I-Intanethi

Mayelana Wikipedia

Internet_map_1024_-_transparent,_inverted

uXhakaxholo uhlelo lwembulunga yonke lwamaxhoxho ezicikizi axhumene olusebenzisa i-Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) ukuze kube nokuxhumana okulula phakathi kwamaxhoxho nezilekeleli. Lunguxhoxho lwamaxhoxho oluqukethe amaxhoxho asisulu, awomphakathi, awamanyuvesi, awamabhizinisi, nawakahulumeni awezindawo nawembulunga, wonke ahlanganiswe ndawonye ubuchwepheshe obusebenzisa amazuba, obungenazo izindophi kanye nobezinxoza zokukhanya (fibre optics). UXhakaxholo luqukethe izinsiza zokwaziswa eziningi kanye nezinkonzo, okubalwa kuzo imiqulu exhumene ye-hypertext kanye namahlelokusebenza oLwebu Lomhlaba Wonke (WWW), umbikombani, ucingo lokuxhumana, kanye nokwabelana ngamafayela.

Indabuko yoxhakaxholo iseminyakeni yowezi-1960, lapho ucwaningo olwalwenziwa uMnyango wezokuVikela waseMelika lwavumela ukuba kube nokucobelelana ngesikhathi phakathi kweziCikizi. UXhoxho oluyinhloko olyisanduleli, i-ARPANET, lwalusebenza njengesiseko sokuxhumana phakathi kwamaxhoxho ezifunda kwezemfundo nakwezempi eminyakeni yowezi-1970. Uxhaso ngokwezimali oluvela kwa-National Science Foundation lwaba yisiseko esisha ngowezi-1980. Lona kanye noxhaso olwaluvela kwabezoHwebo, lwaholela kubambiswano lomhlaba wonke ekuthuthukiseni ezobuchwepheshe ezintsha kwezoxhoxho, kanye nasekuhlanganisweni kwamaxhoxho amaningi. Ukuxhunywa kwamaxhoxho abezohwebo namabhizinisi ekuqaleni kweminyaka yowezi-1990 kwaphawula isiqalo sokufudukela kuXhakaxholo lwanamuhla, futhi kwaphehla ukukhula okuqhubekayo njengoba uhide lweziCikizi zezikhungu, abantu ngabanye, kanye neziphathwayo nazo zaxhunywa oxhoxhweni.

ukuchazwa kwebizo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ibizo elithi "uxhakaxholo" lihumusha kahle elithi internet elinomsuka ochaza into exhakaxhene, noma exhoxhene (cishe lafana nelithi uxhoxho) kodwa lisho into ephithene, yaxhoxhelana ngendlela exakayo. Liyafaneleka ngoba uxhakaxholo namuhla luyisimiso sembulunga samaxhoxho esicikizi axhakaxhumene.

Nawa amanye amagama ahlobene nokusetshenziswa kukaxhakaxholo:

  • Internet service - inkonzo yoxhakaxholo
  • online - kuxhakaxholo
  • cyber - uxhakaxholo
  • online service - inkonzo yoxhakaxholo
  • cyber attack - uhlaselo loxhakaxholo
  • internet browsing - ukuphequlula kuxhakaxholo
  • website - IsiZindalwebu

Nakuba abantu lapho bevakashela uLwebu LoMhlaba Wonke bevamise ukuthi bakuxhakaxholo, basuka beshaya eceleni ngoba abakwenzayo ukusebenzisa isiphequluli ukubuka amakhasi wolwebu. ULwebu loMhlaba Wonke luyingxenye eyodwa yezinkonzo eziningi zoxhakaxholo, luyiqoqoq lwemibhalo (amakhasi wolwebu) nezinye izinsiza zolwebu, ezikhongcwe ngamakhongcokazi namakheli wolwebu.

UkuBaluleka koXhakaxholo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UXhakaxholo lubalulekile esikhathini samanje ngoba ulwazi oluningi luqukethwe kulo. Abantu akusadingeki ukuthi baye kobheka ulwazi emtapweni wolwazi noma bathenge amaphephandaba ukuze bathole ulwazi, sekulula manje umuntu ungena kuxhakaxholo athole lokho akufunayo noma ikuphi esebenzisa isicikizi noma umakhalekhukhwini. UXhakaxholo futhi lwenza ukuxhumana phakathi kwabantu emhlabeni jikelele kube lula futhi kungambi eqolo. Usukwazi ukuxhumana nomuntu okwelinye izwe nixoxe indaba yenu niyiqede nibukana, lobu ubuchwephese be-video calling.

Okubalulekile ngoxhakaxholo ukuthi luyakwazi ukuthatha umhlaba wonke liwusondeze, liwubeke esihenqweni sesiCikizi noma umakhalekhukhwini. Ngoxhakaxholo abantu bayakwazi ukuxhumana nebhange, izitolo, imitapo yolwazi, izihlobo nabangani, ngingabala ngithini. Ukuthuthuka kobuchwepheshe boxhakaxholo sekuholele ekutheni kwenziwe imali esebenza khona kuxhakaxholo kuphela ukuthenga konke okudingayo. Lemali esebenza kuxhakaxholo kuphela ibizwa ngokuthi iNkecesomane (crypto currency), edume kakulu yaziwa ngokuthi yi-Bitcoin eyasungulwa ngonyaka wezi-2009 ngumlisa ozibiza ngoSatoshi Nakamoto.



Umthumeli we-intanethi ngokuka Buky Schwartz, endaweni yaseHolon, ezweni lakwaIsreyili

UbuNgozi boXhakaxholo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UXhakaxholo lwenza ukuxhumana kwabantu kube lula, kanti ukuxhumana nako kunobungozi babo. Abantu bavame ukuthumela imininingwano yangasese, abanye abantu bayakwazi ukuyeba leyomininingwano. Bangasebenzisa uxhakaxholo ukubhebhethekisa amanga noma izimfihlo ezebiwe noma izeluleko ezinobungozi. Ngokomzekelo, uXhoxho lomphakathi olwaziwa ngo-Facebook lwake lwaba sezinkingeni ngokungavikeli imininingwano yabantu yangasese.

  • Amanye ama-websites angaqola abantu ukuba badawunilode amaGciwanyane angalimaza isiCikizi, noma ama-spyware apopola abasebenzisi (ahlola zonke izinto abazenzayo bese ezazisa omunye).
  • Ama-E-mails angaphatha amafayela anobungozi kuma "attachments".[1]
  • Kuma-internet chatrooms, abantu bengazama ukuzingela abanye noma bezame ukubakhela uzungu noma bebahlukumeze.
  • UXhakaxholo luqukethe abantu abaningi abakubona njengokuhlukumezayo, nokuqonde ukuhlukumeza.
  • Izigilamkhuba zingeba imininingwano yabantu yangasese noma zibaqole ukuba babathumele imali.

Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. https://archive.today/20130705180116/https://www.wiredsafety.org/internet101/viruses.html