Ukungondleki

From Wikipedia
Ukungondleki
UkungondlekiIribhini elisawolintshi— iribhini lokuqwashisa ngokungondleki.
Iribhini elisawolintshi— iribhini lokuqwashisa ngokungondleki.
Ukuhlela ngohlobo oluthile kanye nezinsiza zangaphandle
ICD/CIM-9 263.9 263.9
MedlinePlus 000404

Ukungondleki noma Ukungabi namsoco isimo esidalwa ukudla okungenazo izakhimzimba ezanele noma okunezakhamzimba eziningi zize zibange izifo.[1][2] Izakhamzimba ezibalwayo zingabandakanya: amakhalori, amaprotheni, isitashi, amavithamini noma amaminerali.[2] Kuvamise ukusetshenziselwa ukubiza ukudla okungenazo izakhamzimba ezanele uma amakhalori, iphrotheni noma izakhamzimba ezincane ezibalulekile engenele; kodwa, kuphinde kubandakanye ukudla okunezakhamzimba eziningi ngokweqile.[3][4]Uma ukushoda kwezakhamzimba kwenzeka ngesikhathi ukhulelwe noma ngaphambi kweminyaka emibili yobudala kungase kudale izinkinga zesikhathi eside ekukhuleni ngokomzimba nangokwengqondo.[2] Ukungabi nawo kakhulu umsoco, okwaziwa ngendlala, kungaba nezimpawu ezibandakanya: ukuba mfishane, umzimba owondile, amazinga aphansi kakhulu omdlandla, kanye nokuvuvukala kwemilenze kanye nesisu.[2][3]Abantu futhi bavamise ukuthola izifo kanti futhi bajwayele ukugodola. Izimpawu zokungabi nazo izakhamzimba ezincane ezibalulekile kuya ngokuthi yisiphi isakhamzimba esishodayo.[3]

Ukungabi nawo umsoco imvamisa kudalwa ukungatholi ukudla okusezingeni eliphezulu esingakudla.[5] Lokhu kuvamise ukudalwa amanani aphezulu okudla kanye nenhlupheko.[2][5] Uma ungazange uncelise ubisi lwebele kungase kube nomthelela, ngoba eziningi zezifo ezithelelanayo ezifana: ne-gastroenteritis (ukuvuvukala kwesisu namathumbu), inyumoniya, umalaleveva kanye nesimungumungwana okukwenyusa isidingo somsoco wezakhamzimba.[5] Kukhona izinhlobo ezimbili zokungabi namsoco: ukungabi namsoco wephrotheni yamandla kanye nokungabi namsoco ekudleni esikudlayo.[4] Ukungabi namsoco wephrotheni yamandla kunezindlela ezimbili ezimbi kakhulu: i-marasmus (ukuntuleka kwephrotheni nekhalori) kanye nekhwashu (ukuntuleka kwephrotheni).[3] Ukungabi khona komsoco okujwayelekile kubandakanya: ukuntuleka i-ayoni, i-ayodini kanye vithamini A.[3] Ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa, ngenxa yokunyuka kwesidingo salezi zakhamzimba, ukushoda kwazo kuba yinto ejwayelekile.[6] Kwamanye amazwe asathuthuka ukuba nomsoco ongaphezulu kodingekayo ngokuba yisidudla sekuthanda ukujwayeleka emphakathini njengokungabi namsoco.[7] Ezinye izimbangela zokungondleki zibandakanya i-anorexia nervosa (ukonda ngokweqile) kanye ne-bariatric surgery.[8][9] Kubantu abadala ukungondleki kuba yimvamisa ngenxa yezinto ezithinta umzimba, ingqondo kanye nenhlalakahle.[10]

Imizamo yokwenza ngcono izakhamzimba yizona zindlela ezisebenzayo zokusiza ukukhula.[11] Ukuncelisa ubisi lwebele nakho kunganciphisa ukungondleki kanye nokushona ebantwaneni,[2] kanti nemizamo yokukhuthaza ukwenziwa kwalokhu iyawenyusa amazinga.[12] Ezinganeni ezincane ukuzinika ukudla phezu kobisi lwebele uma sebephakathi kwezinyanga eziyisithupha kuya eminyakeni emibili kuyenza ngcono imiphumela.[12] Kukhona nobufakazi obuhle obeseka ukusebenzisa izinsiza zokudla ezitholakala emsocweni odingekayo ngesikhathi ukhulelwe nasezinganeni ezincane ezweni elithuthukayo.[12] Ukuyisa ukudla kubantu abakudinga kakhulu okungaba ukuhambisa ukudla kanye nokuhambisa imali ukuze abantu bezothenga ukudla ezitolo eziseduze nabo nakho kuyasebenza.[11][13] Ukunika abantu ukudla esikoleni kuphela akwenele.[11] Ukulawulwa kokungondleki okukhulu ekhaya lalowo muntu ukudla okwelaphayo osekulungele ukudliwa kungenzeka isikhathi esiningi.[12] Kulabo abangondlekile okwenziwa nzima ezinye izimo zezempilo kunconywa ukuthi balashelwe esibhedlela.[12] Lokhu kuvamise ukubandakanya ukulawula ukwehla kwezinga likashukela egazini, izinga lokushisa emzimbeni, ukuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni, kanye nokudla kancane kancane.[12][14] Kunconywa ukuphuzwa kwama-antibiotic ngenxa yezinga eliphezulu lobungozi besifo.[14] Izindlela zesikhathi eside zibandakanya: ukuthuthukisa ezolimo,[15] ukuze kuzoncipha inhlupheko, kuthuthukiswe ukuthuthwa kwendle, kanye ukuhlonyiswa kwabesifazane.[11]

Ngonyaka wezi-2010 abantu ababengondlekile babeyizigidi ezingama-925  emhlabeni, okwakunyuke ngezigidi ezingama-80  kusukela ngonyaka we-1990.[16][17] Esinye isigidigidi sabantu naso silinganiselwa ukuthi sintula amavithamini kanye nezakhamzimba.[11] Ngonyaka wezi-2010 ukushoda komsoco wephrotheni yamandla kuthiwa yaholela ekushoneni kwabantu abangama- 600,000 okwehla kusuka kwabangama- 883,000 ngonyaka we-1990.[18] Okunye ukuntuleka kwezakhamzimba, okubandakanya ukushoda kwe-ayodini kanye nokushoda kwe-ayoni, nakho kwabanga ukushona kwabantu abangama-84,000.[18] Ukungondleki ngonyaka wezi-2010 kwaba ngu-1.4% wembangela yabo bonke ababa nokukhubazeka ezimpilweni zabo.[11][19] Kukholakala ukuthi kulinganiselwa kokuthathu kokuyishumi kuyimbangela yokushona kwezingane ngenxa yokungondleki; kodwa-ke, akuvamisile ukuthi kushiwo lokhu njengesizathu sokushona kwengane.[5] Ngonyaka wezi-2010 kuthiwa ukungondleki kwaba nomthelela ekushoneni kwabesifazane nezingane eziyisigidi esi-1.5[20] yize noma isilinganiso sesibalo singaba ngaphezulu kwezigidi ezi-3 .[12] Ezinye izingane ezingaphezulu kwezigidi eziyi-165 ukukhula okufanele kulesi sifo.[12] Ukungondleki kuvamisile emazweni asathuthuka.[21]

Amareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. "malnutrition" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Facts for life (4th ed. ed.). New York: United Nations Children's Fund. 2010. pp. 61 and 75. ISBN 978-92-806-4466-1. http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/Facts_for_Life_EN_010810.pdf. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Young, E.M. (2012). Food and development. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 36–38. ISBN 9781135999414. http://books.google.ca/books?id=XhwKwNzJVjQC&pg=PA36. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Essentials of International Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2011. p. 194. ISBN 9781449667719. http://books.google.ca/books?id=lt7TqZPZSlIC&pg=PA194. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health". http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/child/malnutrition/en/. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  6. Konje, editor, Mala Arora ; co-editor, Justin C. (2007). Recurrent pregnancy loss (2nd ed. ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. Medical Publishers. ISBN 9788184480061. 
  7. "Progress For Children: A Report Card On Nutrition". UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/Progress_for_Children_-_No._4.pdf. 
  8. Prentice, editor-in-chief, Benjamin Caballero ; editors, Lindsay Allen, Andrew (2005). Encyclopedia of human nutrition (2nd ed. ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780080454283. http://books.google.ca/books?id=DHtERWm0mrcC&pg=RA1-PA68. 
  9. Stoelting's anesthesia and co-existing disease (6th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier. 2012. p. 324. ISBN 9781455738120. http://books.google.ca/books?id=yxTtmJYPUV0C&pg=PA324. 
  10. editors, Ronnie A. Rosenthal, Michael E. Zenilman, Mark R. Katlic, (2011). Principles and practice of geriatric surgery (2nd ed. ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 78. ISBN 9781441969996. http://books.google.ca/books?id=VcgmpMZE6a8C&pg=PA87. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 "An update of ‘The Neglected Crisis of Undernutrition: Evidence for Action’". Department for International Development. Oct 2012. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/67319/undernutrition-finalevidence-oct12.pdf. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Bhutta, ZA; Das, JK; Rizvi, A; Gaffey, MF; Walker, N; Horton, S; Webb, P; Lartey, A et al (Aug 3, 2013). "Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?". Lancet 382 (9890): 452–77. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60996-4. PMID 23746776. 
  13. "World Food Programme, Cash and Vouchers for Food". April 2012. http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/communications/wfp246176.pdf. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003. ISBN 9241546093. 
  15. Jonathan A. Foley, Navin Ramankutty, Kate A. Brauman, Emily S. Cassidy, James S. Gerber, Matt Johnston, Nathaniel D. Mueller, Christine O’Connell, Deepak K. Ray, Paul C. West, Christian Balzer, Elena M. Bennett, Stephen R. Carpenter, Jason Hill1, Chad Monfreda, Stephen Polasky1, Johan Rockström, John Sheehan, Stefan Siebert, David Tilman1, David P. M. Zaks (October 2011). "Solutions for a cultivated planet". Nature 478 (7369): 337–342. doi:10.1038/nature10452. PMID 21993620. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v478/n7369/full/nature10452.html. 
  16. "Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high International hunger targets difficult to reach". September 2010. http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/al390e/al390e00.pdf. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  17. Food; (FAO), Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008). The state of food insecurity in the world, 2008 : high food prices and food security : threats and opportunities. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). p. 2. ISBN 978-92-5-106049-0. http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0291e/i0291e00.htm. "FAO’s most recent estimates put the number of hungry [actually, malnourished] people at 923 million in 2007, an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990–92 base period." 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al. (December 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604. 
  19. Murray, CJ (Dec 15, 2012). "Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2197–223. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4. PMID 23245608. 
  20. Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. (December 2012). "A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2224–60. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8. PMID 23245609. 
  21. Liz Young (2002). World Hunger Routledge Introductions to Development. p. 20. ISBN 9781134774944. http://books.google.ca/books?id=w4CGAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA20.