Coronavirus disease 2019

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Isifo seCoronavirus 2019 ( COVID-19 ) yisifo esithathelwanayo esibangelwa ukuqina kokuphefumula kwe-acute immune coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). [1] Lesi sifo saqala ukubonwa ngonyaka ka-2019 eWuhan, inhloko-dolobha yaseChina iHubei, futhi selusabalale umhlaba wonke, okuholele ekutheni ubhubhane oluqhubekayo lwangonyaka ka-2019 ukuya ku-20 lubone . [2] [3] Izimpawu ezijwayelekile zifaka phakathi umkhuhlane, ukukhwehlela, kanye nokuphefumula . [4] Ezinye izinkomba zingafaka ubuhlungu bemisipha, ukukhiqizwa kwesikhwehlela, uhudo, umphimbo obuhlungu, ukulahleka kwephunga nobuhlungu besisu. [5] [6] [7] Ngenkathi iningi lamacala liba nezimpawu ezithambile, abanye bathuthukela ku- pneumonia kanye nokwehluleka kwezitho eziningi . [2] [8] Ukusuka ngomhla zingama-28 kuNdasa wezi-2020, isilinganiso sokushona kwenani ngalinye lamacala atholakele ngamaphesenti angama-4,6; lisuka kumaphesenti angama-0,2 laya kumaphesenti ayi-15 ngokuya ngeminyaka yobudala nezinye izinkinga zempilo . [9] Uma siqhathanisa inani lokufa kwabantu jikelele le- 1918 Flu yaseSpain ibicishe ibe yi-3% iye ku-5%. [10]

Leli gciwane lisakazeka ikakhulu ngesikhathi sokuxhumana okuseduze nangamaconsi omoya wokuphefumula akhiqizwa lapho abantu bekhwehlela noma bezela. [11] [12] Amaconsi okuphefumula kungenzeka akhiqizwe ngenkathi uphefumula kepha igciwane ngokuvamile alikho moya . [11] [13] Abantu bangaphinde banenkontileka ye-COVID-19 ngokuthinta indawo engcolisiwe bese bebhekene nobuso babo. [11] [12] Kuyathathelana kakhulu uma abantu benophawu, yize ukusakazeka kungenzeka ngaphambi kokuba kubonakale izimpawu. [12] Igciwane lingaphila ezindaweni ezifika emahoreni angama-72. [14] Isikhathi kusuka ekuchayweni nasekuqalisweni kwezimpawu ngokuvamile siphakathi kwezinsuku ezimbili neshumi nane, ngokwesilinganiso sezinsuku ezinhlanu. [4] [15] Indlela ejwayelekile yokuxilonga is reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab . [16] Ukutheleleka kungabuye kutholakale ngokuhlanganiswa kwezimpawu, izici zobungozi kanye nokuhlolwa kwesifuba kwe- CT okubonisa izici ze-pneumonia. [17] [18]

Izindlela ezinconyiwe zokuvimbela ukutheleleka zifaka ukugeza izandla njalo, ukusakazeka emphakathini (ukugcina ibanga elingokomzimba kwabanye, ikakhulukazi kusuka kulezo ezinezimpawu), ukumboza ukukhwehlela nokuthimula ngethiphu noma ngendololondo yangaphakathi, nokugcina izandla ezingagezwanga kude nobuso. [19] [20] Ukusetshenziswa kwamamaski kunconywa kulabo abasola ukuthi banegciwane kanye nalabo ababanakekelayo. [21] Izincomo zokusebenzisa imaski ngumphakathi ojwayelekile ziyahlukahluka kwezinye iziphathimandla ezincoma ukusetshenziswa kwazo, ezinye zincoma ukusetshenziswa kwazo, kanti ezinye zifuna ukusetshenziswa kwazo. [22] [23] [24] Awukho umuthi wokugomela noma ukwelashwa okulapha okungelona iqiniso kwe-COVID-19. Ukuphatha kufaka ukwelashwa kwezimpawu, ukunakekelwa kokusekela, ukwahlukanisa, nezindlela zokuhlola . [25]

I- World Health Organisation (WHO) imemezele ukuqubuka kwesimo esiphuthumayo sonyaka ka-2019 kuya ku-20 kuqubuka iMpi Yezempilo Yomphakathi Yezinkinga Zomhlaba (PHEIC) ngomhlaka 30 Januwari 2020 [26] [27] kanye nobhubhane ngomhlaka 11 Mashi 2020. [3] Ukudluliselwa kwalesi sifo kule ndawo kubhalwe emazweni amaningi kuzo zonke izifunda ze-WHO eziyisithupha. [28]

Izimpawu nezimpawu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Labo abangenwe yileli gciwane kungenzeka babe njenge- asymptomatic noma bahlakulele izimpawu ezifana nomkhuhlane, kubandakanya umkhuhlane, ukukhwehlela, ukukhathala kanye nokuphefumula. [5] [29] [30] Izimpawu eziphuthumayo zifaka ubunzima bokuphefumula, ukuphikelela kobuhlungu besifuba noma ingcindezi, ukudideka, ubunzima bokuvuka, nobuso noma izindebe ezimnyama; ukunakekelwa kwezokwelashwa ngokushesha kuyelulekwa uma lezi zimpawu zikhona. [31] Ngaphansi ngokuvamile, engenhla zokuphefumula izimpawu, ezifana sneezing, amakhala yisisu, noma obukhulu emphinjeni kungabonwa. Izimpawu ezinjenge- nausea, ukugabha, nohudo kuye kwabonwa ngamaphesenti ahlukahlukene. [32] [33] [34] Amanye amacala e-China aqale kuvezwa kuphela ngokuqina kwesifuba nangama- palpitations . [35] Ngo-Mashi 2020 kwaba nemibiko eveza ukuthi ukulahleka komqondo wokuhogela (i-anosmia) kungaba uphawu olujwayelekile phakathi kwalabo abanesifo esibuthakathaka, [7] [36] yize bekungajwayelekile njengoba kubikwe ekuqaleni. [37] Kwezinye, lesi sifo singathuthuka sibhekise amabele, ukwehluleka kwezitho eziningi, nokufa . [2] [8] Kulabo aba nezimpawu ezibucayi, isikhathi kusuka ekuqaleni kokuqala kwesibonakaliso kuya kokudinga umoya omncane wezinsuku ngokuvamile izinsuku eziyisishiyagalombili. [38]

Njengokwejwayelekile kwezifo, kukhona ukubambezeleka phakathi komzuzu lapho umuntu etheleleke ngegciwane kanye nesikhathi lapho eba nezimpawu. Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi isikhathi sokufakwa . Isikhathi sokufakwa kwe-COVID-19 ngokujwayelekile izinsuku ezinhlanu kuya kweziyisithupha kepha zingaqala ezinsukwini ezimbili kuya kwezingu-14. [39] [40] 97,5% wabantu abahlakulela izimpawu bazokwenza lokho kungakapheli izinsuku eziyi-11.5 zokutheleleka. [41]

Imbangela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Lesi sifo sidalwa yi- acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). [42] Sisakazeka kakhulu phakathi kwabantu ngesikhathi sokuxhumana okuseduze nangeziqubu zokuphefumula ezivela ukukhwehlela nokuthimula . [43] Ucwaningo oluphenya ngezinga lokuwohloka kwaleli gciwane alutholanga gciwane ngemuva kwamahora amane ithusi, amahora angama-24 ekhadibhodi, amahora angama-72 kusimbi engenacala, kanye namahora angama-72 epulasitiki. Kodwa-ke, amanani wokutholwa awafikanga ku-100% futhi ahlukahluka phakathi kwenhlobo engaphezulu (umkhawulo wokutholwa kwakungu-3.33 × 10 0.5 TCID 50 ilitha lomoya kuma-aerosols, i-10 0.5 TCID 50 nge-millilita ephakathi yepulasitiki, insimbi, nekhadibhodi, kanye no-10 I-1.5 TCID 50 millilita ephakathi yethusi). Ukulinganiselwa kwezinga lokuwohloka ngemodeli yokubuyiselwa kweBayesian kusikisela ukuthi ama-virus angahlala esebenza kuze kufinyelele emahoreni angama-18 ethusi, amahora angama-55 ekhadibhodi, amahora angama-90 ngensimbi engenacala, namahora angaphezu kwayikhulu epulasitiki. Leli gciwane laqhubeka lisebenza kuma-aerosols sonke isikhathi sokuhlolwa (amahora amathathu). [44] Leli gciwane selitholakele nemijondolo, futhi nokudluliselwa ngemijovo kuyacwaningwa . [45] [46]

Lesi sifo sisakazeka ngokushesha lapho abantu besondelene khona noma behamba phakathi kwezindawo. Imikhawulo yokuhamba inganciphisa inombolo eyisisekelo yokuzala isuka ku-2.35 iye ku-1,05, ivumele ubhubhane ukuba luphathwe kakhudlwana. [47]

Lesi sifo asisakazeki ngezinto zezitolo ezinobizo lwe- "Corona" kuzo futhi imikhiqizo evela eChina ayinasengozini yokusinikeza lesi sifo. [48] [49]

Ucwaningo olwenziwa e-elibukelayo abantu abayisishiyagalolunye abuthole ukudluliswa mpo kusuka kumama owayesanda kuzalwa. [50]

Leli gciwane litholakele emgodini wabantu abaningi ababalelwa ku-53% [45] abantu abalaliswe esibhedlela kanti okutholakele kakhulu ama-anal swab positives kunezifo ezenziwa ngomlomo ezigabeni zakamuva zokutheleleka. [51] Leli gciwane latholakala emalondolo kusukela ezinsukwini eziyishumi nambili kuya kweziyishumi nambili, kanti amaphesenti ayishumi nesikhombisa eziguli aqhubeka nokuletha leli gciwane emalungeni ngemuva kokungabe esawathola amasampula okuphefumula, okubonisa ukuthi ukutheleleka ngegciwane egazini kanye nokudluliselwa komlomo kungaba khona ngisho nangemva kokuba imvume yegciwane emgudwini wokuphefumula. [45] Ukuqashelwa kwegciwane kutholakele nokutholwa kokuhlaziya okubonisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi isiguquli sisuka ekuthetheni ngomlomo ngesikhathi sasesikhathini sokuqala kwesifo siye ekuthini sibe ne-anal ethe xaxa ngezikhathi ezizayo. [51]

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