Ifilimu

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Amafilimu, noma amamovie, olunye uhlobo lwezindlela zokuxhumana ezisebenzisa okubonwayo ukuxoxa izindaba noma ukufundisa abantu okuthize. Kubantu abaningi, ukubuka amafilimu kuyindlela yokuqeda isizungu, noma yokuzijabulisa. Kwabanye, ifilimu ebajabulisayo ile ebenza bahleke, kepha kwabanye ile ebenza bakhale noma bathuke.

Le yi-photographic sequence eyaqoshwa ngu Eadweard Muybridge ngonyaka ka-1887. Umsebenzi wakhe wama-chronophotographic ungabukeka njengamafilimu aqoshwa ingakabibikho indlela eyiyona yokudlala izithombe ezinyakazayo.
Isiqephu sefilimu yamahlaya eyenziwa nguCharlie Chaplin.

Ngokuhlaziywa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-Berlin Wintergarten theatre yaba yindawo yebhayisikobho yokuqala nqa, ifilimu encane yabukiswa ngabaziwa nge Skladanowsky brothers ngezi 1 kuLwezi 1895.

Amafilimu amaningi enzelwa ukuze ezoboniswa kumabhayisikhobhu. Ngemuva kokuba aboniswe kumabhayisikobhu isikhathi esingaba amaviki amubalwa noma izinyanga, kungenzeka amakethelwe kweminye imikhakha. Abe eseboniswa kumabonakude, aphinde adayiswe noma aqashiswe kumaDVD disk noma kumavideocassette tape, ukuze abantu bezowabuka lamafilimu emakhaya. Ungakwazi futhi ukuwadawuniloda noma uzibukele wona Kwi-inthanethi. Amafilimu amadala ayaye adlalwe eziteshini zokusakaza zakumabonakude.


Ifremu evela kwifilimu eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Roundhay Garden Scene, okuyiyona endala okuwadlula wonke eyaqoshwa ngekhamera yezithombe ezinyakazayo, nguLouis Le Prince, ngonyaka ka1888.

Ikhamera yamafilimu ithatha izithombe ngokukhulu ukushesha. Ngokujwayelekile, ithatha izithombe (amafremu) ezingama-24 noma 25 ngesekhondi elilodwa. Uma imovie projector, noma ikhompyutha, noma umabonakude udlala lezizithombe ngalesosivinini, kubukeka sengathi izinto ezitshengiswa kulezizithombe ziyanyakaza. Umsindo uqoshwa ngalesosikhathi noma ufakwa ngesinye isikhathi. Umsindo kwifilimu kuyaye kube umsindo wabantu abakhulumayo (okubizwa ngengxoxompikiswano), umculo (okubizwa nge "soundtrack"), imisindo ekhandiwe, imisindo yezinto ezenzeka kuleyofilimu (njengokuvaleka kweminyango noma ukudubula kwezibhamu). Amakhamera asemandulo ayesebenzisa okwakubizwa ngephotographic film. Yize noma ingasekho iphotographic film, umphumela wokugcina usabizwa ngokuthi ifilimu.

Enziwa Kanjani?[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umbhali ubhala isikripthi, okuyindaba yefilimu ehambisana nengxoxompikiswano nezinto abalingisi abazozisho baphinde bazenze. Uproducer uqasha abantu abazosebenza kuleyofilimu aphinde athole yonke imali ezodingeka ukukhokhela abalingisi nezinsizakusebenza. Ngokujwayelekile, amaproducer imali ayithola ngokuyiboleka ebhange noma ngokuthola abatshalizimali ukuba batshale ekuqopheni ifilimu. Amanye amaproducer asebenzela isitudyo; amanye amaproducer a-independent (awasebenzeli isitudyo).


Abalingisi namadirector bafunda izikripthi ukuthola abazokusho nabazokwenza. Abalingisi bawabamba ngekhanda amagama okumele bawasho kwifilimu baphinde bafunde iminyakazo nezinto isikripthi esibatshela ukuba bakwenze. Udirector ube esetshela abalingisi indlela okumele balingise ngayo bese umthwebulizithombe athathe izithombe ezinyakazayo ngekhamera yamafilimu.

Uma ukuqopha sekuqediwe, ueditor uhlanganisa zonke izithombe ezinyakazayo ndawonye ngendlela exoxa indaba yonke ngesikhathi esithize. Ama-audio engineers namasound engineers aqopha umculo bese awuhlanganisa nezithombe ezinyakazayo. Uma ifilimu isiqediwe, izindlu zamafilimu zenza amakhophi aleyofilimu abe maningi bese bawafaka kumafilm reels. Amareels lawo abe esethunyelwa kumabhayisikobhu. Umshini osebenza ngogesi obizwa ngeprojector, ukhanyisa ilambu elixhophayo kuleyofilimu ukuze abantu abahlezi egumbini elimunyama bezoyibuka esikrinini esikhulu.

Izinhlobo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Igenre igama lesingisi elisho uhlobo lwefilimu noma isitayela sefilimu. Amafilimu kungenzeka kube ngaqanjiwe, noma atshengisa impilo yangempela, noma akuhlanganisa kokubili lokhu. Ayizigidi ngezigidi amafilimu enziwa unyaka nonyaka, kepha ayincosana kulawo angalandeli imithetho ebekiwe, noma izindatshana. Amanye amafilimu ayaye axube izinhlobo ezimbili kuya ngaphezulu.


  • Ama-action movies anezigameko eziningi ezimangalisayo njengokujahana kwezimoto nokudubulana ngezibhamu, okuyaye kwenziwe ngabantu abangompetha. Kuyaye kube khona abenzi bokuhle nabenzi bokubi, ngakho izimpi nobugebengu kuyaye kube izihloko ezivamile kakhulu. Ama-action movies ayaye angawudingi umdlandla omuningi ukuwa buka ngoba izindaba zakhona ziyaye zibe lula. Ngokomuzekelo, kwifilimu ogamalayo lingu Die Hard, izigilamkhuba zahlasela ibhilidi elikhulu, zafuna ukunikwa imali ukuze zingabulali abasebenzi abangenacala. Iqhawe elilodwa lakwazi ukubanqoba lasindisa wonke umuntu. Ama-action movies awavamisile ukwenza ababukeli bakhale, kepha uma leyo-action movie izixuba nedrama, imizwa ingathinteka.
  • Ama-Adventure Movies kuyaye kube khona iqhawe elithatha uhambo ukuze lizosindisa umuhlaba kanye nabathandiweyo balo.
  • Ama-Animated movies asebenzisa izithombe ezidwetshiwe njengopopayi ukuxoxa izindaba. Lamafilimu ayedwetshwa ngesandla, ifremu ngefremu, kodwa manje asekhandwa ngamakhompyutha.
  • Ama-Buddy movies anamaqhawe amabili, omunye kumele asindise omunye, bobabili kumele banqobe zonke izinqinamba abahlangabezana nazo. Ama-buddy movies ajwayele ukuba namahlaya, kodwa ikhona nemizwa, ngenxa yobudlelwano phakathi kwalabangani ababili.
  • Ama-comedies amafilimu ahlekisayo angabantu behlekisa benza nezinto ezingajwayelekile noma bebhekene nezimo ezihlekisayo noma ezingajwayelekile ezenza ababukeli bahleke.
  • Ama-documentaries amafilimu angabantu bangempela nezehlakalo zangempela. Ayaye abe ngaqondile futhi akhuluma ngezihloko ezibucayi, njengokuhlukumezeka noma ukuhlukunyezwa.
  • Ama-dramas ngaqondile, ayaye abe ngabantu bethola uthando noma bedinga ukuthatha isinqumo esikhulu empilweni yabo. Axoxa izindaba ngobudlelwano phakathi kwabantu. Ayaye alandele imigomo yezindaba elula lapho oyedwa noma ababili bamacharacters (umlingisi nomlingisi ulingisa icharacter) anqobe (andlule) izinqinamba (lokhu okubavimbayo) ukuze bezothola lokhu abakufisayo.
    • Ama-Tragedies kuhlezi kungama drama, futhi ahlezi engabantu abasenkingeni. Ngokomzekelo, indonda nomkayo abafuna ukwehlukanisa, kumele omunye nomunye wabo alethe ubufakazi kwinkantolo yomthetho ukuba ngubani oncono ekunakekeleni umtwana wabo. Imizwa iyinxenye enkulu kulama filimu futhi nababukeli bengaphatheka kabi abanye bagcine sebekhala nezinyembezi.
  • Ama-Film noir movies ngama drama angeminyaka yama 1940s angobugebengu nodlame.
  • Ama-Family movies ngamafilimu enzelwe ukubukwa ngumndeni wonke. Esikhathini esiningi asuke enzelwe ukubukwa ngabantwana kepha ayaye asiqede isizungu nakubantu abadala. Imboni eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Disney idume ngama family movies ayo.
  • Ama-Horror movies ngasebenzisa ukwethuka ukuze azojabulisa ababukeli. Umculo, ukukhanya nezindawo zokuqopha (izindawo ezenziwe ngabantu ezitudyo zamafilimu lapho ifilimu yenziwa khona) zonke zakhiwe ngendlela ezoba nomthelela kulowo muzwa.
  • Ama-Romantic Comedies (ama-Rom-Coms) avamise ukuba yizindaba zothando phakathi kwabantu ababili abaphuma ezindaweni ezahlukene, okumele banqobe izinqinamba ukuze bezoba ndawonye. Ama-Rom-Coms avamise ukuba lula, kodwa angaba nayo imizwa.
  • Ama-Comedy horror movies ahlanganisa ama-horror nama-comedy ezindabeni zawo. Amafilimu akule genre asebenzisa amahlaya aqondile njengohlobo lokuhlekisa.
  • Ama-Science fiction movies enzeka esikhathini esizayo noma ezinkanyezini nakweminye imihlaba. Amanye asebenzisa isikhathi esizayo noma izindawo zakweminye imihlaba ukubuza imibuzo ngencazelo yempilo noma indlela okumele siyibuke ngayo impilo. Ama-science fiction movies avamise ukusebenzisa ama-special effects ukwakha izithombe zakweminye imihlaba, izinkanyezi, izilwane zakweminye imihlaba, kanye nama-spaceships.
  • Ama-Fantasy movies abandakanya umulingo nezinto ezingakhonakali, izinto ezingekwazi ukwenziwa ngabantu bangempela.
  • Ama-Thrillers ngavamise ukuba ngokudida umqondo, izinto ezingaqondakali, noma ngobugebengu obudinga ukuphenywa. Ababukeli bazithola beqagela kuze kube imizuzu yokugcina, lapho kuyaye kube khona 'ama-twists'(okungazelele) endabeni.
  • Ama-Suspense movies akugcina uhleli ekucupheleni kwesihlalo sakho. Avamise ukuba nokungazelele okuningi okudida ababukeli.
  • Ama-Western movies axoxa izindaba zama-cowboys ezenzeka entshonalanga neMelika ngeminyaka yama 1870s neyama 1880s. Avame ukuba ngama-action movies, kodwa nezembhatho zasemandulo. Amanye abandakanya abokudabuka eMelika. Akuwona wonke amafilimu enzeka entshonalanga neMelika aqoshelwa khona. Ngokomzekelo, ama-Western films aqoshwa e-ITaliya abizwa ngama-Spaghetti Westerns. Amanye amafilimu angalandela izindaba zama-Western yize noma enzeka kwezinye izindawo.

Uhwebo Lokuqopha Amafilimu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Amafilimu amaningi alahlekelwa yimali kodwa amanye enza izigidi zama miliyoni, noma ngabe ngama-dollars, ama-euros noma ama-pounds. ENdiya amafilimu ayinxenye enkulu kakhulu yomnotho wezwe. Lomukhakha usubuswe yizimboni ezinkulu ezimubalwa isikhathi eside. Okubalwa kuzo i-MGM/UA, i-WarnerBros., i-Columbia, i-Lucasfilm, i-Paramount noma i-Disney.


Ukwakheka[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ziningi izimboni ezinkulu ezinikezana usizo oludingekayo ukwenza amafilimu, okunjengama-special effects, ukukhanyisa, ukwakha izakhiwo zokuqopha. Iningi lalaba basebenzi bangaphansi kwezinyunyana ezishoyo ukuba amalunga azo kumele abhadalwe umholo ongakanani. Ziyisibalo esikhulu izimboni ezincanyana nazo ezinikezana usizo, njengezindawo zokuqopha umculo (eziqopha umculo ziwuqophela ama-sound tracks) nama-CGI okuyizithombe ezidwetshwe ngekhompyutha.


Ukudayiswa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ekugcineni, kunezimboni ezidayisa amafilimu (ziwathumela umhlaba wonke noma izwe lonke), kuphinde kube khona izimboni zokukhangisa ezazisa abantu ngaleyofilimu ziyiphromothe (zizame ukuheha abantu ukuba bezolangazelela ukuyibuka leyofilimu).


Amafilimu anabalingisi abadume kakhulu futhi enziwe ngemali eningi, enzelwe ukuba athandwe ngabantu abaningi, ngethemba lokuthi amamiliyoni wabantu azobhadala ukuwabuka. Lamafilimu enziwa ngemali eshisiwe abizwa ngokuthi ngama-blockbusters.

Ama-Special effects angenza ukuba kubize kakhulu ukwenziwa kwefilimu, ikakhulukazi loluhlobo olusha olwaziwa ngokuthi i-CGI, kodwa abantu abaningi sebeqala ukuwalindela futhi i-blockbuster ne-blockbuster isizama ukwendlula engaphambili. Nangonyaka ka-2008, amanye amafilimu ayesebiza imali engango $200 million ukuwenza.


Amafilimu ayimpumelelo enkulu angayiphinda phinda kaningi leyomali, ingakho izitudyo ziqhubeka nokuwakhiqiza. Ifilimu yalolu hlobo liyaye likhangiswe kakhulu ezindaweni ezinjengo mabonakude, ama-billboards nakwi inthanethi.

Ama-Blockbuster[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Kumafilimu angama-blockbuster, kuvame ukuba nesiphetho esijabulisayo, lapho zonke izinkinga endabeni zixazululwa futhi wonke umuntu (ngaphandle kwesigilamkhuba) uphila ngenjabulo engunaphakade. Amanye amafilimu aba yimpumelelo ngendlela yokuba izitudyo ziqhubeke zikhiqize ezinye izigaba noma izahluko zaleyo filimu.


Ama-Indie films[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ekugcineni kwama-blockbuster, kunama-independent movies, art movies, noma ama-Indie movies. Lanka avame ukwenziwa yizimboni zamafilimu ezincane, noma yidlanzana nje labantu abangenayo nemali etheni. Umzekelo yifilimu ebizwa ngokuthi-The Blair Witch Project, eyabiza inani elingama $60,000 ukuyenza, kodwa eseyenze imali ebalelwa kuma $200 million ngokuthengisa amathikithi nama-DVD. Amafilimu anjengalena awavamile futhi avame ukudunyiswa 'underground' (ngokuxoxelana kwabantu), ukuze abe yintando yabantu noma adume kodwa hhayi njengama-blockbuster.


Ama-Independent movies avame ukuxoxa izindaba ezicubunguliwe noma ezingajwayelekile futhi kuyenzeka zibe neziphetho ezidabukisayo ezingathandwa izitudyo ezinkulu ngoba ziyaye zingabi naso isiqiniseko sokuba umphakathi uzozizwa kanjani ngazo. Kukancane ukuba lamafilimu enze imali eningi, kodwa uma ekwazile ukuphumelela, izitudyo ezinkulu ziyaye zizame ukuxhumana nabantu abayenza ngokushesha ukuze bezongena kwisivumelwano nabo, ngokubathembisa imali eningi ukuba benze enye ifilimu. Imvamisa, leyofilimu entsha, nemali yayo enkulu nabalingisi abakhulu iyaye ingabi impumelelo njengale yokuqala.

Eminye Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]