Ukubhema

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Ukubhema kuwumkhuba lapho into ethile ishiswa khona bese intuthu eholelwa kuyo iphefumulelwa ukunambitheka nokufakwa egazini.Ngokuvamile, into esetshenziswayo amaqabunga omisiwe esitshalo sogwayi, asongwe engxenyeni encane yephepha eligingqikayo ukuze enze isilinda esincane esiyindilinga esibizwa ngokuthi " ugwayi ".Ukubhema kwenziwa ikakhulukazi njengendlela yokuphatha yokusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa zokuzijabulisa ngoba ukuvutha kwesitshalo esomile kushiya kuphefumule futhi kuhambise izinto ezisebenzayo emaphashini lapho zingena khona ngokushesha egazini futhi zifinyelele ezicutshini zomzimba.Endabeni yokubhema ugwayi lezi zinto ziqukethwe enhlanganisweni yezinhlayiya ze-aerosol namagesi futhi kufaka ne-alkaloid nicotine esebenzayo ekhemisi; ukuphefumula kudala i-erosol evuthayo negesi ibe yifomu evumela ukuhogela kanye nokungena okujulile emaphashini lapho ukumunceka khona egazini lezinto ezisebenzayo kwenzeka.Kwamanye amasiko, ukubhema kwenziwa futhi njengengxenye yamasiko ahlukahlukene, lapho ababambiqhaza bekusebenzisa khona ukusiza ukubhebhetheka kwezimo ezifana nokuthi, bakholelwa ukuthi, kungaholela ekukhanyeni okungokomoya.

umama obhemayo

Ukubhema kungenye yezindlela ezivame kakhulu zokusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa zokuzijabulisa.Ukubhema ugwayi kuyindlela ethandwa kakhulu, eyenziwa ngabantu abangaphezu kwesigidi esisodwa emhlabeni jikelele, iningi labo emazweni asathuthuka.Izidakamizwa ezingandile kakhulu zokubhema zifaka i- cannabis ne- opium.Ezinye zezinto zihlukaniswa njengama- narcotic anzima, njenge- heroin, kepha ukusetshenziswa kwalezi zinto kunomkhawulo njengoba kuvame ukungatholakali ngokuthengisaOsikilidi bakhiqizwa ngokuyinhloko ezimbonini kodwa futhi bangasongwa ngesandla kusuka kugwayi ovulekile kanye nephepha eligingqikayo.Ezinye izinto zokubhema zifaka phakathi amapayipi, ama- cigar, ama- bidis, ama- hookah nama- bongs.

Izinto nezinto zokusebenza[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Uhlobo lwento ethandwa kakhulu olubhemayo ugwayi.Kunezinhlobonhlobo eziningi zezilimo zikagwayi ezenziwe ngezingxube nezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene. Ugwayi uvame ukuthengiswa okunongiwe, imvamisa unamaphunga ahlukahlukene ezithelo, into ethandwa kakhulu ukusetshenziswa ngamapayipi amanzi, njengama- hookahs.Into yesibili evame kakhulu ukubhema insangu, eyenziwe ngezimbali noma amaqabunga eCannabis sativa noma eCannabis indica.Le nto ithathwa njengokungekho emthethweni emazweni amaningi emhlabeni nasemazweni abekezelela ukusetshenziswa komphakathi, kwesinye isikhathi kuvunyelwa into engekho mbumbulu.Ngaphandle kwalokhu, iphesenti elikhulu labantu abadala emazweni amaningi lizamile nabambalwa abancane abakwenzayo njalo.Njengoba i-cannabis ingekho emthethweni noma ibekezelelwa kuphela ezindaweni eziningi, akukho ukukhiqizwa ngobuningi kogwayi ezimbonini, okusho ukuthi indlela yokubhema ejwayelekile kakhulu ngogwayi abasongwe ngesandla (ovame ukubizwa ngamajoyinti ) noma ngamapayipi.Amapayipi amanzi nawo ajwayelekile; amapayipi amanzi asetshenziselwa insangu afaka phakathi imiklamo eyaziwa ngokuthi ama-bongs nama-bubblers, phakathi kokunye.

Ipayipi elihlotshiswe kahle

Ezinye izidakamizwa ezimbalwa zokuzilibazisa zibhenywa ngabancane abancane.Iningi lalezi zinto ziyalawulwa, kanti ezinye zidakisa kakhulu kunogwayi noma insangu.Lokhu kufaka phakathi i- crack cocaine, i-heroin, i- methamphetamine ne- PCP.Inani elincane lezidakamizwa ze-psychedelic nazo ziyabhema, kufaka phakathi i- DMT, i- 5-Meo-DMT, ne- Salvia divinorum.

Ngisho nendlela endala yokubhema idinga amathuluzi ohlobo oluthile ukwenza.Lokhu kubangele ukuhlukahluka okumangazayo kwamathuluzi okubhema nempahla evela kuwo wonke umhlaba.Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ugwayi, insangu, i-opium noma amakhambi, uhlobo oluthile lwesamukeli luyadingeka kanye nomthombo womlilo ukukhanyisa ingxube.Okuvame kakhulu namuhla ugwayi osekude kakhulu, oqukethe uhlobo oluncane oluhogelwayo lukagwayi eshubhu lephepha eliqinile, ngokuvamile elenziwa ngezimboni futhi lifaka isihlungi, noma esigoqwa ngesandla ngogwayi ovulekile.Okunye ethandwa ukubhema amathuluzi ahlukahlukene amapayipi kanye nogwayi.

Enye indlela ejwayelekile kodwa ethandwa kakhulu ekubhemeni ngama-vaporizer, asebenzisa i-convection yomoya oshisayo ukuletha le nto ngaphandle komlilo, okunganciphisa izingozi zezempilo.Enye indlela ephathekayo yokuphefumula yavela ngonyaka we-2003 lapho kwethulwa osikilidi abasebenza ngogesi, amadivayisi asebenza ngebhethri, amise okogwayi akhiqiza i-aerosol ehlose ukulingisa intuthu kagwayi ovuthayo, ihambise i-nicotine kumsebenzisi ngaphandle kwezinye izinto eziyingozi ezikhishwe entuthu kagwayi. .

Ngaphandle kwemishini yokubhema yangempela, ezinye izinto eziningi zihlotshaniswa nokubhema; amakesi kagwayi, amabhokisi kagwayi, amalayita, amabhokisi omentshisi, ophethe osikilidi, ophethe u-cigar, ama- ashtrays, ama- butlers athule, abahlanza amapayipi, abasiki bakagwayi, izitendi zemeshi, abaphazamisa amapayipi, ozakwabo ababhema ugwayi nokunye.Ezinye izibonelo zazo seziyizinto eziqoqekayo eziqoqwayo futhi ikakhulukazi izinto eziwubukhazikhazi nezindala zingalanda amanani aphezulu.

Imiphumela yezempilo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukubhema kungadala ukulimala kuzitho zonke zomzimba.

Phakathi kwezifo ezingadalwa ukubhema kubalwa i-vascular stenosis, umdlavuza wamaphaphu, isifo senhliziyo [1] nesifo samaphaphu esingapheliyo . [2]Ukubhema ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kungadala i-ADHD embungwini. [3]

  1. Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P; Jensen; Appleyard; Schnohr (1989). "Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Copenhagen. I: Hereditary, educational and socioeconomic factors. Copenhagen City Heart Study". Eur Heart J 10 (10): 910–16. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.eurheartj.a059401. PMID 2598948. 
  2. Devereux G (2006). "ABC of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Definition, epidemiology, and risk factors". BMJ 332 (7550): 1142–44. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7550.1142. PMID 16690673. 
  3. Braun JM, Kahn RS, Froehlich T, Auinger P, Lanphear BP; Kahn; Froehlich; Auinger (2006). "Exposures to environmental toxicants and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in U.S. children". Environ. Health Perspect. 114 (12): 1904–09. doi:10.1289/ehp.10274. PMID 17185283.