Ugwayi

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Isikhuni sokomisa ugwayi eMyrtleford, Victoria, Australia, 2018. Lo mlilo wakhiwa ngo-1957, wathuthela eRotary Park ngo-2000. Ama-Kilns alesi sakhiwo enziwa kusukela ekuqaleni kwawo-1930 kuya ngasekupheleni kwawo-1960.
Amagwayi kagwayi waseBasma ayoma elangeni esigodini sasePomak eXanthi, eGrisi

Ugwayi igama elivamile izitshalo ezimbalwa Nicotiana bohlobo we Solanaceae umndeni, kanye ligama lelivamile yimuphi umkhiqizo okulungiselelwe kusukela belashwa amahlamvu kulezi izitshalo.Izinhlobo ezingaphezu kuka-70 zikagwayi ziyaziwa, kodwa isivuno esikhulu sokuhweba yi- <i id="mwJg">N</i> . tabacum. Ukwahluka okunamandla kakhudlwana <i id="mwKA">N. rustica</i> kuyasetshenziswa nakwamanye amazwe.

Amaqabunga kagwayi omisiwe asetshenziselwa ukubhema osikilidi nogwayi, kanye namapayipi kanye nama- shisha.Zingasetshenziswa njenge- snuff, ugwayi ohlafunwayo, ukucuba ugwayi kanye nesnus.

Ugwayi liqukethe kakhulu umlutha ivuselela alkaloid -nicotine kanye alkaloids harmala Ukusetshenziswa kukagwayi kuyimbangela noma ingozi engozini yezifo eziningi ezibulalayo; ikakhulukazi lezo ezithinta inhliziyo, isibindi, namaphaphu, kanye nomdlavuza eminingi .Ngo-2008, i- World Health Organisation yabiza ukusetshenziswa kogwayi njengenye yezimbangela zokufa ezivikelwa kunazo zonke emhlabeni.

Igama lesiNgisi elithi ugwayi lisuselwa egameni lesiSpanish nelesiPutukezi elithi "tabaco".Imvelaphi eqondile yaleli gama iyaphikiswa, kepha ngokuvamile kucatshangwa ukuthi ithathwe, okungenani ngokwengxenye, kusuka eTaíno, ulimi lwase- Arawakan lwaseCaribbean.ETaíno, kwathiwa kushiwo umqulu wamaqabunga kagwayi (ngokusho kukaBartolomé de las Casas, 1552), noma ku- tabago, uhlobo lwepayipi elimise okwe -L elisetshenziselwa ukuhogela intuthu kagwayi (ngokusho kuka-Oviedo, namaqabunga uqobo okukhulunywa ngakho njenge- cohiba ).[1]

Kodwa-ke, mhlawumbe kwaqondana nje, amagama afanayo ngeSpanishi, isiPutukezi kanye nesiNtaliyane asetshenziswa kusuka ku-1410 ukuthola amakhambi athile okwelapha.Lezi kungenzeka lisukela Arabhu طُبّاق ṭubbāq (futhi طُباق ṭubāq ), igama elibikwa ukuthi langekhulu le-9, elibhekisa kumakhambi ahlukahlukene. [2]

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UWilliam Michael Harnett (waseMelika, 1848-1892), uStren Life with Three Castles Tobacco, 1880, eBrooklyn Museum .

Ukusetshenziswa kwendabuko[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isiboniso sokuqala sendoda yaseYurophu ebhemayo, isuka Ugwayi ngu- Anthony Chute, ngo-1595.
Indoda yaseNdiya ebhema ugwayi ehookah, eRajasthan, eNdiya .

Ugwayi sekuyisikhathi eside usetshenziswa emazweni aseMelika, kunezindawo ezithile zokulima eMexico ezisukela emuva ngonyaka we-1400-1000 BCE. [3]Izizwe eziningi zomdabu waseMelika ngokwesiko zitshala futhi zisebenzise ugwayi.Ngokomlando, abantu abavela emasikweni aseNyakatho -mpumalanga yeWoodlands baye bathwala ugwayi emaphaketheni njengento yokuhweba eyamukelwa kalula.Kwabhenwa kokubili emphakathini nasemikhosini, njengokufaka isivumelwano sokuthula noma isivumelwano sokuhweba. [4] [5]Kwamanye amasiko aboMdabu, ugwayi uthathwa njengesipho esivela kuMdali, lapho intuthu kagwayi eyimikhosi ihambisa imicabango nemikhuleko kuMdali. [6]

Ukuthandwa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umdwebo ovela kuGwayi likaFrederick William Fairholt , iHistory and Association, ngo-1859
Isitshalo sikagwayi neqabunga likagwayi eziqhamuka emasimini eDeli eSumatra, ngo-1905

Ukukhiqizwa kukagwayi wokubhema, ukuhlafuna, nokuhogela isinemfu kwaba imboni enkulu eYurophu nasemakoloni ayo ngonyaka we-1700. [7] [8]

Ugwayi ube yisilimo esikhulu semali eCuba nakwezinye izingxenye zeCaribbean kusukela ngekhulu le-18. Ama-cigar aseCuba adume umhlaba wonke. [9]

Ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-19 leminyaka, ugwayi waduma. UJames Bonsack wasungula umshini wokuzenzela ukukhiqizwa kogwayi.Lokhu kwanda komkhiqizo kwavumela ukukhula okukhulu embonini kagwayi kuze kube ukuvela kwezempilo ngasekupheleni kwekhulu lama-20. [10] [11]

Okwamanje[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngemuva kokudalulwa kwesayensi maphakathi nekhulu lama-20, ugwayi wagwetshwa njengengozi yezempilo, futhi ekugcineni waziwa njengembangela yomdlavuza, kanye nezinye izifo zokuphefumula nezokujikeleza kwegazi.E-United States, lokhu kwaholela esivumelwaneni seTobacco Master Settlement Agreement, esaxazulula amacala amaningi asezweni laseMelika ngokushintshanisa ngokuhlanganiswa kwemali ekhokhwa minyaka yonke ezifundazweni kanye nemikhawulo yokuzithandela yokukhangisa nokumaketha kwemikhiqizo kagwayi.Template:Ifsubst

Ngawo-1970, uBrown &amp; Williamson bahlanganisa uhlobo lukagwayi ukuze bakhiqize i- Y1, uhlobo oluqukethe okuqukethwe kwe-nicotine ephezulu ngokungajwayelekile, cishe okuphindwe kabili kusuka ku-3.2-3.5% kuya ku-6.5%.Ngawo-1990, lokhu kwagqugquzela abakwaFood and Drug Administration ukuthi basho ukuthi izinkampani zikagwayi zazisebenzisa ngenhloso okuqukethwe ugwayi.

Isifiso sababhemayo abaningi ababhemayo sokuyeka ukubhema siholele ekwakhiweni kwemikhiqizo yokuyeka ugwayi. [12]

Ngo-2003, ngenxa yokukhula kokusetshenziswa kukagwayi emazweni asathuthuka, i-World Health Organisation yahlanganisa ngempumelelo amazwe ayi-168 ukuthi asayine i-Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.Isivumelwano senzelwe ukuphoqa ukuthi umthetho usebenze kahle kuwo wonke amazwe ukunciphisa imiphumela emibi kagwayi.

Phakathi kuka-2019 no-2021, ukukhathazeka ngokunyuka kwezingozi zezempilo ze-COVID-19 ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kukagwayi kwasiza ukunciphisa ukubhema nokuyeka. [13]

Ibhayoloji[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UNicotiana[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-Nicotine iyinhlanganisela ebhekele isimo sokulutha sokusebenzisa ugwayi.
Imbali kagwayi ( Nicotiana rustica ), amaqabunga, namahlumela

Izinhlobo eziningi zikagwayi zisezinhlotsheni zamakhambi uNicotiana .Kuyinto ingxenye nightshade umndeni ( Solanaceae ) zendabuko North futhi i-Ningizimu Melika, e-Australia, eningizimu ntshonalanga Afrika, kanye naseNingizimu Pacific. [14]

Ama-nightshades amaningi aqukethe inani elihlukahlukene le- nicotine, i- neurotoxin enamandla ezinambuzaneni .Kodwa-ke, ama-tobaccos athanda ukuba ne-nicotine ephakeme kakhulu kunaleyo eminye.Ngokungafani nezinye izinhlobo eziningi zeSolanaceae, aqukethe ama-tropane alkaloids, avame ukuba nobuthi kubantu nakwezinye izilwane.

Yize iqukethe i-nicotine eyanele namanye amakhemikhali afana ne- germacrene ne- anabasine namanye ama- alkaloid e-piperidine (ahlukahluka phakathi kwezinhlobo) ukuvimbela imifino eminingi edliwayo,izilwane eziningi ezinjalo ziguqule ikhono lokudla izinhlobo zezinhlobo zeNicotiana ngaphandle kokulimala.Yize kunjalo, ugwayi awunambitheki ezinhlotsheni eziningi ngenxa yezinye izici zalo.Isibonelo, yize iklabishi looper iyisilokazane esijwayelekile, i-gummosis kagwayi nama-trichomes kungalimaza ukusinda kwezibungu zakuqala. [15]Ngenxa yalokhu, ezinye izitshalo zikagwayi (ikakhulukazi iN. Glauca ) sezakhiwe njengokhula oluhlaselayo kwezinye izindawo.

Ukukhangisa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imboni kagwayi ikhangisa imikhiqizo yayo ngezinhlobonhlobo zezindaba, okubandakanya ukuxhaswa, ikakhulukazi ngemicimbi yezemidlalo.Ngenxa yobungozi bezempilo bale mikhiqizo, manje lokhu kungenye yezindlela zokulawula ezilawulwa kakhulu.Ezinye noma zonke izinhlobo zokukhangisa ngogwayi zivinjelwe emazweni amaningi. 

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izixhumanisi zangaphandle[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. On the etymology of the word tobacco. https://zenodo.org/record/1448956. 
  2. Lane's Lexicon. page 1879.
  3. Goodman, Jordan.
  4. e.g.
  5. "They smoke with excessive eagerness ... men, women, girls and boys, all find their keenest pleasure in this way."
  6. Jack Jacob Gottsegen, Tobacco: A Study of Its Consumption in the United States, 1940, p. 107.
  7. Eric Burns, The Smoke of the Gods: A Social History of Tobacco (2006), A popular history focused on the US.
  8. Jordan Goodman, Tobacco in History: The Cultures of Dependence (1993), A scholarly history worldwide.
  9. Charlotte Cosner, The Golden Leaf: How Tobacco Shaped Cuba and the Atlantic World (Vanderbilt University Press; 2015)
  10. Richard Kluger, Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War (1996)
  11. Allan Brandt, The Cigarette Century: The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America (2007)
  12. Commissioner, Office of the (2020-09-09). "Want to Quit Smoking? FDA-Approved Products Can Help" (in en). FDA. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/want-quit-smoking-fda-approved-products-can-help. 
  13. Yang, Haiyang (2021-08-01). "How the COVID-19 pandemic impacts tobacco addiction: Changes in smoking behavior and associations with well-being". Addictive Behaviors 119: 106917. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106917. 
  14. Lewis, Albert (1931). "Tobacco in New Guinea". The American Anthropologist 33 (1): 134–139. doi:10.1525/aa.1931.33.1.02a00290. 
  15. . December 1, 1967.