INkece yezezibhangqiwe

Mayelana Wikipedia
Ubungqwangqwa bemali, obusekelwe ku-"Central bank cryptocurrencies" ka-Morten Linnemann Bech noRodney Garratt

Inkece yezezibhangqiwe (ebizwa ngangokuthi imali yezezibhangqiwe, imali yenzuba noma inkece yenzuba) iyinoma iyiphi inkece, imali, noma impahla esamali ngokuyinhloko ephathekayo, egciniwe noma eyenanwa ezimisweni zesiCikizi sezezibhangqiwe, ikakhulu kuxhakaxholo. Izinhlobo zenkece yezezibhangqiwe zihlanganisa inkecesomane, inkece yendwalazo (virtual currency) kanye nenkece yezezibhangqiwe yebhangengodla. Inkece yezezibhangqiwe ingaqoshwa kungcinamininigo okungeyomshumanqa noma ibhange, ngaphakathi kwezihele zezezibhangqiwe noma ekhadini elifakwe inani.

Izinkece zezezibhangqiwe zinezakhi ezifanayo nezezinkece ezingokwesiko, kodwa imvama azinas isimo esingokoqobo senkece esemthethweni ngokomlando okwaziyo okuyiphatha ngesandla, njengezinkece zephepha elishicilelwe noma izinhlamvu ezinyathelisiwe - kodwa zinaso isimo esingokoqobo ngomqondo wanamuhla wokunanana ukusuka esicikizini kuya kwesinye isicikizi nokusuka esicikizini kuya kumuntu kanye nokwaziswa namandla wokuhidanisa weziphakeli ezigcina futhi zigcine umkhondo wemali. Lesi simo soqobo sanamuhla sivumela ukutyengiaelana okusheshayo kuxhakaxholo futhi kwehlisa kakhulu izindleko eziyamaniswa nokusabalalisa imali yephepha nezinhlamvu. Ngokuvamile, izinkece zendwalazo, ezingakhishwa uhulumeni, azithathwa njengezisemthethweni futhi zivumela ukudluliswa kobunikazi nangaphesheya kwemingcele kahulumeni.

Lolu hlobo lwenkece lingasetshenziselwa ukuthenga izingudla zoqobo nezinkonzo, kodwa lungavmbelwa emphakathini ethile efana njengokusebenza ngaphakathi komfeketho wakuxhakaxholo.

Imali yezezibhangqiwe ingaba enyombonisiwe (centralised), lapho kunesikhundla esiyinhloko esilawula ukuhlinzekwa kwayo ( isb. njengebhange) noma ibe ngenyomboluliwe (decentralised), lapho ulawulo phezu kwemali lunqunywa kusengaphambili noma kuvunyelwana ngaso ngokombusowabantu noma intando yeningi.

uMlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngonyaka we-1983, iphepha locwaningo elinesihloko esithi "Blind Signatures for Untraceable Payments" lika-David Chaum langenisa isu lemali yezezibhangqiwe. Ngowe-1989, wasungula i-DigiCash, umshumanqa wemali yenzuba, e-Amsterdam ukuze afake amasu wocwaningo lwakhe kwezentengiselwano. Yafaka isicelo sokuhluleka ukukhokha izikweletu ngowe-1998.

Imali yoxhakaxholo yokuqala eyasethsenziswa kabanzi, ebizwa e-gold, yangeniswa ngowe-1996, futhi yakhula yaba nabasebenzisi bayo abayisigidi ngaphambi kokuba uhulumeni waseMelika ayivale ngowe-2008. Lomshumanqa obizwa e-gold uye waba amaphatho ngelithi "inkece yezezibhangqiwe" kokubili izikhulu zaseMelika nakwezemfundo ephakeme.