IsiYoruba

Mayelana Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
A Yoruba speaker, recorded in South Africa.

Yoruba ( /j ɒr ʊ b ə / ; [1] .Yor Èdè Yorùbá ; Ajami : عِدعِ يوْرُبا ) ulimi olukhulunywa eNtshonalanga Afrika, ikakhulukazi eNingizimu-ntshonalanga yeNigeria .Kukhulunywa ngabantu baseYoruba bobuzwe.Inani lezikhulumi zaseYoruba kuthiwa lilinganiselwa ezigidini ezingama-50, kanye nezikhulumi ezingaba yizigidi ezimbili zolimi lwesibili.Njengolimi olunabaningi, kukhulunywa ikakhulu endaweni yezilimi ehlanganisa iNigeria nemiphakathi emincane efudukile eCote d'Ivoire, eSierra Leone naseGambia .

Njengolimi oluyinhloko lwesiYoruboid, isiYoruba sihlobene kakhulu nezilimi isi- Itsekiri (esikhulunywa eNiger Delta ) nesi- Igala (esikhulunywa enkabeni yeNigeria). [2]

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  IsiYoruba sihlukaniswa phakathi kwezilimi zase-Edekiri, zona kanye ne- Itsekiri kanye ne- Igala ehlukanisayo ezakha iqembu lezilimi zaseYoruboid ngaphakathi kwegatsha laseVolta – Niger lomndeni waseNiger-Congo.Ubunye bezilimi bomndeni waseNiger –Congo buqala emlandweni ojulile, kulinganiselwa eminyakeni engaba ngu-11000 edlule (ukuphela kwe- Upper Paleolithic ).ENigeria yanamuhla, kulinganiselwa ukuthi kunezikhulumi ezingaphezulu kwezigidi ezingama-40 zolimi lwesiYoruba nolwesibili kanye nezinye izigidi zezikhulumi ngaphandle kwaseNigeria, okwenza kube yilona limi olukhulunywa kakhulu e-Afrika ngaphandle kwezwekazi.

Izinhlobonhlobo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukuqhubeka kwesigodi saseYoruba uqobo kuqukethe izilimi eziningi.Izilimi ezahlukahlukene zaseYoruba eYorubaland yaseNigeria zingahlukaniswa zibe yizindawo ezinhlanu ezinkulu zolimi lwesifunda: iNyakatho-ntshonalanga, iNortheast, Central, Southwest kanye neNingizimu-mpumalanga.Imingcele ecacile ayikwazi ukudonselwa, izindawo ezingamaphethelo ezifunda zesigodi zivame ukufana ngokufana nolimi oluhlangene.

  • I-North-West Yoruba (NWY)
    • I-Egba, Ibadan, Egbado / Yewa, Ọyọ, Western Ogun, Lagos / Eko .
  • I-North-East Yoruba (NEY)
    • Yagba, Owe, Ijumu, Oworo, Gbede, Abunu .
  • Isi-Central Yoruba (CY)
    • Igbomina, Ijesha, Ifẹ, Ekiti, Akurẹ, Ẹfọn .
  • ISouth-East Yoruba (SEY)
    • Ikale, Ilaje, Ondo City, Ọwọ, Idanre, Akoko, Remo, Ijẹbu .
  • ISouth-West Yoruba (SWY)
    • UKetu, Awori, Sakété, Ifè (Togo), Idasha, Ipokia / Anago .

INorth-West Yoruba ngokomlando iyingxenye yoMbuso wase- ọyọ.Ezilimini ze-NWY, i-Proto-Yoruba velar fricative /ɣ/ ne-labialized voiced velar / gʷ / have been integrated into / w /; onkamisa abaphezulu / ɪ / no / ʊ / bakhuliswa futhi bahlanganiswa no / i / kanye / u /, njengoba nje nozakwabo bamakhala, okuholela ohlelweni lukankamisa ononkamisa abayisikhombisa bomlomo nabathathu.

Izincwadi ZesiYoruba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-Literary Yoruba, eyaziwa nangokuthi i- Standard Yoruba, i- Yoruba koiné, ne- Yoruba ejwayelekile, iyilungu elihlukile leqoqo lezilimi.Kuyindlela ebhaliwe yolimi, ukuhlukahluka okujwayelekile okufundwa esikoleni nokuthi kukhulunywa ngabafundi bezindaba emsakazweni.I-Yoruba ejwayelekile inomsuka wayo ngawo-1850, lapho uSamuel A. Crowther, umbhishobhi wokuqala wase-Afrika wase-Anglican, eshicilela uhlelo lolimi lwesiYoruba futhi eqala ukuhumusha kwakhe iBhayibheli.Yize ingxenye enkulu isuselwa kuzilimi ze-Ọyọ nezesi- Ibadan, iS Standard Yoruba ifaka izici eziningana ezivela kwezinye izilimi. [3]Ibuye inezici ezithile ezihlukile kuyo, isibonelo, uhlelo lokuvumelana konkamisa olwenziwe lula, kanye nezinhlaka zakwamanye amazwe, ezinjengama- calque avela esiNgisini aqala ekuhumusheni kokuqala kwemisebenzi yenkolo.

Imisindvo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izakhi ezintathu ezinamalungu ezinhlamvu zesiYoruba ongonkamisa (onkamisa (i-CV), unkamisa yedwa (V), ne-syllabic nasal (N).Njalo nohlamvu uthela omunye amathoni ezintathu: okusezingeni eliphezulu ⟩ maphakathi ⟩ (ngokuvamile kwesokunxele ukumakwa), kanye ongaphakeme ⟩Isigwebo N O Lo (Angiyanga) sinikeze izibonelo zezindlela zokugcina izinhlobo ezintathu uhlamvu:

  • n̄ - [ŋ̄] — Mina
  • ò — [ò] - hhayi (ukuphika)
  • lọ — [lɔ̄] - ukuhamba

Onkamisa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-Yoruba ejwayelekile inonkamisa abayisikhombisa bomlomo nabahlanu. Awekho ama-diphthongs ngesi-Yoruba; ukulandelana konkamisa kubizwa njengezinhlamvu ezihlukene.Izigodi ziyahluka ngenani labokamisa abanalo; bheka ngenhla .

Umdwebo wonkamisa waseYoruba, owamukelwe kuBamgboṣe (1969: 166). Onkamisa bomlomo baphawulwa ngamachashazi amnyama, kuyilapho izifunda ezinemibala zikhombisa amabanga ngekhwalithi engaba khona konkamisa bakhala.

Ithoni[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IsiYoruba siwulimi lwethoni olunamathoni ezingeni ezintathu namathoni amabili noma amathathu entaba.Wonke amalunga kufanele okungenani abe nethoni eyodwa; uhlamvu oluqukethe unkamisa omude lungaba namathoni amabili.Amathoni zibonakala ukusetshenziswa nokugqamisa ahlekise ithoni okusezingeni eliphezulu ⟩ ⟩ kanye nokugqamisa ethuneni ithoni ongaphakeme ⟩ ⟩ maphakathi kuyinto ukumakwa, ngaphandle nasals syllabic lapho kukhonjiswe usebenzisa macron ⟩ ⟩ Izibonelo:

  • H: ó bẹ́ [ó bɛ́] 'wagxuma'; síbí [síbí] 'isipuni'
  • M: ó bẹ [ó bɛ̄] 'uyaphambili'; ara [āɾā] 'umzimba'
  • L: ó bẹ̀ [ó bɛ̀] 'ucela ukuxolelwa'; ọ̀kọ̀ [ɔ̀kɔ̀] 'umkhonto'.

Lapho kufundiswa ukufunda nokubhala kwe-Yoruba, amagama asolfège wamanothi omculo asetshenziselwa ukuqamba amathoni: iphansi is do, maphakathi is re, futhi iphezulu mi . [4]

Imiphumela yamuva kanye nemibhalo enekhodi yekhompyutha[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IsiYoruba esibhalwayo sifaka amamaki okubhalwa kwempawu angatholakali kukhibhodi ejwayelekile yekhompyutha, edinga ukulungiswa okuthile.Ikakhulukazi, ukusetshenziswa kwamachashazi amancane namamaki wethoni akumelwe, imibhalo eminingi yaseYoruba imane iyishiye.U-Asubiaro Toluwase, ephepheni lakhe lowezi-2014, [5] uveza ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwalezi zimpawu kungathinta ukubuyiswa kwemibhalo yaseYoruba yizinjini ezidumile.Ngakho-ke, ukushiywa kwabo kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ocwaningweni olwenziwa online.

Uhlelo lolimi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IsiYoruba siwulimi oluzihlukanisa kakhulu. [6]Ukuhleleka kwayo okuyisisekelo kuyisihloko-isenzo-into, [7] njengaku- ó nà Adé 'washaya u-Adé'.Isiqu sesenzo esingenalutho sisho isenzo esigcwalisiwe, esivame ukubizwa ngokuthi siphelele; esishubile futhi isici zibonakala izinhlayiya preverbal ezifana n 'abangaphelele / samanje okuqhubekayo', ti 'esidlule.FddvcasxsUkungabi nalutho kuvezwa yizinhlayiyana ezingaphambi komlomo k.Ukwakhiwa kwesenzo okujwayelekile kuvamile, njengakwezinye izilimi eziningi zaseNtshonalanga Afrika .

Izinombolo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IsiYoruba sisebenzisa uhlelo lokubala izinombolo lwe-vigesimal (base-20).

I-Ogún, engama-20, iyibhlokhi eyisisekelo yezinombolo.

U-Ogójì, 40, (Ogún-méjì) = 20 uphindaphindwe ngo-2 (èjì).

Ọgọ́ta, 60, (Ogún-mẹ́ta) = 20 iphindaphindwe ngo-3 (ẹ̀ta).

U-ọgọ́rin, 80, (Ogún-mẹ́rin) = 20 ephindaphindwe ngo-4 (ẹ̀rin).

U-ọgọ́rùn-ún, 100, (Ogún-márùn-ún) = 20 ephindaphindwe ngo-5 (àrún).

16 (Ẹẹ́rìndínlógún) = 4 ngaphansi kuka-20.

17 (Ẹẹ́tàdínlógún) = 3 ngaphansi kuka-20.

18 (Eéjìdínlógún) = 2 ngaphansi kuka-20.

19 (Oókàndínlógún) = 1 ngaphansi kuka-20.

21 (Oókànlélógún) = 1 ukukhuphuka ngama-20.

22 (Eéjìlélógún) = 2 ukukhuphuka kuma-20.

23 (Ẹẹ́tàlélógún) = 3 ukukhuphuka kuma-20.

24 (Ẹẹ́rìnlélógún) = 4 ukukhuphuka kuma-20.

25 (Aárùnlélógún) = 5 ukukhuphuka kuma-20.

Amanye amagama okubolekwa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  • Sanma : Izulu noma isibhakabhaka, kusuka ku- السماء
  • i-alubarika : isibusiso, kusuka ku- البركة
  • alumaani : ingcebo, imali, izinsiza, kusuka ku- المال

Phakathi kwamagama ajwayelekile e-Arabhu asetshenziswa eYoruba kukhona amagama ezinsuku ezinjenge- Atalata ( الثلاثاء ) ngoLwesibili, Alaruba ( الأربعاء NgoLwesithathu, u- Alamisi ( الخميس ) NgoLwesine, noJimoh ( الجمعة , Jumu'ah ) ngoLwesihlanu. I- Ọjọ'Jimoh isetshenziswa kahle kakhulu.Kuvame ukubizwa ngegama elingemnandi ngoLwesihlanu, Ẹtì, okusho ukwehluleka, ubuvila, noma ukulahlwa.Ekugcineni, amagama ajwayelekile ezinsuku zeviki athi Àìkú, Ajé, Ìṣẹ́gun, Ọjọ́rú, Ọjọ́bọ, Ẹtì, Àbámẹ́ta, ngeSonto, uMsombuluko, uLwesibili, uLwesithathu, uLwesine, uLwesihlanu, uMgqibelo ngokulandelana.NgoLwesihlanu kuhlala isi-Eti ngolimi lwesiYoruba.

Izincwadi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  IsiYoruba sinenqwaba yezincwadi.

Izincwadi ezikhulunywayo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  • U-Odu Ifa
  • U-Oriki
  • Ewi
  • U-Esa
  • I-Apara
  • Alo
  • URara
  • Iremoje
  • Bolojo
  • Ijala
  • Ajangbode
  • Ijeke

Amanothi nezinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named e22
  3. Cf. for example the following remark by Adetugbọ (1967, as cited in Fagborun 1994:25): "While the orthography agreed upon by the missionaries represented to a very large degree the phonemes of the Abẹokuta dialect, the morpho-syntax reflected the Ọyọ-Ibadan dialects".
  4. . May 2018. 
  5. Asubiaro, Toluwase V. (2014). "Effects of Diacritics on Web Search Engines' Performance for Retrieval of Yoruba Documents". Journal of Library and Information Studies 12 (1): 1–19. doi:10.6182/jlis.2014.12(1).001. 
  6. Karlsson, F. Yleinen kielitiede.
  7. Rowlands, Evan Colyn. (1969).