Ukudla kwabantwana

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Baby ukudla yiliphi elithambile, idliwe kalula ukudla ngaphandle lwebele noma usana ifomula ukuthi senziwa ngqo womuntu izingane eziphakathi kwezinyanga ezine futhi eziyisithupha kanye neminyaka emibili.Ukudla kuvela ezinhlotsheni eziningi kanye nama-flavour athengwa esekulungele ukwenziwa kubakhiqizi, noma kungaba ukudla kwasetafuleni okudliwe ngumndeni osikishiwe noma okonakele ngenye indlela.

Uhlobo lokudla kwabantwana

Ukulungela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Kusukela ngo-2011, i- World Health Organization, i- UNICEF nezinhlangano eziningi zezempilo zikazwelonke zancoma ukulinda kuze kube yizinyanga eziyisithupha ngaphambi kokuqala ingane ekudleni; [1] izingane ngazinye zingahluka kakhulu kulesi siqondiso ngokuya ngentuthuko yazo eyingqayizivele.Ukudla kwezingane kunganikezwa lapho ingane ikulungele ukudla.Izimpawu zokulungela zifaka amandla okuhlala ngaphandle kosizo, ukulahleka kolimi, nokukhombisa intshisekelo esebenzayo ekudleni okudliwa abanye.

Ezempilo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Njengesincomo sempilo yomphakathi yomhlaba wonke, i- World Health Organisation incoma ukuthi izinsana kufanele zinceliswe ibele kuphela ezinyangeni eziyisithupha zokuqala zokuphila ukuze zikhule kahle, zikhule futhi zibe nempilo.Iningi lezinsana ezinezinyanga eziyisithupha ubudala zikulungele ngokomzimba nangokwentuthuko ukudla okusha, ukwakheka nezindlela zokondla.Ochwepheshe abeluleka i- World Health Assembly banikeze ubufakazi bokuthi ukwethula okuqinile ngaphambi kwezinyanga eziyisithupha kwandisa amathuba okugula ezingane, ngaphandle kokukhulisa ukukhula.

ECanada sodium okuqukethwe kwezingane ukudla ngokomthetho; Izithelo ezihlungiwe, ijusi yezithelo, isiphuzo sezithelo, nezinhlamvu azikwazi ukuthengiswa uma i-sodium ingeziwe (ngaphandle kwama-dessert ahluziwe).Ukudla ngokwemvelo okuqukethe i-sodium kukhawulwe ku-0.05 - 0.25 amagremu ngamagremu ayi-100 wokudla, kuya ngohlobo lokudla kwezinsana.

Uma kunomlando wokungezwani komzimba nomndeni, umuntu angafisa ukwethula ukudla okukodwa okukodwa ngasikhathi, ashiye izinsuku ezimbalwa phakathi ukuze abone noma yikuphi ukusabela okungakhombisa ukungezwani kokudla noma ukuzwela.Ngale ndlela, uma ingane ingakwazi ukubekezelela ukudla okuthile, kunganqunywa ukuthi yikuphi ukudla okubangela ukusabela.

Izidingo zokudla okunempilo kanye nenani lokudla[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izingane ezisanda kuzalwa zidinga ukudla ubisi lwebele noma ubisi lwebele. Cishe u-40% wamandla okudla kulawa mabisi avela kuma-carbohydrate, ikakhulukazi ushukela olulula obizwa nge- lactose . [2]

I-World Health Organisation incoma ukuqala ngamanani amancane akhula kancane kancane njengoba ingane ikhula: Ukudla okungu-2 kuya koku-3 ngosuku ezinganeni ezinezinyanga eziyisithupha kuya kwezi-8 kanye nokudla okungu-3 kuya ku-4 ngosuku ezinganeni ezinezinyanga eziyisi-9 kuya kwezingama-23, kanti 1 noma ama-snacks ama-2 engeziwe njengoba kudingeka.

Indawo yezimakethe egcwele ukudla kwezingane okuthengiswayo
Video of making homemade puree apple

Izinhlobo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngonyaka wokuqala, ubisi lwebele noma ubisi lwebele lungumthombo oyinhloko wama-calories nezakhi.

Izingane zingaqaliswa ngqo ekudleni komndeni okujwayelekile uma kunakwa izingozi zokuklinya; lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi ukulunyulwa okuholwa yizingane .Ngoba ubisi lwebele luthatha ukunambitheka kokudla okudliwe ngumama, lokhu kudla kuyizinqumo ezinhle kakhulu.

Uhlobo lokudla[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izinhlamvu
Ngosuku olujwayelekile cishe uhhafu wezingane zaseMelika ezineminyaka emine nezinyanga ezinhlanu ubudala zondliwa okusanhlamvu kwezinsana.Ingane kungenzeka ukuthi idle okuncane nje kokudla okuncane okusanhlamvu okusanhlamvu, noma ngisho nokuncanyana nje kokulunywa okuncane kokudla okuqukethe okusanhlamvu kosana okuhlanganiswe nokunye ukudla.Ezinye izinhlobo zokudla okususelwa okusanhlamvu ziyivelakancane ngaleso sikhathi.Cishe izingane ezingama-90% ezineminyaka eyisithupha kuya kweziyishumi nambili ezinyangeni zidla uhlobo oluthile lokusanhlamvu, noma yingxenye kuphela edla okusanhlamvu kwezinsana.Abanye badla ilayisi, isinkwa, ama-crackers, i-pasta, noma okusanhlamvu okwenzelwe izingane ezindala. [3]
Izithelo
Nganoma yiluphi usuku, cishe ama-20% ezingane ezineminyaka emine nezinyanga ezinhlanu adla uhlobo oluthile lwesithelo, imvamisa ukudla kokulungiswa kwengane. [3] Njengazo zonke lezi, lokhu kungamela okuncane nje kokuluma izithelo noma ukudla okuyingxenye yezithelo. Izingxenye ezimbili kwezintathu zezingane ezineminyaka eyisithupha kuya kweziyisishiyagalolunye, futhi phakathi kwezingane ezingama-75% kanye nama-85% ezineminyaka engaphansi kwezinyanga eziyisishiyagalolunye, zidla uhlobo oluthile lwesithelo. Lapho unezinyanga eziyisithupha kuya kweziyisishiyagalolunye, uhhafu wezingane udla izithelo zokudla ezilungiselelwe izingane, kepha izingane ezineminyaka eyishumi nambili nangaphezulu ubudala zidla izithelo zokudla okungezona izingane, njengobhanana omusha noma izithelo ezisemathinini. I-Apple nobhanana izithelo ezivamile ezinganeni zayo yonke iminyaka. Ijusi yezithelo, ikakhulukazi ijusi le-apula nelamagilebhisi, ivame ukwethulwa kamuva kunezithelo, futhi cishe uhhafu wezingane ezindala nosana luphuza uhlobo oluthile lwejusi yezithelo engu-100%. [3]
Imifino
Ngosuku olujwayelekile, cishe ikota yezinsana ezineminyaka emine nezinyanga ezinhlanu zidla uhlobo oluthile lwemifino okungenani kanye, cishe njalo okulungiselelwe ukudla kwezingane, futhi imvamisa imifino ephuzi noma ewolintshi njengezinqathe, ithanga, ubhatata, nesikwashi sasebusika . [3] Lapho unezinyanga eziyisithupha kuya kweziyisishiyagalolunye, cishe izingane ezingama-60% nezingane ezindala ezingaba ngama-70% zidla imifino, imifino yokudla kwengane isuswa ngokushesha yimifino ephekiwe ngemuva kwezinyanga eziyisishiyagalolunye. Imifino eluhlaza ayivamile kuzo zonke izingane nojahidada. Ngosuku lokuqala lokuzalwa, cishe ingxenye yesithathu yabantwana idla amazambane ngosuku olunikeziwe. [3]
Inyama
Zimbalwa kakhulu izingane ezinezinyanga ezine nezinhlanu ubudala zaseMelika ezidla inyama noma omunye umthombo wamaprotheni (ngaphandle kobisi). [3] Izingane ezinezinyanga eziyisithupha kuya kweziyisishiyagalolunye ubudala zidla kakhulu inyama njengengxenye yokudla kwengane okuqukethe inyama encane kanye nemifino noma okusanhlamvu. Cishe izingxenye ezintathu kwezine zezinsana ezinezinyanga eziyisishiyagalolunye kuya kweziyishumi nambili ubudala zinikezwa inyama noma omunye umthombo wamaprotheni, njengamaqanda, ushizi, iyogathi, ubhontshisi noma amantongomane. Ngaphezu kwezingane ezingama-90% ezineminyaka engu-12 kuya kwezingu-18 ubudala, futhi cishe zonke izinsana ezindala kunalokho, zinikezwa umthombo wamaprotheni okungenani kanye ngosuku. Cishe izingxenye ezintathu kwezine zalezi zingane zinikezwa inyama yokudla engeyona eyengane; inyama yokudla okulungiselelwe yabantwana (iyodwa) ayijwayelekile kunoma yisiphi isikhathi. [3]
Ukudla okumnandi nosawoti
Ukudla okunoshukela nosawoti akuvamile ezinganeni. [3] Uma kuqhathaniswa nocwaningo lwangaphambilini ngo-2002, inani lezingane ezingaphansi kweminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye lezinyanga ezithola noma yiluphi uhlobo lokudla okunoshukela, okokudla okulula, noma isiphuzo, lehle cishe ngesigamu. Ezinyangeni eziyisishiyagalolunye kuya kweziyishumi nambili, zingaphansi kwengxenye zezingane ezinikezwa ukudla okunoshukela njengamakhukhi, u-ayisikhilimu, noma iziphuzo ezinongwe ngezithelo. Uphudingi olungiselelwe abantwana wokudla akuvamile kunoma yisiphi isikhathi, kepha unikezwa cishe izingane eziyi-12% ezineminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye kuya kweziyishumi nambili ubudala. [3]

Ukudla kwezingane[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ezinye izinkampani ezidayisa ukudla kwezingane ziye zandisa imigqa yazo ukuze zikhiqize ukudla okukhethekile kwabancane kusukela eminyakeni engaba yizinyanga eziyi-12 kuye eminyakeni emibili nengxenye ubudala.Lokhu kufaka phakathi ujusi, okusanhlamvu, ukudla okuncane okungenwa ngama-microwaveable, izimpahla ezibhakiwe, nokunye ukudla okwenziwe futhi kwathengiselwa izingane ezisacathula.

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Geriatric[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1940, iGerber Products Company neBeech-Nut bakhiqiza izincwadi zokupheka ezikhethekile ukukhuthaza ukuthengiswa kokudla kwezingane okuthengiswayo okusetshenziswa ngabantu asebekhulile, abagulayo noma abakhubazekile. [4]

Ukudla okukhethiwe[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Abazali kanye / noma abanakekeli bangabona kuze kube uhhafu wezingane ezisencane njengabantu "abathanda izinto" noma "abadumile", ngenani eliphakeme lezinyanga ezingama-24. [5] [6] Abantu abadala abaphethe lo mbono bavame ukuyeka ukunikeza ingane ukudla okusha ngemuva kwemizamo emithathu kuya kwemihlanu kuphela, kunokuqhubeka nokunikela ngokudla kuze kube yilapho ingane isikunambithe izikhathi eziyisishiyagalombili kuya kweziyishumi nanhlanu.Bangase futhi bahlanganyele ekuziphatheni okungakhiqizi, njengokunikeza ubisi olucindezela isifiso sokudla noma okunye ukudla okuthandayo njengenye indlela, noma ukuzama ukuphoqa noma ukufumbathisa ingane ukuthi idle. [7]

Ezomlando namasiko[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ingane yamaHindu ithola ukudla kwayo kokuqala okuqinile emcimbini wenkolo obizwa nge- Annaprashana

Ukudla kwezingane kuyahlukahluka kuye ngamasiko.Emasikweni amaningi, ama-pastes okusanhlamvu neziphuzo angukudla kokuqala kwezingane.Emlandweni wesintu futhi njengamanje ngamasiko amaningi emhlabeni jikelele, izingane zondliwa ngokudla ngaphambi kwesikhathi ngumgcini wengane ukuze zikuphuze ukudla ziqale inqubo yokugaya ukudla. [8] Ukuluma kokuqala kosana ukudla okuqinile kungokwesiko futhi kubalulekile ezinkolweni eziningi.Isibonelo salokhu yi- annaprashan, isiko lamaHindu lapho usana lunikezwa khona iphalishi lelayisi elinoshukela, ngokuvamile elibusiswa, yilungu lomndeni elidala.Imikhuba efanayo yokudlula yenziwa kulo lonke elase-Asia, kufaka phakathi isifunda saseBengal , iVietnam, neThailand.

Izimpikiswano[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Okunye ukudla kwezingane okuthengiswayo kugxekiwe ngokuqukethwe kanye nezindleko.

Emashumini amaningi eminyaka, kube nezikhumbuzo eziningi zokudla kwezingane ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngokungcoliswa noma ukonakala.Ngo-1984 nango-1986, uGerber wayebandakanyeka ehlazweni lezimbiza zokudla kwengilazi ezazigqekeza, okwakuthinta kakhulu ukuthengiswa kwayo nenzuzo yayo, yize i-US Food and Drug Administration kamuva yaphetha ngokuthi inkampani yayingenaphutha.Ngo-1987, iBeechnut yakhokha amadola ayizigidi ezingama-25 zamaRandi ukuxazulula amacala okuthengisa ujusi wama-apula ongcolile ekuqaleni kwawo-1980. [9] Ngo-2011, iNestlé France yanquma ukukhumbula inqwaba yokudla kwezingane iP'tit pot njengendlela yokuzivikela ngemuva kokuba ikhasimende kubikwa ukuthi lithole izingilazi zengilazi kwesinye sezimbiza zalo.Uphenyo mayelana nobubanzi besigameko luholele ekutheni inkampani iphethe ngokuthi bekuyinto eyenzeka yodwa nokuthi le nqwaba yenqwaba ayithintekanga.

Imakethe[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngokuya ngeZion Market Research, usayizi wemakethe wokudla kwezingane e-United States ulinganiselwa ku- $ 53 billion ngonyaka ka-2018 futhi ukhule ufike ku- $ 76 billion ngo-2021.

Ukudla kwezingane kwezentengiselwano e-United States kubuswa yiGerber, eyayinama-70% emakethe yaseMelika ngonyaka we-1996.I-Beechnut yayine-15% yemakethe, kanti i-Heinz yayine-10%.Okuhamba phambili kukaHeinz's Earth, uhlobo olukhulu lokudla kwezingane eziphilayo, lwalunamaphesenti angaba ngu-2 wesabelo semakethe yaseMelika. [9]

E- Australia, eCanada, naseNew Zealand, uHeinz wayenama-90% esabelo semakethe ngo-1996. UHeinz ubuye abe ngumholi wemakethe e-UK, e-Italy nakwamanye amazwe amaningi asempumalanga ye-Europe. [9]

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. World Health Organization. Online Q&A: What is the recommended food for children in their very early years? Accessed 2 August 2011.
  2. "The role and requirements of digestible dietary carbohydrates in infants and toddlers". Eur J Clin Nutr 66 (7): 765–79. July 2012. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.27. PMC Template:=pmcentrez&artidTemplate:=3390559 3390559. PMID 22473042. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3390559. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Food consumption patterns of infants and toddlers: where are we now?. December 2010. http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/yjada/article/S0002-8223(10)01477-X/fulltext. 
  4. Booming Baby Food: Infant Food and Feeding in Post-WWII America. http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/005/529/MHR%20article.pdf. 
  5. "Prevalence of picky eaters among infants and toddlers and their caregivers' decisions about offering a new food". J Am Diet Assoc 104 (1 Suppl 1): s57–64. January 2004. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2003.10.024. PMID 14702019. 
  6. "How do toddler eating problems relate to their eating behavior, food preferences, and growth?". Pediatrics 120 (4): e1069–75. October 2007. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2961. PMID 17908727. 
  7. "Determinants of children's eating behavior". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 94 (6 Suppl): 2006S–2011S. December 2011. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.001685. PMID 22089441. 
  8. Influences on maternal and child nutrition in the highlands of the northern Lao PDR 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Empty citation (help)