Ukuvukela kweNtsha kwama-16 uNhlangulana we-1976

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Ukuvukela kweNtsha kwama-16 uNhlangulana we-1976 (Youth Uprising of 16 June 1976) imibhikisho elandalanayo eyaqala elokishini laseSoweto yabe isibhebhetheka ezweni lonke, lokhu kwaletha ushinto olikhulu kwezombusazwe ezweni laseNingizimu Afrika. Zonke izigigaba ezenzeka ngalesi sikhathi zibhekiswa emuva kunyaka we-1953 lapho uhulumeni wobandlululo wabeka khona Umthetho weMfundo yaBantu (Bantu Education Act) [1].[2] . Lomthetho wabe uhlukanisa imfundo ngokobuhlanga futhi wabe uphoqa ukuba kusetshenziswe ulimi lweisiBhunu kanye nolwesiNgisi kuphela njengezilimi zokufundisa ezikoleni ngonyaka we-1974 [3].

Isendlalelo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukungena kweqembu le-National Party embusweni kwafika nezinguquko eziningi njengokushintsha imithetho yezemfundo. Ngonyaka we-1949 uhulumeni wajuba ukuba kwenziwe iKhomishana le-Eiselen lapho kwakumele khona kubhekwe khona ukuphakwa kemfundo ay"Bantu" nukuthi ishintshew ngendlela ephakwa ngayo. Lekhomishana yayaholela ukusungulweni woMthetho weMfundo yeBantu (Bantu Education Act) ngonyaka we-1953. Lomthetho wenza kwaba yimpoqqo ukuba zonke izikole ezabe ziphethwe ngamasonto ezabe zithola uxhaso kuhulumeni ukuba zibhaliswe ngaphansi kukahulumeni. Ngalokhu uhulumeni wabe ufuna ukususa ukuphathwa kwezemfundo yama-Afrika ezandleni zamasonto knaye nezifundazwe. UMnyango weMfundo yaBantu wabe ubhekele ukuqinisekisa ukuthi imfundo yam-Afrika ihlukene futhi ibe sezingeni eliphansi. Lomthetho futhi wahlukanisa ukukhokhelwa kwemfundo yama-Afrika, umbuso wabe usebenzisa imali encane ezikoleni zabafundi bama-Afrika uma kuqhathaniswa nabafundi "abamhlophe." Ukwehla kwemali eyabe ifakwa ezikoleni zama-Afrika kwaholela ukutheni izikole ziminyane futhi zabe zinothisha abangenele, futhi bengenazo iziqu eziphelele zokufundisa [4].

Imfundo yama-Afrika yabe iwaqeqeshela ukuba benze imisebenzi yezandla njengokusbenza emaplazini, emakhishini, neminye eminingi. Lokhu kufakazelwa amazwi kaH.F Verwoerd, lapho athi khona: "Ayikho indawo yom'Afrika emphakathini wamaYurophu ngaphezu kwezinye izinhlobo zemisebenzi. Akusizi ukuba athole uqeqesho oluzomdonsela emphakathini wamaYurophu (“There is no place for [the African] in the European community above the level of certain forms of labour. It is of no avail for him to receive a training which has as its aim, absorption in the European community”) [5][4]. Ngonyaka we-1954-5 othisha kanye nabafundi bazama ukubhikishela uMthetho weMfundo yaBantu, babumba inhlanganao eyabe yaziwa njenge The African Education Movement.

Ukuqhutshekiswa koMthetho weMfundo yaseNyuvesi wama-45 wavala nya ukuba ama-Afrika aye emanyuvesi "abamhlophe" (iNyuvesi yaseKapa kanye nasyaseEWitwatersrand). Lomthetho wabe uhlukanisa amanyuvesi ngokobuhlanga kanye ngezizwe zama-Afrika, okwaholela ekutheni kubunjwe amanyuvesi angamahlathi (bush universities). Kulezi ziNyuvesi kubalwa eyaseINyuvesi yaseFort Hare, eyaseVenda, eyaseNtshonalanga Kapa, lamanyuvesi abe ehlukene ngokobuzwe, nalapha kwaba khona imibhikisho[4].

UMthetho wezeMfundo waBantu bamaKhaladi we-1963 (Coloured Person's Education Act of 1965) kanye noMthetho weMfundo yamaNdiya we-1965 (Indian Education Act of 1965) yabekwa ukulawula imfundo yamaKhaladi kanye namaNdiya ngokulandelana futhi ukuyihlukanisa "kweyabamhlophe". UMthetho wezeMfundo waBantu bamaKhaladi wanika igunya lokuphathwa kwemfundo yamaKhaladi engaphansi kuMnyango weziNdaba zamaKhaladi, uphoqa ukuba izikole zaKhaladi zibhaliswe ngaphansi kwahulumeni. UMthetho Mfundo yamaNdiya wanika igunya lokuphathwa kwemfundo yamaNdiya kuMnyango weziNdaba zamaNdiya okwenza imfundo yamaNdiya ukuba ibe yimpoqo [4] .

Ngonyaka we-1974 uMphathi weBantu Education uJ.G Erasmus wakhipha umyalelo owabe uthi kusukela zi-1 uMasingana we-1975 zonke izifundo zabe zozfundwa ngolimi lwesiBhunu, lapha kubalwa lezi zifundo: izibalo, ezokubala kanye nezifundo ngabantu kusukela ebangeni lesikhombisa. Isizathu sokuphoqa ukuba kusetshenziswe ulimi lwesiBhunu yingoba ukusetshenzisa kwalo lolu limi kwabe kuphansi kakhulu nguma-Afrika[6]. Ama-afrika amaningi kanye nenhlangano yo thisha eyaziwa nge African Teachers Association of South Africa babengambisani nalokhu ngoba isiBhunu sabe saziwa njegolimi lomcindezeli ("Language of the Oppressor") njengoba kwabeka uMbhishobi uDesmond Tutu [7].

Mhla zingama-30 uMbasa 1976 abafundi baseOrlando West Junior School bangenelela isiteleka esagcina siqhubekele kwzinye izikole. Lapha abafundi babenhikishela ukuba bathole impatho efanayo nokuthi bafundiswe ngenndlela efanayo nezikole zabamhlophe. Umfundi wasesikoleni i-Morris Isaacson High School, ogama lakhe ngu-Teboho "Tsietsi" Mashinini, waphakamisa ukuthi kube khona umhlangano mhla zi-13 ukuzokhuluma ukuthi kumele kwenziwe njani ukuze bazwakale. Abafundi babumba ikomidi elaziwa nje Soweto Students' Representative Council elahlanginisa umbuthano wama-16 Nhlangulana 1976 [4].

Ukuvukela eSoweto nge-1976[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngehora le-7 eSoweto ngosuku le-16 Nhlangulana 1976 umbuthano owabe uhlelwe yiSoweto Students' Representative Council uyabe iholwa ngu Teboho "Tsietsi" Mashinini wenzeka ngalolu suku wabe uhlanganisa abafundi abalelwa phakathi kwe-10 000 kuya kwi-20 000 abanye babo labafundi bebengenalo ulwazi ngaphambilini ngalombuthano [8]. Le mashi ayabe ithola ukwesekwa yinhlangano ye- Black Consciousness Movement njengoba yabe ihlelelwe ukuba ibe yimashi enokuthula noxolo yingakho yaphinda yesekwa ngothisha kanye nothishanhloko ezikoleni eSoweto [5].

Abafundi bokuqala ukuhlangana abaseNaledi High school, balandelwa abaseMorris Isaacson High School, bathuka sebevinjwe ngamaphoyisa [4]. Umholi wabo wabaluleka ukuba bangawasukeli amaphoyisa, baqhubeka nemashi ngenye indlela eyabaholela eOrlando High School. Abafundi kulesi lesi sikhathi babephethe azingqwembe ezabe zibhlawe ukuthi "Pansi ngesiBhunu" "Down with Afrikaans", "Viva Azania", "Uma kumele senze isiBhunu, uVoster kumele enze isiZulu" ""If we must do Afrikaans, Vorster must do Zulu". Lemashi yabe ingenalo udlame abafundi babeneme futhi nemimoya iphezulu [4][9].

Kwathi ngokugamaxa kwehora lesi-9 abafundi baqhubeka nokumasha baze bafika maduzane nasesikoleni i-Orlando High School lapho bafika bama khona beqhubeka becula futhi bephethe izingqwembe zabo phezulu. Amaphoyisa aqala ukudubula ngaso lesi sikhathi, abafundi bokuqala abadutshulwa bafa ngalesi sikhathi kubalwa uHastings Ndlovu owabe eneminyaka engama-15 kanye noHector Pieterson owabe eneminyaka engama-13. Yingalesi sikhathi lapho kwaqala khona udlame olwadonsa isikhathi eside laze lwabhethekela emalokishini amaningi aseNingizimu Afrika[4]. Umbiko wamaphoyisa wabe uthi ngalolu suku kwafa abafundi abangama-23 ngosuku loqukala lombhikisho. Ngenkathi luqhubeka usuku ilokishi lonke labe livutha, ngoba lapha kwashiswa zonke izakhiwo zahulumeni kanye nezindawo lapho kuphuzelwa khona utshwala[10].

Ngosuku lwesibili (17 Nhlangulana)sabe sisemanzonzo isimo ngoba amaphoyisa abe esephume ngobuningi bawo eyabalelwa ezi-1500 ukuzoqapha isimo elokishini laseSoweto. Ngalolu suku isimo sabe sesishube kakhulu ngoba amaphoyisa abae esebenzisa indluzula ukukuhlakaza izixuku. Intsha nayo yaphendula kulendluzula ngokuthi ilwe nawo namaphoyisa, futhi kwaphinde kwashiswa namabhilidi kanye nezimoto zika hulumemeni ngelesi sikhathi. Izigameko zango Nhlangulana zabhebhetheka nakwezinye izindawo eNingizimu Afrika, lokhu kwadala uthuthuva olukhulu eNingizimu Afrika ngalesi sikhathi. Abantu abasha abaningi abasha balahlekelwa izimpilo zabo, abanye akwaziwua ukuthi baduka bayaphi kanti abanye baboshwa baphuma abanye abazange babuye emajele.

Bonke Abalahlekelwa yizimpilo zabo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imbibiko yabe ithi bangama-176 abashona ngemibhikisho ye-1976, lesi sibalo sibuye silinganiselwe e-700. Uhulumeni wabe ekhiphe isitatimende esithi bangama-23 abafundi abafa kwalingiselwa kwabayizinkulungwane abalimala [4][11][12].

Uhla lwabahlekelwa yizimpilo zabo ngemibhikisho ye-1976 .
Igama Indawo afela kuyo Iminyaka Usuku Imbangela yokufa
Adams, Sandra Joyce Kew Town 15 16.9.76 Wadutshulwa ekhanda ngaphambili (ricochet) kwsitezi sesi-3
Adriaanse, Noel John Hanover Park 13 2.9.76 Wadutshulwa ekhanda ngakwesokunxele
Africa, Pieter Montagu 24 11.9.76 Iminingwane yokufa isaphenywa
Albern, Bazil Elsies River 16 9.9.76 Wuduthulwa eceleni esisiwini
Allie, Abduraghman Ravensmead - 7.9.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni kusuka ngaphambili
Appolis, Christopher Menenberg 16 10.9.76 Wadutshulwa ekhanda ngaphambilu kuJordaan Road
August, Victor L. Gugulethu - 31.12.76 Wabikwa njengolahlekile emva kwezinxushunxushu zikaZibandlela
Bakubaku, Golden Nyanga - 26.12.76 Wabulawa ngabasebenzi bokufika (migrant workers)
Balnardo, Gary Sandy Grassy Park 19 16.9.76 Wadutshulwa esinqeni kanye nasesifubeni ngaphambili kuHead Road
Barnes, Isaac Bonteheuwel 16 25.8.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni kusuka ngaphambili
Barnes, Sydney Gugulethu 32 26.8.76 Washawa waze wafe yiqulu labsebenzi bokufika (migrant workers)
Barron, James Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa
Bezuidenhout, Isaac Mosselbay - 14.9.76 Wangcwatshwa
Bota, Michael Nyanga East - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa wafa
Botha, William Nyanga - 26.12.76 Wabulawa ngabasebenzi bokufika (migrant workers)
Botha, Neville, J.G. Retreat 20 8.9.76 Wadutshulwa esisswini kusuka ngaphambili
Buba, Lawrence Philippi 14 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni kusuka ngaphambili
Buthelezi, Leonard Soweto 39 4.8.76 Amanxeba okuduthulwa ekhanda knaye nasemzimbeni
Buthelezi, Joyce - 16 26.12.76 Amanxeba okudutshulwa esifubeni nasekhanda negnkathi amaphoyisa edubula abafundi eSekano-Ntoane High School
Carolissen, Gasant Hanover Park 21 2.9.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni kusuka ngaphambili
Carolissen, Ronald C. Stellenbosch 22 9.9.76
Cezala, Bonekeli - - 31.12.76 Wabikwa njengolahlekile emva kwezinxushunxushu zikaZibandlela
Cloete, Joseph E. - 30 9.9.76 Waduthsulwa esidlathini nasesiswini ngaphambili nasemuva kanye emqaleni ngemuva
Cook,, Faried Manenberg 16 9.9.76 Waduthulwa emqaleni kusuka ngemuva
Cooke, Rodney Bonteheuwel 24 25.8.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili
Dajee, Bhanudey Retreat 37 8.9.76 Waduthulwa emaphashini nasenhliziweni
Daniels, Patrick J Elsies River 24 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa ngemuva kwekhanda
Daniels, John Retreat 35 8.9.76 Waduthulwa kwesokunxele esifubeni
Daniels, Kammips Cloetesville 33 7.9.76 Waduthulwa washona
Davids, John Menenberg 16 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa ekhanda ngemuva ku-Thomas Avenue
Davids, Mogamat Rushaad Athlone 24 27.12.76 Wadutshulwa ngemuva
Dlanza, Dennis Bantu Langa 22 27.12.76 Wadutshulelwa eLanga
Dondi, T.S.B. Gugulethu - 16.9.76 Wadutshulwa
Domtsa, N. Mellville 46 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa washona
Dube, Yvonne Paarl East 45 9.9.76 Uphenyo lokufa laveza ukuthi wafa emve kokudutshulwa ngezinhlwayi eziyi-7 zesibhamu. Inkosi yasenkantolo yahtola ukuthi aketkho obandakanyekayo ekufeni kwakhe. Wabe esequlini elalijikijela amatshe
Dunga, Gidliza Epton - 1.12.76 Wadutshulwa washona
Dithipe, Elifas Kagiso - 31.12.76 -
Dladla, Baby Soweto 28 14.6.76 Wadutshulwa ekhanda
Dlamini, Emmanuel Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Edelstein, Melville Leonard Soweto 57 16.6.76 Washaywa yiqulu labantu abangaziwa ngamatshe waze washona
Eesterhuizen, Johannes Hendrik Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Elliot, Charles Manenberg 16 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini ngaphambili
Essop, Dawood Bonteheuwel 30 25.8.76 Wadutshulwa ngemuva
Ferguson, Herry A.J.D Hanover Park 30 2.9.76 Wadutshulwa emaphashini ngemuva
Finch, Alfred A. Retreat 15 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa kwesokudla esifubeni ngaphambili
Fish, Edward Ravensmead 25 7.9.76 Wadutshulwa kwesokudla esifubeni kanye nasesiswini ngaphambili
Fisher, Ivy Langa 32 12.8.76 Wadutshulwa ekhanda ngakwesokudla
Follie, Enoch Soweto - 18.6.76 Wadutshulwa ngaphezu kwenhliziyo
Garnie, R.W. Alexandra - 26.12.76 Wadutshuwa ehlombe lakwesokudla
Gasnola, Suleman Lansdowne 17 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni eceleni
Gcwabe, Abel Daniso Gugulethu - 1.11.76 Wadutshulwa ngemuva
Genu, Fetras Gugulethu 18 12.8.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili
Gincana, Atwell - - 18.6.76 -
Gishi, Jackson - 67 27.12.76 Kusaphenywa
Gobile, Christopher Gugulethu 26 21.8.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini ngaphambili
Godwe, Jeffery Soweto - 18.6.76 -
Gonxeka, Sidney Z. Langa 18 28.12.76 Wadutshulwa washona
Gule, Petrus Soweto 15 26.8.76 Inxeba lokudutshulwa ekhanda
Gumata, Jumba Soweto 26 26.12.76 -
Gushamn, Mhlangabezi E Gugulethu 28 11.8.76 Waduthulwa ekhanda ngaphambili
Guwa, Nelson Gugulethu 48 26.12.76 Wagencwa waze wafa ngabasebenzi bokufika
Harris, Ronald Silvertown 25 16.9.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili
Hlakula, Stanley Mlamli Gugulethu 26 27.12.76 Wadutshulwa washona
Hoogaardt, Spasiena Hugenot, Paarl 15 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa
Hlatshwayo, Joyce Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Hlongwane, Johannes Soweto 43 12.9.76 -
Hlongwane, Petros Soweto 29 25.7.76 -
Hlokwane, N.C. Alexandra - 26.12.76 Wagxotshwa yibhasi
Isaacs, Colin Retreat 31 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa emqaleni ngemuva
Isaacs, John Manenberg 15 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa
Jacobs, Shaheed District Six 15 3.9.76 Wadutshulwa eceleni emqaleni kanye nasesifubeni ekhoneni lemiqwaqo Sackville and Vincent Streets, eKapa.
Jacobs, Mervyn Elsies River 16 8.9.76 Waduthulwa ngemuva
Jacobs, John Manenberg 15 9.9.76 Waduthulwa engalweni kanye nasesifubeni kwesokunxele eGreen Dolphin Bottle Store, kuJordaan Road.
Jelems, Government Nyanga - 27.12.76 Wadutshulwa waphinde wagencwa waze wafa
Johnson, Erol Manenberg - 4.2.77 Waduthulwa esiswini
Jonas, Lawrence Nyanga 26 26.12.76 Wabulawa ngabasebenzi migrant workers
Kahn, Nazeem Manenberg - 16.9.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni kanye nasesisiwini
Kalakahla, Samson Fantu Soweto 26 25.8.76 -
Kalane, George Soweto 15 26.12.76 -
Kamesi, Andries Gugulethu 25 11.8.76 Waduthsulwa ekhanda ngapambili
Kamfer, Christiaan B. Ravensmead 16 7.9.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili
Khalipha, Richard Nyanga 4 months 15.1.77 Isizathu sokufa asikakaziwa
Khan, Naziem Manenberg 15 16.9.76 -
Kleinschmidt, Amgeline Elsies River 31 8.9.76 Wadutshulwa emuva kwekhanda
Komani, Brian Nyanga 27 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa washona
Kumalo, Joseph Gugulethu 22 3.9.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini ngaphambili
Kwisomba, Harry Gugulethu 30 26.12,76 Wadutshulwa washona
Kambule, Eliakim Sutu - 50 - Ukulimala okuningi emzimbeni
Kekane, Andries Mamelodi - 31,12,76 -
Kekane, Shadrack Soweto - 26.12.76
Keokame, Marshall Soweto - 16.6.76
Kgampe, Philemon Soweto - 26.12.76
Kgapule, Edward Soweto - 26.12.77
Kgate, Sydney - 46 - Wadutshulwa washona
Kgoadi, Gustov Soweto - 26.12.76
Kgokong, Linda Daveyton - 31.12.76 -
Kgongoana, Ariel "Pro" Soweto - 16.6.76 -
Kgupisi, Herbert Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Khaje, Sydney Kabelo Soweto 47 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa
Khambule, Godfrey Soweto 12 24.8.76 Aamxeba okuduthulwa ngenkathi amaphoyisa edubula esixukwini.
Khoza, John Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Khumalo, Columbus Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Khumalo, Daniel Soweto 24 19.6.76 Ukulimala okuningi emzimbeni
Khumalo, Nehemiah M. Soweto 24 21.6.76 Wagwazwa ngaphezudlwana kwenhliziyo
Koalana, Doctor Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Koalana, Willy Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Kobedi, Kabelo Soweto - 25.6.76 -
Koloane, David D. - 16 24.8/76 Inxeba lokudutshulwa. Aamphoyisa ophenyweni lokufa kwakhe athi wahlasela iphoyisa ngembazo
Kolonga, David Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Kubeka, Johannes Soweto 24 16.7.76 Amanxeba okudutshulwa onyaweni lakwesokunxele. Wabuluwa ukopha
Khubeka, Hilton Soweto 19 17.6.76 -
Khubeka, Robert Soweto 24 26.12.76 Amanxeba okugwazwa
Khubeka, Zabulon Soweto 47 22.8.76 -
Kumalo, Zolile Soweto - - -
Kunene, Edward Soweto 42 18.6.76 Wagwazwa kabili ngakwesobunxele esifubeni
Kunene, Norman - 27 17.6.76 Wadutshulwa
Kwadi, Gunston Soweto 32 26.8.76 Amanxeba okudutshulwa ekhanda
Kwinana, Gregory Soweto 38 17.6.76 -
Laaka, Erick - 58 17.9.76 Amanxeba amaningi esiswini
Lebelo, Abiel Soweto 20 4.8.76 Wadutshulwa futhi wa-teargassed
Leburu, John Soweto 23 18.6.76
Leburu, Nathaniel - 39 - Inhlamvu yangena emgogodleni
Ledwaba, Jacob Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Lee, Ralph, R Retreat 34 8.9.76 Wadutshulwa emaqaleni ngaphambili
Leepo, Junior - - 19.1.77 Washiswa waze wafe ngebhomu likaphethiloli
Lengwali, Patrick Soweto - 11.1.77 -
Lengwathi, Patrick Themba Soweto - 16.6.76 Wadutshulwa
Lepota, David - - 26.12.76 -
Leroke, Hermina Soweto - 26.12.77
Lesele, Tutu John Langa 45 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa isihluzu , esinqeni kanye nasesisfubeni ngemuva
Lesejane, Ashely Moepong - 31.12.76 -
Lesumi, J. Soweto - - 26.12.76 Wahlaselwa ngabahlali basehostela
Letlaku, J. Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Letleka, Dominic Soweto 4 18.6.76 -
Letsholo, Peter Soweto 21 25.8.76 -
Leukes, Owen Bonteheuwel 17 - Wabokwa ohlwini lwamaphoyisa njengofile kodwa engabulawanga ngamaphoyisa
Limba, Cyril Ivan Manenberg 18 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa emhlane e-Vistula Tavern Bottle Store
Linda, Petrus King Soweto 26 26.12.76 Wafa ngokudutshulwa
Lloyd, Jan Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Louw, Samuel Gugulethu 42 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili
Lucas, Cornelius Mossel Bay - - Wafa ngaphambi zamhla zingama-15 kuMandulo
Lutiya, Wiseman Gugulethu 22 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini
Luphindo, Inspector Soweto 24 2.7.76 -
Lupiwane, Goowill Soweto 35 18.2.77 Ugebhezi oluphoqokile
Luvatsha, Reginald Soweto - 26.12.76
Luvatsha, Thembo Soweto - 26.6.76 Amanxeba okudutshulwa ngezansi kwesisu
Mabandla, Selby Soweto 58 26.12.76 Wagencwa ekhanda ngenkathi abahlali basehostela behlasela abahlali baseSoweto
Mabaso, Erick Soweto 18 26.12.76 -
Mabaso, Mathabeni Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mabaso, N Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa
Mabena, Peter Soweto - 26.12.76 Wagwazwa
Mabitsa, Steven - 58 19.6.76 Wagwazwa esifubeni - wafa ngenkathi kubhikishwa
Maboya, Bennet Soweto - 26.12.76
Maboya, Bernard Soweto - 26.12.76
Mabuku, Glagys Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mabunda, Sam Boy Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Mabuya, B. Soweto - 26.12.76 Inxeba lokudutshulwa emlonyeni nasehlombe
Mabuza, Patrick Soweto 24 17.9.76 -
Mabuza, Shadrack Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Mabyka, Gladys Soweto 26 18.2.77 -
Madibo, P. Alexandra - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa ehlombe lakwesobunxele
Madikane, Daniel Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Madzivhandla, Patrick Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Madupe, Johannes - - - Waduka ngoNhlangulana we-1976 eGa-Rankuwa. Amaphoyisa awanayo eminye imininingwane
Maepa, Simon Soweto - - 26.12.76 -
Maga, Dane Alexandra - 26.12.76 Inxeba lokudutshulwa
Magadani, Florence Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Magagula, Petrus - 49 - Wadutshulwa washona
Mahapo, Godfrey Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mahasha, Daniel Soweto - 26.12.77 -
Mahlaba, David Soweto 24 26.12.78 -
Mahlambi, Pauline Soweto - 26.12.79 Inxeba lokudutshulwa ethangeni
Mahlaza, Raymond Soweto 24 17.6.76 Waduthsulwa enqulwini
Mahlinza, Maxwell Soweto 24 17.6.76 Waduthsulwa enqulwini
Mahopo, G. Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa washona
Mahurawe, Titus - 13 - Wadutshulwa emuva
Maichetha, Walter Soweto 15 26.12.76 -
Mailangwe, Richard Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Maipa, Simon Soweto - 26.12.77 -
Majambela, Archibald Gugulethu 23 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili
Majamba, Douglas Philippi 20 12.8.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili
Majeka, Rebecca Langa 37 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa emqaleni ngemuva
Majoko, Daniel Soweto - 26.12.78 -
Majola, Nongoentu Soweto 28 8.8.76 Wadutshu;wa wafa ngamphoyisa asebenza kulayini westimela
Majola, Boy Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Majola, Titus Soweto 15 19.7.76 -
Makaluza, Ellen Gugulethu - 26.12.76 Wagencwa wafa ngebasebenzi bokufika
Makundayi, Monica Gugulethu 5 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa washona
Makate, Washington Soweto 26 25.8.76 Amanxeba okuydutshulwa ngohlwayi emilenzeni yombili. Wopha waze wafa
Makari, Abraham Soweto 43 18.2.77 Amanxeba okugwazwa
Makate, Washington T. Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa emqaleni
Makgabane, Peter Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Makgetle, David Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Makhabane, Petrus K. Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni kanye naseseswini
Makhari, Abraham Soweto 33 26.12.76 -
Makhetha, Percy - 15 26.12.76. Inxeba lokudutshulwa
Makhotla, Makhosi Soweto 41 7.9.76 Amanxeba okudutshulwa esiswini
Malindisa, George Soweto 23 31.7.76 -
Mamogobo, Ezra - 49 24.7.76 Ukulimala emzimbeni kanye nasekhanda
Maneli, Gladwell, V. Gugulethu - 2.1.77 Washawa wafa yiqulu labasebenzi bokufika
Manale. Herbert Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Manganyi, Victor Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Manhayi, Arthur Soweto 24 24.8.76 Wagencwa waze wafa, kusolaka abahlali basehostela (hostel dwellers)
Mankayi, Benjamin Soweto 39 23.8.76 Wagwazwa ngesikhtahi kuhlasela abahlali basehostela
Mankayi, Gideon Soweto 39 24.8.76 Wanqunywa ekhanda ngesikhali esibukhali
Maphalala, S. Soweto - 27.8.76 Wadutshulwa
March, Phillip Soweto 16 20.6.76 Wadutshulwa kathathu ekhanda
Marney, Alfred Retreat 18 16.9.76 Wadutshulwa emhlane
Maseko, Sara Soweto 46 17.6.76 Amaxeba okuduthulwa emathangeni. Wabulawa wukopha
Maseko, Sylvester Vusi Soweto 21 20.9.76 Amaxeba okudutshulwa ekhanda
Masiba, Nkululo, S. Gugulethu 22 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa ehlombe lakwesokudla ngemuva
Masimango, Bernard Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Masuku, Themba Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Masenya, Grace Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mashaba, Johannes Soweto 22 26.12.76 Waklinywa.
Mashiane, F.B. Soweto - 26.8.76 Wadutshulwa
Mashinini, Morris Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mashombo, Ben Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Masilela, Aby Soweto 24 26.12.76 Amanxeba amaningi
Masilo, Boas Sydney Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Masilo, E.N. Soweto - 24.8.76 Wagencwa ngabahlali basehostela
Masinga, David Soweto 19 16.6.76 -
Masuiga, David Soweto 19 16.6.76 -
Mathabathe, Aaron Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Mathagane, Elifas Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Mathebula, Jacob Sydney Soweto 22 4.7.76 Wadutshulwa onyaweni
Mathebula, Josiah Soweto 54 26.12.76 Ukulimala emgogodleni.
Matheson, Reginald C. Retreat 18 8.9.76 Wadutshulwa emhlane, emqaleni kanye nasekhanda ngemuva. S
Mathobela, Johan Soweto 19 12.8.76 -
Matimela, Lazarus Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Matlhaku, Samuel Soweto 66 26.6.76 -
Matome, Mackenzie Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Matsabu, Abel Jan Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Matsapola, E. Soweto - 26.12.76 Amanxeba ambili okudutshulwa
Matsepe, Jeffrey Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Matsunyane, James Sello Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa emhlane, inhlamvu yangena emzimbeni
Mavimbela, Sipho Soweto - 18.6.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni
Matyeni, Wellington K. - 21 31.12.76 Wabikwa njengolahlekile ngoZibandlela we-1976
May, Nicholas Retreat 19 8.9.76 Wadutshulwa emuva
Mazomba, Boy Charles - 18 14.9.76 Amanxeba okudutshulwa kugonyelwa ukuthi wabe onela phansi ujantshi wesitimela ngaphambi kokuba abalekele iphoyisa elamdubula
Mazwai, Zizwe Gugulethu 18 8.9.76 Waya kovakashela umngani ngehora lesi-6 kusihlwa mahlazingama-8.8.76. Isidumbu sakhe satholakala emakhazeni ngosuku olulandelayo.
Mbali, James - 15 1.12.76 Wadutshulwa washona
Mbatha, Ames Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Mbatha, Dumisani Isaac - 16 25.9.76 -
Mbatha, Sipho Clement Soweto 22 24.10.76 Amanxeba amaningi okuduthulwa esifubeni kanye naseseiswini
Mbebe, Frank Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mbeki, Princess Soweto - 17.9.76 Amaphoyisa adubula esixukwini sabafundi eSekano-Ntoane High School. Amanxeba okudutshulwa
Mbele, Aaron Soweto - 26.12.76 Washaywa yinhlamvu yesibhamu
Mbele, Simon Soweto - 24.10.76 Wabulawa amaxeba okudutshulwa ekhanda kanye nasesifubeni
Mbengwane, Stanley Soweto 28 26.12.76 -
McDeci, Richard Manenberg 35 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa emuva
Mchunu, Moses Soweto 12 26.12.76 Ikhanda labe linqunywanqunywe kaningi
Mda, John Soweto 32 17.6.76 Amanxeba okudusthulwa esifubeni kanye nasemaphashini
Mdayi, Dambile, S. Langa 24 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili
Menwe, Peter Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mevana, David Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadudutshulwa kwiphe
Meyer, Karel Sherwood Park 45 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa esinqeni ngakwesokudla ngemuva
Mhlanga, Samuel Soweto 17 26.12.76 Ugebhezi oluphoqozekile
Mhlongo, Felix Alexandra - 18.6.76 Wadutshulwa - walimala emphashini, enhliziweni kanye nasemgogodleni
Miller, Lord Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mithi, Lily Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mjamba, Douglas Gugulethu 20 12.8.76 -
Mkafulo, Cajulo Langa 36 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa emhlane kanye nasenhiziweni ngemuva
Mkhize, Tusokwakhe Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mkhotlana, Elias Moletsane 43 26.12.76 -
Mkhwanazi, Israel Soweto 26 26.12.76 Amanxeba okugwazwa
Mkhwanazi, Lindiwe Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mkwanzi, L Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa
Mlangeni, Lea Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mlangeni, Mbopha Soweto 18 14.9.76 -
Mlilo, Amos - 30 24.8.76 Amaphoyisa atshela inkantolo ephenya ngokufa kwabantu ukuthi kwakungenzeka ukuba abae isisulu sabahlali basehostela eSoweto.
Mlotshwa, Derrick - 23 14.9.76 Amanxeba amaningi okudutshulwa esifubeni.
Mmutle, Dennis Soweto - 26.12.76 Inxeba lokudutshulwa ecelani.
Mncedisi, Mazwi Gugulethu 16 9.9.76 Wahamba eyolongongela ibhola mhla ziyi-9.9.76. Isidumbu sakhe satholakala emakhazeni ngosuku olulandelayo.
Mncube, Gideon Soweto 20 15.7.76 -
Mnculwane, Mantombi Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa
Mngemane, Morris Soweto 18 20.6.76 Amanxeba ama-5 okudutshulwa
Mngoma, Tenson Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mngomezulu, Simon Soweto 29 18.6.76
Moatlhudi, Agnes Soweto 10 26.12.76 -
Moatse, Titus Soweto 15 19.7.76 -
Modisane, Samuel Oupa Soweto 19 24.8.76 Inxeba lenhlamvu enhliziweni. Watholakala efile emgwaqeni buqamama nakubo. Waduthulwa ngamaphoyisa ngohlwayi ngenkathi isixuku sihlakazeka
Modise, Peter - 60 - Ukulimala ekhanda
Modise, J. Dobsonville - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini
Modukanele, Isaac Rasebata Alexandra - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa
Modukanele, Jacob Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Moerane, Jacob Soweto 23 19.6.76 Washiswa ngaphansi kwemoto
Mofokeng, R.A. Soweto - 17.6.76 Wagwazwa ngebhodlela
Mogapi, Samuel - 4 5.3.77 Wadutshulwa washona
Mogapi, Stephen - - 26.12.76 -
Mogola, Johannes Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mogotsi, Nchimane Philemon Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mofokeng, Raymond Soweto 14 25.8.76 Amanxeba okuduthulwa esifubeni nasemqaleni
Mohamme, J. Soweto - 24.8.76 Wagwazwa esiswini, nobuso bucwecwiwe
Mohapi, Steven Soweto 58 18.2.77 Ukulimala ekhanda.
Mohapi, Jacob - 16 23.9.76 Wabulawa amanxeba enhlamvu yesibhamu ephashini.
Mohlabane, Mphele Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mohwaduba, Simon Mabopane - 31.12.76 -
Mokgatle, Mohatle Moses Soweto 47 26.12.76 Amanxeba okugwazwa
Mokobi, Cornelius - 24 30.8.76 Watholakala efile nenxeba lokudutshulwa esifubeni
Mokoena, Moremane - 14 Amanxeba amabili okudtshulwa esufubeni nasemlenzeni
Mokoena, Amos Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mokoena, Moses Soweto - 26.12.76
Mokoena, Vincent Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Molapo. Lobian Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Molefe, John Soweto 19 25.6.76 -
Molefe, Peter Soweto 21 26.12.76 -
Moleko. Hendrick Soweto - 18.6.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini
Moloi, Joseph Karabo - 16 29.9.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini
Moloi, Philadelphia - 17 - Wadutshulwa wafa
Mononyane, Joseph S. Soweto - 18.6.76
Montjane, Elijah Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mooketsi, Johan Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Morolong, Bruce - - 31.12.76 Wabikwa njengolahlekile emva kwezinxushunxushu zikaZibandlela.
Morolong, J.P. Soweto - 23.9.76 Wagwazwa waphinde washawa waze wafa
Moses, Phillip Ravensmead 41 7.9.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini ngaphambili
Mosie, Ezekiel, Z. X. Langa 18 12.8.76 Wadutshulwa ekhanda ngaphambili ngaphambi kwesiteshi samaphoyisa eLanga
Mothutsane, Petrus - 25 25.8.76 Inxeba lokudutshulwa esifubeni
Motsweni, Daniel Nethan Soweto - 25.9.76 Amanxeba okudutshulwa
Mphetha, Lawrence Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mphithi, Joseph Soweto - - -
Mpinga, Joseph Soweto 34 25.9.76 -
Mpusula, Simon Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mshelwane, Lawrence Soweto 27 26.12.76 Amanxeba okudutshulwa esiswini
Mshudulu, Welili R Gugulethu 23 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili
Mrwebi, Daniel Gugulethu 23 12.8.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini ngaphambili
Msimanga, Mbekiseni Soweto - 26.12.76
Mteto, Temba Gugulethu 21 31.8.76 -
Mthembo, John Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mthembu, Reuben Soweto 19 26.12.76 -
Mthemba, Mzinane - 27 14.9.756 Isidumbu satholaka emva kokuba iqulu selihlakazekile
Mthombeni, M. Soweto - 26.12.76 Wahlaselwa yizigebengu
Mtshadi, Simon Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mubuya, Bennett Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mukel, Dennis Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Muller, Jurie Elsies River 16 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa eceleni kwekhanda kanye nagaphezulu komzimba
Mutlane, Herman - 42 - Inxeba lokudutshulwa ekhanda
Mvukuse, Rebson, T Gugulethu - 17.9.76 Wadutshulwa
Mzwamadoda, M.B.A. Langa 35 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa ehlombeli lesokudla ngasemuva
Mzila, Hezia Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Mziwoke, Jan Lloyd - 35 18.6.76 Inxeba lokudutshulwa esifubeni
Nabuka, Ambrose Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Nare, Michael Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Ncube, Daniel Soweto - 26.12.76 Inxeba lokudutshulwa enqulwini
Ndau, Herbert Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Ndebele, Zuzele Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Ndibongo, Michael Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Ndingane, Mzimkhulu Gugulethu 11 14.9.76 Wadutshulwa esiswini ngaphambili
Ndlela, Hector Soweto 20 26.12.76 -
Ndlovu, H.J. Soweto - 26.12.76 Inxeba okudutshulwa esiphongweni
Ndlovu, Jimmy Soweto 26.12.76 -
Ndlovu, Lesley Hastings Soweto 17 16.6.76 -
Ndlovu, Obed Soweto 16 26.12.76
Ndlovu, Timothy Soweto 36 18.6.76 -
Ndou, Herber Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Nduna, Sifanelo K. Langa 38 11.8.76 Wadutshula emhlane kanye nasokhalweni ngemuva
Ndunga, Nicholas S. Gugulethu 22 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa esifubeni ngaphambili ebhodlela sitolo
Ndzube, Norman B. Gugulethu - 4.12.76 Wadutshulwa wafa
Ngaba, Wellington Soweto - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa
Ngabi, Joseph M. Camps Bay 22 11.8.76 Wadutshulwa wafa
Ngcobo, Oben Soweto 17 26.12.76 -
Nqcobo, Thuthuka - 16 15.9.76 Amanxeba okudutshulwa
Nqcobo, Eric - 16 - Wadutshulwa ekhanda
Ngemane, Morris Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Ngobeni, Harry Soweto 26 26.12.76 -
Ngobeni, Johannes Mabopane - 31.12.76 -
Ngoma, Tennyson Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Ngubene, Aaron Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Ngubene, Vusimuzi Soweto 34 26.12.76 -
Ngwenya, Amon Vusi Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Ngwenya, Stanley Soweto 34 17.6.76 -
Nhlapo, Timothy Soweto 31 26.12.76 -
Nixkey, Basil W. Manenberg 41 9.9.76 Wadutshulwa emuva eGreen Dolphin Bottle Store
Nkabinde, Fanyana Soweto 17 26.12.76 Amanxeba okugwazawa emqaleni nasenhliziweni
Nkambule, David Soweto - 26.12.76
Nkangana, Zacharia Nyanga 18 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa wafa
Nkata, Samuel Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Nkofu, Mnyane, Jacob Soweto - 26.12.76 -
Nkomo, Eric Soweto 17 26.12.76 -
Nkonyane, Norurau Soweto 34 10.8.76 -
Nkosi, Jacob Pretoria, Mamelodi - 31.12.76 -
Nkosi, Monica Soweto 6 1.8.76 -
Nkosi, Patrick Soweto 20 23.8.76 Inxeba lokudutshulwa emqaleni. Waduthsulwa ngenkathi ebalekela ukuboshwa
Nkuta, Gordon Soweto 19 25.7.76 -
Nkutha, H.P. Alexandra - 26.12.76 Wadutshulwa

Imvelamuva[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Abantu abasha abaningi balifulathela elaseNingizimu Afrika ngoba kwasekusobala ukuthi izimpilo zabo zabe zisengcupheni babengafa noma bebengaboshawa noma inini. Amaqembu ayesukbhaceni okubalwa kuyo i-ANC kanye noPAC athola ithuba lokuqasha knanye nokuqeqeshela impi abantu abasebancane ezinkambini nagaphandle kwaseNingizimu Afrika. Lamaqembu abe eqeqesha labantu abasghu ukusebenzisa izibhamu kanye nokucekela phansi, lapha babeqeqeshwa ezinkambini eAngola (Engineering Camp) kanye nenye yaseTanzania (Mkumbane) [4]. Izinhlangano zezombusazwe za ukuthi iNingizimu Afrika ukuba ifakelwe izibopho (sanctions) Inhlangano Yezizwe (United Nations) [13].

Izithombe zemibhikisho yangoe-1976 zasabalala umhlaba wonke, lezi zithombe zabe ziveza ngokusaobala ukuthi uhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika wabe ewahlukumeza kanjani amalungelo ama-Afrika eNingizimu Afrika. Isithombe esahlaba abaningi umxhwele yileso esathwethsulwa yintatheli yezithombe ogama layo nguSam Nzima, kulesi sithombe kuvela uHector Pieterson ephethwe nguMbuyisa Makhubo emva kokuduthsulwa ngamaphoyisa bengahlomile. Kules sithombe kukhona udadewabo kaHector Pieterson u-Antoinette Sithole egijima eceleni kwabo. Lo mfanekiso sewaba nguphawu lwalolusuku lokuVukela kweNtsha eSoweto[5][4].

Ngonyaka we-1994 usuku lwa-mhla zingama-16 kuNhlangulana lweziwa iholide lomphakathi. Kulolu suku kususke kubungazwa iqhaza elabanjwa iyintsha ekulweni nohulumeni wengcindezelo kubuye kukhunjulwe bonke abalahlekelwa yizimpilo zabo belwa ngalolu suku.

Kwimidiya[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Lolu suku lwanziwa ifilumu ngonyaka we-1992, kwifilumu esihloko sayo yi-Sarafina eveza izigameko zangonyaka we-1976 lahpja kudla phambili kuyo uLeleti Khumalo kanye no-Whoopi Goldberg. Lolu suku lubuye luvele kwenye ifilimu yaseNingizimu Afrika esihloko sayo i-Stander eyabe ikuluma ngomphangi wamabhange owayekade engukaputeni wamaphoyisa. Isiteshi sikamabonakude i-SABC1 wakhombisa umdlalo obizwa nge"When We were Black" ngonyaka we-2006 lapho babeveza imzimpilo zabafundi abangabangani ngonyaka we-1976. [14].

Bheka futhi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. "The birth and death of apartheid". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/575204.stm. Retrieved 17 June 2002. 
  2. "The Youth Struggle". South African History Online. http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/youth-struggle. 
  3. Boddy-Evans, Alistair. "16 June 1976 Student Uprising in Soweto". africanhistory.about.com. http://africanhistory.about.com/od/apartheid/a/Soweto-Uprising-Pt2.htm. 
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 "The June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising". http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/june-16-soweto-youth-uprising.html. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Sifiso Mxolisi Ndlovu. "The Soweto Uprising". The Road to Democracy in South Africa. 2. South African Democracy Education Trust. p. 344. http://www.sadet.co.za/docs/RTD/vol2/Volume%202%20-%20chapter%207.pdf. Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  6. Alistair Boddy-Evans. "The Afrikaans Medium Decree". About. http://africanhistory.about.com/library/bl/blsaJune16decree.htm. 
  7. The Youth Struggle,"The 1976 Students' Revolt". South African History Online. http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/governence-projects/june16/struggle.htm. 
  8. Davie, Lucille (12 June 2006). "The homecoming that wasn't". City of Johannesburg. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060614021718/http://www.joburg.org.za/2006/june/jun12_june16.stm. Retrieved 23 August 2017. 
  9. F.I.J. van Rensburg. "Soweto, 1976: 'n Inklusiewe herbegin 30 jaar later?" (in Afrikaans). Die Vrye Afrikaan. http://www.vryeafrikaan.co.za/site/lees.php?id=611. 
  10. . |title=A Dictionary of South African History|year=1998|last=Saunders}}
  11. April Francis; Vanessa Marchese. "Apartheid South Africa and the Soweto Rebellion". Hofstra University. http://people.hofstra.edu/alan_j_singer/CoursePacks/ApartheidSouthAfricaandtheSowetoRebellion.pdf. 
  12. Harrison, David (1987). The White Tribe of Africa. 
  13. Davidson, Basil (1976). Southern Africa: the new politics. Penguin Books. 
  14. "When We Were Black (TV Series 2006– )". Internet Movie Database. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt1401705. Retrieved 15 October 2017.