IsiCikizi

Mayelana Wikipedia
(Redirected from Ikhompyutha)
setting the input parameters
A Colossus Mark 2 computer being operated by Dorothy Du Boisson (left) and Elsie Booker (right), 1943
Man replacing one vacuum tube out of hundreds in early computer
Rows of large, dark computer cabinets in warehouse-like room
Purple video game console with attached controller
Smartphone with rainbow-like display held in a hand
IziCikizi nezilekeleli zezinkathi ezingafani.
Top row: Automatic mechanical calculator (1820) (Difference Engine), First-generation computer (Colossus computer)
Middle row: Early vacuum tube computer (ENIAC), Supercomputer (IBM Summit)
Bottom row: Video game console (Nintendo GameCube), Smartphone (LYF Water 2)

Ikhompyutha noma isiCikizi inguxa yezezibhangqiwe yamazuba engahleliswa ukuba yenze uchunge lwezibalonqangi nemigidingo ehluzekile ngenhleleleko. Izicikizi zanamuhla zingenza imigidingo engamaqoqo avamile eyaziwa ngokuthi izinhleleliso. Lezinhleleliso zinikeza isiCikizi igunya lokwenza imisebenzi ehlukahlukene. Isimiso sesiCikizi siyisicikizi esiphelele esihlanganisa nezinye izinsiza ezidingekayo ukuze sikwazi ukugidinga ngokugcwele. Legama libuye libhekisele eqoqweni leziCikizi ezixhunywe ukuba zisebenze ndawonye, njengoXhoxho lweziCikizi noma isishomo seziCikizi.


Imikhiqizo ehlukile yezezimboni neyabakhozi isebenzisa izicikizi njengezimiso zokulawula. Izilekeleli zenjongo ecacile njengechadaza (microwave oven) nezilawuli kude(remote controls) ziyabalwa, kanjalo nezilekeleli zomkhando ezifana nezithununu zezimboni kanye nomklamo osizwa isicikizi, kuhlanganise nezilekeleli zenjongo ebanzi ezifana nesicikizi somuntu siqu nezilekeleli eziphathwayo (mobile devices) njengoMakhalipha (smartphone). Izicikizi zifukutha uxhakaxholo ngokukhongca izigidigidi zezinye izicikizi nabazisebenzisayo.

Izicikizi zokuqala zazihloselwe ukusetshenziselwa uqaqululo (calculations) kuphela. Izinsiza ezifana ne-abacus sezisize abantu ekwenzeni uqaqululo kusuka endulo. Ekuqaleni kwenguquko yezimboni, izilekeleli zezinguxa zakhiwa ukuze zihleleleke (automate) imisebenzi emide ekhathazayo, njengokuqondisa isifanelo sesilukisi (loom). Izinguxa zamazuba zazenza imisebenzi eyinkimbinkimbi yoqaqululo lwenzuko (analog calcuations) ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-20. Izinguxa eziqaqululayo zamazuba zezezibhangqiwe zokuqala zakhiwa ngesikhathi sempi yomhlaba yesibili.

uMsuka wegama[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

isiCikizi esingumuntu, noma uMcikizi, ohlezi nesibonancinci nesiqaqululi ngowe-1952.

Igama elithi "isicikizi" lisuselwa esenzweni sokucikiza, esinencazelo yokuqala esho "ukubhala", eyesibili isho "ukuhlaziya, ukuxazulula inkinga," njengalapho umuntu ecikiza isibalonqangi sezibalo. Liyafaneleka lelibizo uma linesiqalo esithi 'isi' ngokwezigaba zamabizo. Umuntu ocikizayo yena uzoba "uMcikizi".

Kubikwa ukuthi izicikizi zokuqala kwakungabantu, ikakhulu abesifazane, kwakuba yibo izicikizi ngoba babeholelwa imali encane kunabesilisa. Cishe ngonyaka we-1943, iningi lezicikizi ezingabantu kwakungabesifazane.

uMlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngaphambi kwekhulu lama-20[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

ithambo elibizwa Ishango, kwakuyithuluzi eliyithambo lase-Afrika yanguna

Ezinkulungwaneni zeminyaka edlule, kuye kwasetshenziswa iziLekeleli ekucikizeni, ikakhulu ukubala ngeminwe. Isilekeleli sokubala sokuqala kungenzeka kwakunguthi lokubala. Kamuva izinsiza zokugcina izibalo kulo lonke elaseMpuma ephakathi zazihlanganisa izingcezu zobumba, okwakubalwa ngazo ukudla okusanhlamvu, imfuyo, ezazigcinea emagobongweni aluhoshoba adikiselwe.

isihlohlo sokubala saseShayina. Inani elivezwe kulesihlohlo izi-6,302,715,408.

Ukusetshenziswa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ekhaya[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  • Ukudlala imidlalo yesiCikizi
  • Ukubhala
  • Ukuxazulula izinkinga zezibalo
  • Ukubuka izithombe ezinyakazayo
  • Ukulalela umculo neminye imisindo eqoshiwe
  • Ukuhlela umculo, izithombe, nezithombe ezinyakazayo
  • Ukuqopha umsindo
  • Ukuxhumana nabanye abantu
  • Ukusebenzisa uXhakaxholo
  • Ukuthenga kuxhakaxholo
  • Ukudweba
  • Ukukhokhela izikweletu kuxhakaxholo

Ehhovisi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  • Ukusebenzisa izinhlelelo zokubhala
  • Ama-spreadsheet
  • Izethupo
  • Ukuhlela izithombe
  • I-E-mail
  • Ukuhlela izithombe ezinyakazayo/i-rendering
  • Ukuqopha umsindo
  • ukuphathwa kwesimiso
  • uKwakha isizindalwebu
  • uKwakha izinhlelelo