Uhlelo lobandlululo

From Wikipedia

Uhlelo lobandlululo, olwaziwa ngolimi lwesiBhunu ngokuthi yi-apartheid, okuyigama elisho "isimo sokwehlukanisa", kwakuwuhlelo lokwehlukanisa izakhamizi zaseNingizimu Afrika ngokobuhlanga. Lokhu kwakwenziwa ngamandla emithetho yeNational Party, okwakuyiyona eyayibusa ukusuka nge-1948  ukuya nge-1994. Ngaphansi kohlelo lobandlululo, amalungelo, izinhlangano kanye nokunyakaza kwazakhamizi eziningi ezimpisholo nezinye izinhlanga kwancishiswa kwasekuthi umbuso wedlanzana lamaBhunu kwabayiwona osimamiswayo. Umbuso wobandululo waqala ngemuva kwempi yesibili yomhlaba yiNational Party eyayiholwa ngamaBhunu kanye nenhlangano yeAfrikaner-Broederbond. Lo mcabango wokubusa izakhamizi ngokwahlukanisa waqhutshekiselwa phambili naseNingizimu Ntshonalanga Afrika, eyayenganyelwe yiNingizimu Afrika ngaphansi kwegunya leLeague of Nations (elachithwa  ngo-1966 nge-United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2145), yaze yathola ukuzimela njengeNamibhiya ngo-1990. Igama elithi ubandlululo lisetshenziswa namuhla ukubhekisa ezinhlotsheni ezahlukene zokwahlukanisa, okumiswa yiziphathimandla zikahulumeni kulelo zwe, okuphikisana namalungelo omphakathi nawezakhamizi ezisemaqenjini athile, ngenxa yokubandlulula ngokohlobo.

Ubandlululo ngokobuhlanga eNingizimu Afrika kwaqala ngezikhathi zamakholoniyali ngaphansi kwamaDashi, kwaze kwaba ngo-1795 ngenkathi amaNgisi ethatha elaseCape of Good Hope. Uhlelo lobandlululo njengomgomo osemthethweni lwaqala ukusetshenziswa ngemuva kokhetho luka-1948. Umthetho wawehlukanisa izakhamizi ngokobuhlanga ngezigaba  ezine, - "abampisholo",  "abamhlophe", "abebala" kanye nama-"Ndiya', kwathi izinhlanga zaphinde zehlukaniswa ngezigatshana ezimbalwa nezindawo zokuhlala nazo zehlukaniswa ngokobuhlanga. Ukusuka ngo-1960 ukuya ku-1983, izigidi ezingu-3.5 zabantu abamnyama baseNingizimu Afrika zasuswa emakhaya azo, zaphoqelelwa ukuba ziyohlala ezindaweni ezehlukanisiwe, okwakuwukususwa kwabantu okukhulu emlandweni wanamuhla. Ukumelwa kwabantu kwezepolotiki kwapheliswa ngo-1970, futhi ukusuka ngalowo nyaka abantu abamnyama bephucwa amalungelo obuzwe ngokusemthethweni banikezwa amalungelo ezabelo zabamnyama ezizimele ezazaziwa ngokuthi ngamaBantustans, ezine zazo ezagcina ziyimibuso ezimele geqe. Uhulumeni wehlukanisa nemfundo, ezokwelashwa, amabhishi, kanye nezinye izinkonzo zomphakathi, wanikeza abantu abamnyama izinkonzo ezazivame ukuba ngeziphansi ngezinga kunalezo ezazinikezwa abantu abamhlophe.

Uhlelo lobandlululo lwasusa ukuzabalaza nodlame oluningi ngaphakathi nezwe, kanye nokunswinywa kweNingizimu Afrika kwezezikhali nokuhwebelana. Ukusuka ngawo-1950, ukuqhubuka kodlame nokuphikisana nemithetho yezwe okuningi kwahlangabezana nokuvalwa kwababephikisa imithetho yezwe kanye nokuboshwa kwababe ngabaholi ababephikisana nohlelo lobandlululo. Ekusabalaleni kothuthuva lwembesa izwe,  izinhlaka zikahulumeni zaphendula ngokucindezela abantu nangokusebenzisa udlame. Lokhu kuhambisana nokunswinywa kweNingizimu Afrika ngamazwe omhlaba, kwenza ukuthi kube nzima kakhulu ukuthi uhulumeni aqhubeke nokubusa. Ukulungiswa kohlelo lobandlululo kwawo -1980 kwehluleka ukudambisa ukuphikisana nemithetho yobandlululo eyayiya iphakama, uMongameli Frederik Willem de Klerk waqala izingxoxo zokuqeda uhlelo lobandlululo, ezaholela okhethweni lwazo zonke izinhlanga ngo-1994. Kulolu khetho i-African National Congress ngaphansi kukaNelson Mandela yaphuma phambili.  Okusele kohlelo lobandlululo kusenawo amandla kwezepolitiki nasemiphakathini. UDe Klerk waqala  isenzo sokudiliza uhlelo lobandlululo ngokukhulula umeluleki kaMandela kanye nezinye iziboshwa zepolitiki ejele ngo-Okthoba 1989. Noma ukuqedwa kohlelo lobandlululo lwenzeka ngo-1991, ukuchithwa kwemithetho yokugcina ephathelene nobandlululo kwenzeka ngo-1991, abantu abamnyama babengavunyelwe ukuvota kwaze kwaba ngu-1993 kanti ukuqedwa kohlelo lobandlululo kuthathwa ezindaweni eziningi njengento eyavuka ngo-1994 okhethweni lwentando yeningi. 

Bheka futhi[hlela | edit source]

Izinkomba[hlela | edit source]