni eziningi, zigobela ngaphandle ku-arc eyisicaba kunokuya phezulu ngesimo sehabhu. Akusilona iqiniso, njengoba kukholelwa kanjalo ngokuvamile, ke izinkunzi babe izimpondo kanye izinkomo musa: khona izimpondo incike zohlobo, noma izinhlobo zinezimpondo ekutheni izimpondo ziye disbudded.(Kuyiqiniso, nokho, ukuthi ezinhlotsheni eziningi zezimvu kuphela abesilisa abanezimpondo. ).Izinkomo ukuthi ngokwemvelo akudingeki izimpondo zibizwa ngokuthi ababuzwa, noma muleys.

Izinkomo zesilisa ezisikiwe ziyafana ngokomzimba nezinsikazi ezakheke futhi zakhiwe ngophondo, yize zivunyelwe ukuthi zikhule, zingaba zinde kakhulu kunezinkunzi noma izinkomo, ezinamahlombe nezintamo ezinemisipha.

Uhlelo lokuzala[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Uhlelo lokuzala lenkunzi

Izinkunzi ziyavunda zizungeze izinyanga eziyisikhombisa ubudala.Ukuzala kwabo kuhlobene kakhulu nosayizi wamasende abo, kanti isivivinyo esisodwa esilula sokuzala ukuzungeza ubude besikhungu; inkunzi encane kungenzeka ivunde uma lokhu sekufike 28 centimetres (11 in) ; leyo yenkunzi esekhule ngokuphelele ingaba ngaphezu 40 centimetres (16 in) .Izinkunzi zinomthondo we-fibroelastic. Njengoba kunikezwe inani elincane lezicubu ze-erectile, ukukhulisa okuncane kwenzeka ngemuva kokwakhiwa.I-penis iqine kakhulu lapho ingami, futhi iba nzima nakakhulu ngesikhathi sokumiswa.Protrusion alithintwa enkulu ngokubhula ukwakhiwa, kodwa eziningi ngokufaka ukuphumula we imisipha retractor umthondo futhi eqondisa we flexure sigmoid.Izinkunzi ziyathinteka ngezikhathi ezithile ngesimo esaziwa nge- "corkscrew penis".Umthondo wenkunzi evuthiwe ucishe ube yi-3-4 cm ububanzi,no-80-100 cm ubude. Umthondo wenkunzi yenkomo unomumo oyindilinga nophakeme. [3]

Imibono eyiphutha[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umbono oyiphutha ovamile ophindaphindwa kabanzi emifanekisweni yokuziphatha kwezinkunzi ukuthi umbala obomvu uthukuthelisa izinkunzi, uzihlohle ukuthi zikhokhise.Eqinisweni, njengezilwane eziningi ezincelisayo, izinkomo zinombala obomvu noluhlaza okotshani.Ekulweni nenkunzi, ukuhamba kwekapa le-matador, hhayi umbala, kubangela ukusabela kule nkunzi.

Ukuphathwa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukukhiqizwa kwenkomo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngaphandle kwezinkunzi ezimbalwa ezidingekayo ukuzalanisa, iningi lezinkomo zesilisa liyathenwa bese lihlatshelwa inyama ngaphambi kweminyaka emithathu, ngaphandle kwalapho zidingeka khona (njengezithenjiwe) njengezinkabi zomsebenzi wokuthwala.Iningi lalezi zilwane zenyama yenkomo lithengelwe njengezinkonyane ukunciphisa isimilo esinolaka nokuvikela ukukhwelana okungafuneki, [4] yize ezinye zikhuliswa njengenkomo yenkomo engacoliswanga. Inkunzi ivamise ukulungela ukuhlatshwa inyanga eyodwa noma ezimbili ngokushesha ukwedlula eyeduna noma eyensikazi ethenjiwe, futhi ikhiqiza imisipha ethe xaxa ngokwengeziwe. [4]

Uzimele amaphuzu ayindlela ewusizo yokuchaza ubukhulu bamathambo ezinkunzi nezinye izinkomo.Izikolo zohlaka zingasetshenziswa njengesizo ukubikezela osayizi bezinkomo abavuthiwe kanye nosizo ekukhetheni izinkunzi zenkomo.Zibalwa kusukela ekuphakameni kwe-hip nobudala. Kumakhathalogi wokuthengisa, lesi silinganiso sibikwa njalo ngokungeziwe kusisindo nenye idatha yokusebenza efana nenani lokulinganisa elilinganisiwe.

Isimo nokubamba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Inkunzi ibhula uthuli ikhombisa usongo
Uphawu lokuxwayisa lwenkambu ehlala inkunzi

Izinkunzi ezindala zingaba nesisindo esiphakathi kuka-Iningi liyakwazi ukuziphatha nolaka futhi lidinga ukuphatha ngokucophelela ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwabantu nezinye izilwane.Lezo zinhlobo zobisi zingase zithambekele kakhulu ekuhlaselweni, kuyilapho izinhlobo zenyama yenkomo zinolaka kancane, kepha izinhlobo zenkomo ezinjengeSpanish Fighting Bull nezilwane ezihlobene nazo zaziwa ngokuthambekela okunolaka, okukhuthazwa ngokuqhubekayo ngokuzala okukhethiwe .

Kulinganiselwa ukuthi u-42% wabo bonke abantu ababulawa imfuyo eCanada bangumphumela wokuhlaselwa kwezinkunzi, kanti kusinda izisulu ezingaphansi koyedwa kwabangu-20 ekuhlaselweni yinkunz.Izinkunzi ezifuywayo zobisi ziyingozi ikakhulukazi futhi zingalindelekile; izingozi zokuphathwa kwezinkunzi ziyimbangela ebalulekile yokulimala nokufa kwabalimi bezinkomo zobisi kwezinye izingxenye ze-United States.[5] [6]Isidingo sokufaka inkunzi ngaphandle nangaphandle kwesibaya sayo ukumboza izinkomo kuveza ophethe engcupheni enkulu yempilo nezitho zomzimba. [7]Ukunyathelwa, ukuminyaniswa odongeni, noma ukuqhutshwa yinkunzi kwakuyimbangela eyodwa yokufa kwabantu embonini yobisi ngaphambi kuka-1940. [8]Ngokuphathelene nezingozi ezinjalo, omunye umagazini odumile wezolimo usikisele wathi, "Bamba inkunzi ngenduku futhi ungathathi amashansi.Inkunzi emnene, hhayi enonya, imvamisa iyabulala noma ilimaze umgcini wayo ". [9]

Ukuphatha[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Inkunzi enendandatho yempumulo emudonsela kupikethi

Ezindaweni eziningi, ukufaka amasongo emakhaleni ezinkunzi ukusiza ukuzilawula kungokwesiko.Iringi ivamise ukwenziwa ngethusi, bese ifakwa emgodini omncane osikwe engxenyeni yekhala. Isetshenziswa ngokunamathisela intambo yomthofu ngqo kuyo noma igijime kuyo kusuka kukhololo wekhanda, noma ezinkomeni ezinzima kakhulu, isigxobo senkunzi (noma abasebenzi bezinkunzi) singasetshenziswa.Lesi yisigxobo esiqinile cishe 1 metre (3 ft) ubude nesiqeshana ngakolunye uhlangothi; lokhu kunamathela eringini futhi kuvumela inkunzi ukuthi iholelwe futhi ibanjelwe kude nomphathi wayo.

Inkunzi enobudlova ingagcinwa ivalelwe esibayeni sezinkunzi, indawo yokukhosela eyakhiwe ngokuqinile kanye nepeni, imvamisa kunelungiselelo lokuvumela inkunzi ukuthi iphiwe ngaphandle kokungena esibayeni.Uma inkunzi enobudlova ivunyelwe ukuba idle ngaphandle, kungahle kudingeke ezinye izinyathelo zokuvikela ukuze ingalimazi abantu.Enye indlela isifihla-buso senkunzi, esivala amehlo enkunzi ngokuphelele, noma sivimbele umbono wakhe uwele phansi ngokushesha phambi kwakhe, ngakho-ke akakwazi ukubona umuntu angaba yisisulu sakhe.Enye indlela ukunamathisela ubude beketanga eringini lasekhaleni lenkunzi, ukuze kuthi uma idada ikhanda layo ishaja, inyathele iketango bese ikhuliswa ifushane.Ngenye indlela, inkunzi ingase ibhobokiswe, noma iboshwe ngamaketanga ngendandatho yayo noma ngekhola entweni eqinile enjengendandatho ebekelwe phansi.

Emadlelweni amakhulu, ikakhulukazi lapho kugcinwa khona inkunzi nezinye izinkomo, izilwane zingamane zondliwe ngeveni noma ngogandaganda, imoto uqobo enikela ukuvikelwa kwabantu abathintekayo.Ngokuvamile, izinkunzi ezigcinwa nezinkomo zivame ukungabi nolaka kakhulu kunalezo ezigcinwa zodwa.Ezimweni zomhlambi, izinkomo ezinamathole amancane zivame ukuba yingozi kubantu.Esikhathini esingaphandle, izinkunzi eziningi zingagcinwa ndawonye "emhlambini we-bachelor".

Ukukhulelwa okungekhona okwangempela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukulwa nezinkunzi

Amapulazi amaningi wezinkomo neziteshi ziqhuba izinkunzi nezinkomo, futhi amapulazi amaningi obisi noma enkomo ngokwesiko ayenezinkunzi okungenani eyodwa, uma kungenjalo, ngenhloso yokugcinwa kwemfuyo. [10] [11]Kodwa-ke, izinkinga ezihambisana nokuphatha inkunzi (ikakhulukazi lapho izinkomo kufanele zisuswe khona ukuze zisebenze) yenze ukuthi abalimi abaningi bezinkomo bazinqande ekusetshenzisweni kwezinkomo (AI). [12]Isidoda siyasuswa ezinkomeni bese sigcinwa emigqonyeni ye- liquid nitrogen, lapho sigcinwa khona size sithengiswe, ngaleso sikhathi singaba nenzuzo enkulu; empeleni, abafuyi abaningi bagcina izinkunzi ngokukhethekile ngale njongo.I-AI ibuye isetshenziselwe ukuthuthukisa ikhwalithi yomhlambi, noma ukwethula ukuphuma kwamagazi.Abanye abafuyi bakhetha ukusebenzisa i-AI ukuze bavunyelwe ukuba bazalele izinkunzi ezahlukahlukene ngenkathi ethile noma ukuzala imfuyo yabo engcono kakhulu kunkunzi esezingeni eliphakeme kunaleyo abakwazi ukuyithenga ngokuqondile.I-AI nayo ingasetshenziswa ngokuhlanganyela nokudluliswa kombungu ukuvumela abakhiqizi bezinkomo ukwengeza ukuzalanisa okusha emihlambini yabo.

Ubudlelwano nabantu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Inkunzi e- aurochs emdwebeni womhume eLascaux, eFrance
Inkunzi elisetshenziswa heraldry : Itshwayo izingalo ka Mecklenburg esifundeni, Germany

Ngaphandle kwemisebenzi yazo yokuzala, izinkunzi ziyasetshenziswa nakwezemidlalo ethile, kufaka phakathi ukulwa kwezinkunzi nokugibela izinkunzi . Zifakwe futhi emikhosini nasemicimbini yesintu efana nokugijima kwezinkunzi futhi zabonakala emidlalweni yasendulo efana nokuxhuma kwezinkunzi.Nakuba ezivamile esingaphansi kwabesilisa zazithenwa, izinkunzi ezisetshenziswa njengeziwusizo okusalungiswa izinkabi kwezinye izindawo.Umdlalo owake wathandwa kakhulu wokubamba izinkunzi, lapho inkunzi ihlaselwa yizinja ezifuywa ngokukhethekile futhi eziqeqeshiwe (ezaziwa ngokuthi ama- bulldogs ), wavinjelwa eNgilandi yi- Cruelty to Animals Act 1835.

Njengezinye izilwane, ezinye izinkunzi ziye zabhekwa njengezilwane ezifuywayo . Umculi uCharo, ngokwesibonelo, ubenenkunzi yezinkomo egama linguManolo.

Ukubaluleka emasikweni esintu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izinkunzi ezingcwele zibambe indawo ebalulekile emasikweni esintu kusukela ngaphambi kokuqala komlando oqoshiwe.Zibonakala emidwebweni yemidwebo elinganiselwa eminyakeni eyi-17,000 ubudala.I-Bull of the Heavens yezinganekwane idlala indima ku- Epic yasendulo yaseSumerian kaGilgamesh, eyaqala emuva ngo-2150 BC.Ukubaluleka kwenkunzi kubonakala ekubonakaleni kwayo kumzodiac njengeTaurus, kanye nokuvela kwayo okuningi ezinganekwaneni, lapho kuvame ukuhlotshaniswa nokuzala. Bheka futhi neKorban.KubuHindu, inkunzi egama layo linguNandi, evamise ukuboniswa ihleli phansi, ikhonzwa njengemoto kankulunkulu uShiva futhi ikhonjiswe ezithombeni eziningi zalowo nkulunkulu.

Inhloko yenkomo ejazini likaJoroinen

Ngokomfanekiso, inkunzi ivela ngokujwayelekile ku- heraldry.Bulls selivela amacala futhi crests ku izingalo imikhaya eminingana British.Yezinkunzi ezinamaphiko avele njengoba abasekeli e izingalo okukhulekela Inkampani ye Obhusha . [13]Ezikhathini zanamuhla, inkunzi isetshenziswa njenge- mascot ngamaqembu ezemidlalo amateur nochwepheshe.

Izinkunzi nazo zibaluleke ngokukhethekile emasikweni aseSpain, lapho ukugijima komkhosi wezinkunzi kwenzeka njalo ngonyaka ehlobo.Phakathi nalo mkhosi, iqembu labagijimi abangabantu elibizwa ngokuthi "mozos" lizama ukudlula iqembu lezinkunzi ezigijima ngemuva kwazo, ngenkathi izixuku ezinkulu zibuka wonke umjaho.

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. C. J. C. Phillips, Principles of Cattle Production (2010), p. 50.
  2. Klaus-Dieter Budras, et al, Bovine Anatomy: An Illustrated Text (2003), p. 36.
  3. Empty citation (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Castration of Calves Factsheet, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, June 2007.
  5. Cumberland County (Pa.) Sentinel, Shippensburg, Pa., February 12, 2008 A farmer in Southampton County, Michigan, was killed by a 2000-lb Holstein bull in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, in February, 2008.
  6. [https://web.archive.org/web/20180826072821/http://www2.readingeagle.com/article.aspx?id=200357 Archived 2018-08-26 at the Wayback Machine. The Reading [Pennsylvania]Eagle, March 1, 2010] On February 28, 2010, a farmer near Reading, Pennsylvania was trampled and gored to death by a 2000-lb black Angus bull that he had been urged to get rid of by friends after earlier mishaps. Michelle Park, "Bull attacks, kills owner at South Heidelberg Township farm".
  7. Alvin H. Clement, We Gotta Have More Jails, The Writer's Club Press, New York (1984–87), at pp. 79-80. A humorous description of moving a cow to a neighbor's Jersey bull for breeding purposes, and the use of a 12-foot bull staff to get the loose-running bull under control after he had already spotted the cow
  8. O.C. Gregg, Ed., Minnesota Farmer's Institute Annual No. 15, Pioneer Press, St. Paul, Minn. (1902), at p. 125; The James Way, The James Manufacturing Co., Ft. Atkinson, Wisc. (1914), p. 103.
  9. Helpful Information for Dairymen, The Farmer, Webb Publishing Co., St. Paul, Minnesota, Mar. 12, 1927, p. 6.
  10. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Yearbook 1922, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. (1922), pp. 325-28 (noting a national on-farm bull population of over 600,000 "scrub" bulls in addition to a multiyear supply of "pure bred" bulls)
  11. O.C. Gregg, Ed., Minnesota Farmer's Institute Annual No. 15, Pioneer Press, St. Paul, Minn. (1902), pp.129-32 (recommending the keeping and testing of sires for dairy herd improvement).
  12. C. J. C. Phillips, Principles of Cattle Production (2010), p. 121.
  13. Arthur Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, T.C. and E.C. Jack, London, 1909, 205-207, https://archive.org/details/completeguidetoh00foxduoft.