IsiTumbuka

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Ulimi lwesiTumbuka wulimi lwesiBantu olukhulunywa esifundeni esiseNyakatho neMalawi futhi nasesifundeni iLundazi eZambia . [1] Kuyaziwa nangokuthi Chitumbuka noma Citumbuka - isiqalo se- chi- phambi kweTumbuka sisho "ulimi lwama-", futhi kulokhu kuyaqondakala ukuthi kusho ukuthi "ulimi ( lwabantu baseTumbuka )".Isi-Tumbuka kungokwalabo iqembu elifanayo ulimi ( Guthrie Zone N ) njengoba Chewa futhi Sena . [2]

I-World Almanac (1998) ilinganisela ukuthi kunezikhulumi zesiTumbuka ezibalelwa ku-2 000 000,yize eminye imithombo ilinganisela inani elincane kakhulu. Iningi lezikhulumi zesiTumbuka kuthiwa zihlala eMalawi.[1]IsiTumbuka sikhulunywa kakhulu ezilimini zaseNyakatho Malawi, ikakhulukazi ezifundeni zaseRumphi, eMzuzu, naseMzimba . [3]

Kukhona umehluko omkhulu phakathi kohlobo lwesiTumbuka olukhulunywa ezindaweni ezisemadolobheni eMalawi (okuboleka amanye amagama avela esiSwahili naseChewa ) kanye "nomzana" noma "isijulile" isiTumbuka esikhulunywa ezigodini.Ukuhluka kweRumphi kuvame ukubhekwa njenge "msulwa ngokwamalimi", futhi kwesinye isikhathi kubizwa nge- "Tumbuka yangempela". [4] I Mzimba lwesigodi iye kakhulu ukuthonywa Zulu (chiNgoni), [5] ngisho kude ukuze abe ukuchofoza ngamagama afana chitha[ʇʰitʰa] "chama",okungekho kwezinye izilimi.

Ulimi lwesiTumbuka lwahlupheka ngesikhathi sokubusa kukaMongameli uHastings Kamuzu Banda,lusukela ngo-1968 ngenxa yenqubomgomo yakhe yolimi olulodwa, lwalahlekelwa isikhundla salo njengolimi olusemthethweni eMalawi.Ngenxa yalokho, uTumbuka wasuswa ezifundweni zesikole, emsakazweni kazwelonke, nakwabezindaba abaphrintayo. [6] Ngokufika kwentando yeningi yamaqembu amaningi ngo-1994, izinhlelo zesiTumbuka zaqalwa futhi emsakazweni, kodwa inani lezincwadi nokunye okushicilelwa ngesiTumbuka lisalokhu liphansi. [7]

I-Orthography[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ababili izinhlelo yokubhala Isi-Tumbuka kuyasetshenziswa: isipelingi bendabuko (wasebenzisa isibonelo Chitumbuka nguqulo ye Wikipedia nasemaphephandabeni Fuko ), ngamagama banthu 'abantu' chaka 'unyaka' zibhalwe ngo-'b 'no' ch ', kanye nesipelingi esisha esisemthethweni (esisetshenziswe ngokwesibonelo kusichazamazwi seCitumbuka esishicilelwe online yiCentre for Language Studies kanye naseBhayibhelini eliku-inthanethi), lapho amagama afanayo abhalwe khona 'W' futhi 'c', isib ŵanthu futhi caka. (Umsindo 'wa' uyindilinga eseduze [w] obizwa ngolimi endaweni eseduze-i. ) [8] cakulya 'nokuthi' l 'kuphi, isb cakulya (Isichazamazwi) noma i- cakurya (IBhayibheli) 'ukudla'. (Empeleni [l] kanye no- [r] kukhona allophones okufanayo phoneme . Kukhona futhi ukungabaza phakathi kwezipelingi 'sk' no 'sy' (womabili miskombe futhi misyombe ('bamboo') zitholakala kusichazamazwi seCitumbuka). [9]

Imisindvo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Onkamisa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Onkamisa abafanayo /a/, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, /u/ no syllabic /m̩/ batholakala esiTumbuka njengasolimini olungumakhelwane iChewa . [10]

Ongwaqa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ongwaqa besiTumbuka nabo bayafana nalabo beChewa esakhelene nabo, kepha ngokuhlukahluka okuthile. Imisindo eqhubekayo ethi /ɣ/, /β/ no /h/, engekho noma ebekelwe eceleni eChewa, ijwayelekile eTumbuka. Okunye futhi okuvamisile ukuthi kube yimisindo e-palatalised /vʲ/, /fʲ/, /bʲ/, /pʲ/, /skʲ/, /zgʲ/, kanye /ɽʲ/ . ETumbuka azikho izifunda ezifana /psʲ/, /bzʲ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/ . Imisindvo /s/ kanye /z/ nsómba, kuze Chewa nsómba ('fish') = somba . Umsindo /ʃ/ utholakala kuphela kumagama angaphandle afana shati ('ihembe') kanye ne- shuga ('ushukela'). UTumbuka /ɽ/ kwesinye isikhathi uhambelana neChewa /d/, ngokwesibonelo Chewa kudwala 'to be ill' = Tumbuka kulwala , Chewa kudya 'to eat' = Tumbuka kulya . Ukuphinyiselwa kwe- "sk" ne- "zg" kuyahlukahluka ngokuya ngolimi lwesigodi.

Ongwaqa besiTumbuka bavamise ukuzalwa (okusho ukuthi kulandelwa ngu / y /) noma kuyindilinga (isb. Kulandelwa ngu / w /. Ezinye zazo zingaphinde zandulelwe nge- homorganic nasal (/ n /, / ng '/ noma / m /). Inhlanganisela yongwaqa ongaba khona ikhonjiswa etafuleni elingezansi:

Ithebula Longwaqa bongwaqa [11] [12]
kuzwakalisiwe kungavunyelwe ufisa Kuvezwa amakhala emakhaleni aspirated ikhala semivowel / liquid
labial ba



/ɓ/
pa



/p/
pha



/pʰ/
mba



/ᵐb/
mpha



/ᵐpʰ/
ma



/m/
ŵaba



/β/
bwa



/ɓʷ/
pwa



/pʷ/
phwa



/pʷʰ/
mbwa



/ᵐbʷ/
mphwa



/ᵐpʷʰ/
mwa



/mʷ/
wa



/w/
bya



/bʲ/
pya



/pʲ/
phya



/pʲʰ/
mbya



/ᵐbʲ/
mphya



/ᵐpʲʰ/
mya



/mʲ/
amazinyo da



/ɗ/
ta



/t/
tha



/tʰ/
nda



/ⁿd/
ntha



/ⁿtʰ/
na



/n/
la / ra



/ɽ/
dwa



/ɗʷ/
okubili



/tʷ/
thwa



/tʷʰ/
ndwa



/ⁿdʷ/
nthwa



/ⁿtʷʰ/
nwa /nʷ/ lwa / rwa



/ɽʷ/
dya



/ɗʲ/
tya



/tʲ/
thya



/tʲʰ/
( ndya ) [13]



/ⁿdʲ/
( nthya )



/ⁿtʲʰ/
nya



/nʲ/
lya / rya



/ɽʲ/
i-velar / palatal ga



/g/
ka



/k/
kha



/kʰ/
nga



/ᵑg/
nkha



/ᵑkʰ/
ng'a



/ŋ/
gha



/ɣ/
gwa



/gʷ/
kwa



/kʷ/
khwa



/kʷʰ/
ngwa



/ᵑgʷ/
nkhwa



/ᵑkʷʰ/
ng'wa



/ŋʷ/
ja



/d͡ʒ/
ca



/t͡ʃ/
cha



/t͡ʃʰ/
nja



/ⁿd͡ʒ/
ncha



/ⁿt͡ʃʰ/
ya



/j/
jwa



/d͡ʒʷ/
cwa



/t͡ʃʷ/
labio-wamazinyo va



/v/
fa



/f/
vwa



/vʷ/
fwa



/fʷ/
vya



/vʲ/
fya



/fʲ/
sibilant za



/z/
sa



/s/
zwa



/zʷ/
swa



/sʷ/
zga



/zʲ/
i-ska ( sya )



/sʲ/
( sha )



/ʃ/
i-glottal ha



/h/

Ithoni[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Omunye umehluko omkhulu phakathi kweChewa nesiTumbuka ukuthi isiChewa ulimi lwethoni, kanti esiTumbuka akukho mehluko wethoni phakathi kwegama negama.

UTumbuka unezimpawu zokuthona kodwa ngendlela elinganiselwe kakhulu, ngokuthi igama ngalinye, elikhulunywa lodwa, linezwi elifanayo lokuwa esihlahleni sokugcina (nalo elihambisana nengcindezi). [14] Ngakho-ke akwenzeki ukuthi esiTumbuka kuqhathaniswe amagama amabili ahlukene noma izinkathi ezimbili ezahlukene ngokwe-tonally, njengoba kunjalo ngesiChewa nezinye izilimi zeBantu. Kodwa-ke, leli thoni lokugcina lokuwa livela hhayi kuwo wonke amagama, kodwa kuphela egameni lokugcina lomusho wephonological; isib. emshweni olandelayo, igama lesibili kuphela elinethoni, elokuqala alinalo ithoni: [15]

  • ti-ku-phika sî:ma 'sipheka ipapa

Izinhlobonhlobo ezinkulu zamaphethini amathoni zitholakala kuma- ideophones (amagama avezayo) esiTumbuka; isibonelo uLow ( yoyoyo 'ukwahlukana kube izingcezu ezincane'), High ( fyá: 'swooping low (wezinyoni)'), High-Low ( phúli 'umsindo wento eqhumayo'), kanye ne-Low-High ( yií 'ukunyamalala okungazelelwe'), njll. [16]

Amathoni wezizwe nawo asetshenziswa esiTumbuka; isibonelo, emibuzweni ka-yebo-cha kuvame ukuwa okuPhezulu kuya Phansi kuhlamvu lwemibuzo lombuzo: [17]

  • ku-limirâ-so ngô:mâ? 'nawe ususa ukhula emmbileni? '

Kubonakala sengathi akukho ukuhlangana okungaguquguquki, okuqondile phakathi kwethoni ngesiTumbuka nokugxila . [18]

Amabizo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izigaba zamabizo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Njengenjwayelo ezilimini zeBantu, amabizo esiTumbuka ahlukaniswe ngezigaba ezahlukahlukene zamabizo ngokweziqalo zawo ezisebunyeni nasebuningini.Isigaba ngasinye sebizo sineziphawulo zazo, izabizwana, nezivumelwano zezenzo, ezaziwa ngokuthi 'izivumelwano' Lapho izivumelwano zingavumelani nesiqalo, izivumelwano zihamba phambili ekuthathweni kwesigaba sebizo. Isibonelo, ibizo katundu 'impahla', yize inesiqalo ka-, ibekwa ekilasini 1, ngoba umuntu uthi katundu uyu 'lezi zinto' kusetshenziswa umboniso we-class 1 uyu .AbaseMalawi uqobo (isib. Esichazamazwini seCitumbuka sase-University of Malawi) babhekisa ezigabeni zamabizo ngamagama endabuko anjenge "Mu-isimoa-";Ochwepheshe beBantu, nokho, babhekisa ezigabeni ngezinombolo (1/2 njll.)Ezihambelana nezigaba zamabizo zezinye izilimi zeBantu. Ngezikhathi ezithile amabizo awahambelani nezigaba ezingezansi, isb. fumu 'induna' (isigaba 9) ngokungafanele ine- mafumu yobuningi ekilasini 6.

Umaki wento[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  • ".
  • Tionanenge = We shall meet again.

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Michigan State University African Studies Center information page Archived 2015-11-23 at the Wayback Machine.. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Michigan" defined multiple times with different content
  2. Kiso (2012), pp.21ff.
  3. University of Malawi (2006) Language Mapping Survey for Northern Malawi.
  4. Kamwendo (2004), p.282.
  5. University of Malawi (2006), p.27.
  6. Kamwendo (2004), p.278.
  7. See Language Mapping Survey for Northern Malawi (2006), pp.38-40 for a list of publications.
  8. Atkins, Guy (1950) "Suggestions for an Amended Spelling and Word Division of Nyanja" Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 20, No. 3, p.205.
  9. See entries citatanga, cidunga, cihengo.
  10. Vail (1972), p. 1.
  11. Chavula (2016), pp. 11–13.
  12. Vail (1972), pp. 4–19.
  13. Only in the word ndyali.
  14. Downing (2008, 2012).
  15. Downing (2012), p.123.
  16. Moto (1999), pp.112-120.
  17. Downing (2008), p.55.
  18. Downing (2012), p.129.