Isithembu

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Isithembu (kusuka ku- Late Greek πολυγαμία , Polygamía, "isimo somshado ukuba abangane bomshado abaningi" ) umkhuba eshada amaningi owakwakhe . Lapho owesilisa eshade nabafazi abangaphezu koyedwa ngasikhathi sinye, ososayensi bezokuhlalisana kwabantu bakubiza lokhu ngesithembu.Lapho owesifazane eshade nabesilisa abangaphezu koyedwa ngasikhathi, kubizwa nge- polyandry .

Ngokuphambene nesithembu, ukuba nomfazi oyedwa ngumshado oqukethe amaqembu amabili kuphela. Njenge "monogamy", igama elithi "isithembu" livame ukusetshenziswa ngomqondo we- de facto, lisetshenziswe kungakhathalekile ukuthi umbuso uyabubona yini ubudlelwano. [n 1] Ngo sociobiology futhi kwezilwane, abacwaningi babuye basebenzise isithembu ngomqondo obanzi ukuze kusho noma yiluphi uhlobo amaningi kokuzalela .

Emhlabeni jikelele, imiphakathi eyahlukahlukene iyasikhuthaza, iyasamukela noma isenqabele isithembu. Emiphakathini evumela noma isineke isithembu, ezimweni eziningi ifomu elamukelwayo yi-polygyny. Ngokwe- <i id="mwLw">Ethnographic Atlas Codebook</i> (1998), emiphakathini engu-1 231 ephawuliwe, ama-588 ayenesithembu kaningi, ama-453 ayenesithembu ngezikhathi ezithile, abangu-186 babenomfazi oyedwa kanti abane babene-polyandry – yize ucwaningo lwamuva nje lukhombisa ukuthi i-polyandry ingavela ngokujwayelekile kunalokho obekucatshangwa ngaphambili. [1] Emasikweni asebenzisa isithembu, ukwanda kwaso kuleso sabantu kuvame ukuhambisana nesimo sekilasi nezomnotho.h

Ngokombono wezomthetho buka, emazweni amaningi, nakuba umthetho ibona imishado monogamous kuphela (umuntu angaba omunye, futhi isithembu akukho emthethweni), ukuphinga akuyona emthethweni, okuholela isimo de empeleni waba isithembu bavunyelwa, nakuba ngaphandle kokuqashelwa ngokomthetho "kwabashadile" abangekho emthethweni.

Izifundo zesayensi zihlukanisa uhlelo lokukhwelana komuntu njengoluyinkosikazi eyodwa kuphela, ngomkhuba wamasiko wesithembu ngobuncane, osuselwe kokucwaninga kwenani labantu emhlabeni, [2] [3] nasezincwadini zomzimba womuntu wokuzala. [4] [5] [6]

Izinhlobo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isithembu sikhona ngezindlela ezintathu eziqondile:

  • Ipolygyny, lapho indoda inabafazi abaningi ngasikhathi sinye
  • IPolyandry, lapho owesifazane enabayeni abaningi ngasikhathi sinye
  • Umshado weqembu, lapho uphiko lomndeni lunabayeni abaningi namakhosikazi amaningi aneminyaka esemthethweni

Isithembu sowesifazane[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

 

Postcard photo of Prince Manga Bell seated for portrait with four women nearby, possibly late-19th century style
INkosana Manga Bell namakhosikazi abathandayo

Isithembu, umkhuba lapho owesilisa enabafazi abangaphezu koyedwa ngasikhathi sinye, yiyona ndlela ejwayelekile kakhulu yesithembu. Abaningi  emazweni amaSulumane-iningi futhi kwamanye amazwe nge ezincane ezishisiwe Muslim ukwamukela polygyny ukuba extents obuhlukahlukene kokubili ngokomthetho nakutemasiko; amanye amazwe omhlaba afana neNdiya nawo ayemukela ngamazinga ahlukahlukene. Umthetho wamaSulumane noma i- sharia umthetho wezenkolo owenza ingxenye yesiko lamaSulumane elivumela isithembu.Kususelwa ezimisweni zenkolo yamaSulumane, ikakhulukazi iQuran nehadith . Ngo -Arabhu, i-Shari'ah gama libhekisela kuNkulunkulu ka- ( Arabhu : الله Allāh ) ezingeguquleke umthetho waphezulu futhi ziqhathaniswa Fiqh, obhekisela ukutolika zawo ezingabantu yezazi.

I-Polygyny isabalele kakhulu e- Afrika kunanoma iliphi elinye izwekazi, [7]ikakhulukazi eNtshonalanga Afrika, kanti ezinye izifundiswa zibona umthelela wokuhweba ngezigqila kumanani wobulili besilisa nabesifazane njengento ebalulekile ekuveleni nase ukuqiniswa kwemikhuba yesithembu ezifundeni zase-Afrika. [8]

Umuntu oyisazi Jack Goody ka- lesifundvo sekucatsanisa umshado emhlabeni wonke sisebenzisa Ethnography Atlas wabonisa ukuhlanganisa zomlando phakathi umkhuba wokusebenzisa olubanzi eshintshashintshayo ukulima futhi isithembu e iningi imiphakathi-sub-Saharan Afrika.Edweba ngomsebenzi ka- Ester Boserup, uGoody uphawula ukuthi ukwehlukaniswa kwabasebenzi ngokobulili kuyahlukahluka phakathi kwezolimo ezilawulwa kakhulu ngabesilisa ezivamile e-Eurasia kanye nokulinywa kwezitshalo okuguquguqukayo okutholakala e-Afrika eseningizimu yeSahara. Kwezinye izifunda ezinabantu abambalwa lapho ukulima okushintshayo kwenzeka e-Afrika, abesifazane benza umsebenzi omningi. Lokhu kuvuna imishado yesithembu lapho abesilisa befuna ukulawula ukukhiqizwa kwabesifazane "abaziswa njengabasebenzi nanjengabathwali bezingane". UGoody, nokho, ubona ukuthi ukuhlangana akuphelele futhi kwehlukile, futhi ubuye axoxe ngezindlela zokulima ezilawulwa kakhulu ngabesilisa yize ziziningi kakhulu njengalezo ezikhona kakhulu eNtshonalanga Afrika, ikakhulukazi e- savanna yaseNtshonalanga Afrika, lapho umsebenzi omningi wezolimo wenziwa khona amadoda, futhi lapho i-polygyny ifunwa ngabesilisa ngaphezulu ekwakhiweni kwezizukulwane zesilisa ezisebenza kanzima. [9]

Izazi ze-anthropologists uDouglas R. White noMichael L. Burton baxoxa futhi basekela umbono kaJack Goody maqondana nezinhlelo zokulima zabesilisa base-Afrika ku- "Causes of Polygyny: Ecology, Economy, Kinship, and Warfare" [10] : 884 lapho laba balobi bebhala khona:

Umfuduki waseChina enabafazi bakhe abathathu nezingane eziyishumi nane, uCairns, ngo-1904

Ukuhlaziywa nguJames Fenske (2012) kutholakale ukuthi ukushona kwezingane kanye nokwethuka kwezomnotho okuhlobene nemvelo kunokubambisana okukhulu namanani esithembu e-subsaharan Africa, kuneminikelo yezolimo yabesifazane (okuvame ukuba ncane eSavana naseSahel yaseNtshonalanga Afrika, lapho amazinga e-polygyny aphezulu), ukuthola ukuthi amanani e-polygyny ancipha kakhulu ngezinga lokufa kwezingane. [11]

Izinhlobo zesithembu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Imishado yesithembu iwela ezinhlotsheni ezimbili: i- sorgy polygyny, lapho amakhosikazi asebenzelana khona engodadewabo, futhi engewona awokuthakatha, lapho amakhosikazi angahlangene engahlobene khona. UPolygyny unikeza abayeni inzuzo yokubavumela ukuba babe nezingane eziningi, angabanikeza inani elikhulu labasebenzi abakhiqizayo (lapho abasebenzi beyimindeni), futhi abavumele ukuba bakhe ubuhlobo obusebenzayo bezepolitiki abanenani elikhulu lamaqembu ezihlobo .Abafazi asebekhulile nabo bangazuza lapho ukwengezwa kwamakhosikazi amancane emndenini kunciphisa umthwalo wabo wokusebenza. Isimo sabafazi ', ikakhulukazi abafazi asebekhulile', emphakathini singakhuphuka ngokwengezwa kwamanye amakhosikazi, afaka isandla ekuchumeni komndeni noma akhombisa ukusetshenziswa okugqamile (njengendlu enkulu, usizo lwasekhaya, noma amaholide abizayo asebenza ezweni lasentshonalanga ) . Ngenxa yalezi zizathu, abafazi asebekhulile kwesinye isikhathi basebenza kanzima noma banikele kokutholakala emithwalweni yabo ukuze amadoda abo akwazi ukuqongelela ilobolo lomfazi owengeziwe.

I-Polygyny nayo ingahle ibangelwe umkhuba wokushada ngokudla . Ezimweni ezinjalo, indlalifa kamufi ingadla ifa lomkayo kanye nenkosikazi yakhe; noma, ngokujwayelekile, abafowabo bangashada nomfelokazi.Lokhu kunikeza ukwesekwa komfelokazi nezingane zakhe (imvamisa futhi kungamalungu eqembu lezihlobo zabafowethu) futhi kugcina ubuhlobo phakathi kwamaqembu ezihlobo zabesilisa nabafazi. I-Sororate ifana nemali evulekile, ngoba umfelwa kufanele ashade nodadewabo womkakhe ongasekho. Umndeni kankosikazi ongasekho, ngamanye amazwi, kufanele unikeze ozothatha indawo yakhe, ngaleyo ndlela ugcine ubuhlobo bomshado. Kokubili ukuvuza kanye nobuthakathi kungaholela ekutheni indoda ibe namakhosikazi amaningi.

Induna yesigodi namakhosikazi ayo eGuinea, c. 1910

Emiphakathini eyodwa, amadoda acebile futhi anamandla asungula ubudlelwano obuhlala njalo, futhi asungula amakhaya ahlukene, abalingani besifazane abaningi, ngaphandle kwamakhosikazi abo asemthethweni; umkhuba owamukelwa e-Imperial China kuze kube yiQing Dynasty yango-1636–1912. Lokhu kwakha uhlobo lwe- de i-facto polygyny ebizwa ngokuthi isancinza.

Ukuhlelwa kwemizi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umshado yisikhathi lapho kwakhiwa khona umndeni omusha, kepha amalungiselelo ahlukile angenzeka ngokuya ngohlobo lomshado futhi eminye imishado yesithembu ayiholeli ekwakhiweni komuzi owodwa. Emishadweni eminingi yesithembu abafazi bomyeni bangahlala emakhaya ahlukene. [12] Ngaleyo ndlela bangachazwa ngokuthi "uchungechunge lwemindeni yenuzi exhumene 'nobaba' ngokufana"

I-Polyandry[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  I-Polyandry, umkhuba wokuthi owesifazane abe nabayeni abangaphezu koyedwa ngasikhathi sinye, kuncane kakhulu kune-polygyny futhi manje akukho emthethweni cishe kuwo wonke amazwe emhlabeni. Kwenzeka kuphela emiphakathini ekude. [13]

I-Polyandry kukholakala ukuthi ivame kakhulu emiphakathini enezinsiza zemvelo eziyindlala, njengoba kukholakala ukuthi ikhawulela ukukhula kwabantu futhi ithuthukise ukusinda kwengane. [14] Kuyindlela engavamile yomshado ekhona hhayi kuphela phakathi kwemindeni empofu, kodwa futhi ne-elite. [15] Isibonelo, ezintabeni zaseHimalaya i-polyandry ihlobene nokuntuleka komhlaba; ukushada kwabo bonke abazalwane emndenini kumfazi oyedwa kuvumela umhlaba womndeni ukuthi uhlale ungaphelele futhi ungahlukaniswa. [16] Uma wonke umzalwane eshada ngokwehlukana futhi enezingane, umhlaba womndeni ubuyohlukaniswa ube yiziqinti ezincane ezingasimami. EYurophu, lo mphumela wagwenywa ngomkhuba wenhlalo wefa elingatholakali, lapho iningi lezelamani laliyothola ifa ngaphansi kwalo.

Izinhlobo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-Frandernal polyandry ngokwesiko yayijwayele ukwenziwa phakathi kwabantu baseTibetan abayimizulane eNepal, izingxenye ezithile zeChina nengxenye yasenyakatho yeNdiya, lapho abazalwane ababili noma ngaphezulu babezoshada nowesifazane ofanayo. Kuvame kakhulu emiphakathini ephawulwe ngokufa okuphezulu kwabesilisa. Ihlotshaniswa nobaba obufanayo, inkolelo yamasiko yokuthi ingane ingaba nobaba abangaphezu koyedwa. [17]

I-polyandry engeyona eyabazali yenzeka lapho amadoda amakhosikazi engahlobene, njengasesizweni saseNayar saseNdiya, lapho amantombazane enza umshado wesiko ngaphambi kokuthomba, [18] futhi indoda yokuqala yamukelwa njengobaba wazo zonke izingane zayo. Kodwa-ke, owesifazane kungenzeka angaze ahlalisane naleyo ndoda, athathe abathandi abaningi esikhundleni salokho; la madoda kumelwe aqaphele ubuyise izingane zabo (futhi ngalesosizathu bakhombise ukuthi akukho lombhalo enqabelo kwephulwe) ngokukhokha umbelethisi. Abesifazane bahlala emakhaya abo omama, bahlala nabafowabo, futhi impahla idluliswa ngokomthetho . [19] Uhlobo olufanayo lomshado, i-de facto polyandry ingatholakala esikhungweni somshado ohambayo phakathi kwesizwe samaMosuo eChina.

I-serial monogamy[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-serial monogamy ibhekisa ekushadweni kabusha ngemuva kwesahlukaniso noma ukushona komuntu oshade naye emshadweni oyedwa, okungukuthi imishado eminingi kepha umlingani oyedwa osemthethweni ngasikhathi sinye (uchungechunge lobudlelwano bomuntu oyedwa).

Ngokusho kwesazi saseDenmark uMiriam K. Zeitzen, izazi zesayensi yabantu zithatha i- serial monogamy, lapho kwenzeka khona isehlukaniso nokuphinde ushade, njengendlela yesithembu njengoba nakho kungasungula uchungechunge lwemindeni engaqhubeka nokuboshwa ngobaba obabelwe kanye nemali ehlanganyelwe.Ngakho-ke, ziyefana nokwakheka kwendlu okwenziwe ngedivosi nangomfazi oyedwa. [20]

I-serial monogamy idala uhlobo olusha lwesihlobo, i- "ex-". "Owayengunkosikazi", ngokwesibonelo, angahlala eyingxenye esebenzayo yempilo yakhe "yowayengumyeni" wakhe, njengoba engahlanganiswa ngokuxhaswa ngokomthetho noma ngokugunyazwa okungagunyaziwe kwezomnotho, okungahlala iminyaka, kufaka phakathi imali yesondlo, isondlo sengane, kanye nelungelo lokuhlala ndawonye . UBob Simpson, isazi sezenhlalo saseBrithani, uphawula ukuthi kwakha "umndeni owandisiwe" ngokuhlanganisa ndawonye imindeni eminingi, kufaka phakathi izingane ezihambahambayo.Uthi abaseBrithani bangahle babe nabesifazane abebengabafazi babo noma abeyizelamani zabo, kodwa hhayi ingane yakudala . Ngokusho kwakhe, le "mindeni engacaci kahle" ayihambisani nesikhunta somndeni wenuzi owodwa.

Umshado weqembu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukushada ngamaqembu kuyilungiselelo elinjengelomuntu oyedwa lomshado lapho abantu abadala abathathu noma ngaphezulu behlala ndawonye, bonke bazithatha njengabalingani, babelana ngezimali, izingane kanye nemithwalo yemfanelo yasendlini. I-Polyamory isaqhubeka ngokuqhubeka kwezibopho zomndeni ezibandakanya ukushada kweqembu.Leli gama alibhekiseli kwisithembu njengoba kungekho simangalo sokuthi ushade ngendlela esemthethweni eyenziwe.

Isimo senkolo ngesithembu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UbuBuddha[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Buddhism akusho babheka umshado njengesibopho isakramente ; kuyindaba yezwe nje, futhi imvamisa izindela zamaBuddha azihlanganyeli kuyo (yize kwamanye amahlelo abapristi nezindela bayashada). Ngakho-ke umshado awutholi unswinyo lwenkolo.Izinhlobo zomshado, ngenxa yalokho, ziyehluka ngokwamazwe. IParabhava Sutta ithi "owesilisa ongagculisekile ngowesifazane oyedwa futhi ofuna abanye besifazane usendleleni yokwehla". Ezinye izingcezu ezisembhalweni wamaBuddha zibukeka zisiphatha kabi isithembu, okuholela ekutheni abanye ababhali baphethe ngokuthi ubuBuddha ngokuvamile abusamukeli noma babuthathe njengesibonelo somshado esibekezelelwayo, kodwa esingaphansi.

I-Thailand yathola isithembu ngokusemthethweni ngo-1955. IMyanmar yavala isithembu ngo-2015. ESri Lanka, i-polyandry yayisemthethweni embusweni waseKandy, kepha yaxoshwa yiBrithani ngemuva kokunqoba umbuso ngo-1815. Lapho imibhalo yamaBuddha ihunyushelwa olimini lwesiShayina, izancinza zabanye zanezelwa ohlwini lwabalingani abangafanele. I-Polyandry eTibet yayijwayelekile ngokwesiko,  njengoba kwakunjalo ngesithembu, futhi ukuba namakhosikazi noma abayeni abaningana akukaze kuthathwe  njengokuya ocansini nabalingani abangalungile.Ngokuvamile, i-polyandry yobuzalwane iyenziwa, kepha kwesinye isikhathi ubaba nendodana banenkosikazi efanayo, okuyisakhiwo somndeni esihlukile emhlabeni. Ezinye izinhlobo zomshado nazo zikhona, njengomshado weqembu nomshado womuntu oyedwa. I-Polyandry (ikakhulukazi i-polyandry yobuzalwane) iyinsakavukela phakathi kwamaBuddha eBhutan, eLadakh, nakwezinye izingxenye zezwekazi laseNdiya .

Amasiko amaCelt[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Amanye amaqaba aseCeltic angaphambi kobuKristu ayaziwa ukuthi enza isithembu, yize abantu baseCeltic babedlikiza phakathi kwaso, umfazi oyedwa kanye nesithembu kuye ngokwesikhathi nendawo. Kwezinye izindawo lokhu kwaqhubeka ngisho nangemva kokuqala kobuKrestu, ngokwesibonelo imithetho yaseBrehon yaseGaelic Ireland yasivumela ngokusobala isithembu, ikakhulukazi phakathi kwesigaba esihle. Ezinye izinkolo zanamuhla ezingamaCeltic zobuqaba zamukela umkhuba wesithembu ngamazinga ahlukahlukene, yize kungaziwa ukuthi lomkhuba usabalele kangakanani kulezi zinkolo.

UbuKristu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Yize iTestamente Elidala lichaza izibonelo eziningi zesithembu phakathi kwabazinikele kuNkulunkulu, amaqembu amaningi angamaKristu ngokomlando awenqabile umkhuba wesithembu futhi asekele isithembu esisodwa njengokujwayelekile. Yize kunjalo, amanye amaKristu amaqembu ngezikhathi ezahlukahlukene asenze, noma njengamanje enza isithembu.Amanye amaKristu aphikisana ngenkuthalo ngokuthi ngabe iTestamente Elisha noma izimiso zobuKristu ziyasivumela noma siyasenqabela isithembu.

Yize iTestamente Elisha lingasho lutho ngesithembu, abanye bakhomba ukuphindaphinda kukaJesu imibhalo yangaphambilini, bephawula ukuthi indoda nomfazi "bayoba nyamanye". Nokho, abanye bebheka uPawulu imibhalo awalobela Korinte : "Anazi yini ukuthi lowo ohlanganiswe nesifebe ungumzimba munye naso na? Ngoba, njengoba kulotshiwe, 'Llaba ababili bayoba nyamanye. Abasekeli besithembu bathi lokhu kukhombisa ukuthi leli gama lisho okomzimba, hhayi okomoya  inyunyana.

Ezinye izazi zemfundiso yenkolo ezingamaKrestu  uthi Matthew 19:3-9 futhi ebhekise Genesis 2:24 uJesu usho ngokusobala ukuthi indoda kufanele ibe nenkosikazi eyodwa kuphela:

ISonto LamaRoma Katolika[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

ISonto LamaRoma Katolika liyasilahla isithembu; iCatechism of the Catholic Church ikubeka esigabeni 2387 ngaphansi kwesihloko esithi "Amanye amacala aphikisana nesithunzi somshado" futhi ithi "ayihambisani nomthetho wokuziphatha." Futhi esigabeni 1645 ngaphansi kwesihloko esithi "The Goods and Requirements of Conjugal Love" uthi "Ubunye bomshado, obaziwa ngokusobala yiNkosi yethu, benziwa bucace ngesithunzi somuntu esilinganayo okufanele sinikezwe indoda nowesifazane ngokuthandana nokungenakuzibamba . Isithembu siphikisana nothando lokuhlangana olungahlukani futhi olukhethekile. "

USanta Augustine wabona ukungqubuzana nesithembu seTestamente Elidala. Wayeka ukwahlulela izinzalamizi, kepha akazange athathe emikhubeni yabo ukwamukeleka okuqhubekayo kwesithembu. Ngokuphambene nalokho, wathi isithembu soBaba, esasibekezelelwa nguMdali ngenxa yenzalo, sasiyisiphambuka ohlelweni Lwakhe lwasekuqaleni lomshado wesintu. U-Augustine wabhala: "Kodwa-ke, ukuthi injongo enhle yomshado, ithuthukiswa kangcono yindoda eyodwa enomfazi oyedwa, kunokuba yindoda enabafazi abaningana, kukhonjiswa ngokusobala ngokwanele ngokuhlangana kokuqala kwabantu abashadile, okwenziwa yi Ngobunkulunkulu uqobo. " [21]

U-Augustine wafundisa ukuthi isizathu sokuthi okhokho babenabafazi abaningi kwakungekhona ngenxa yobufebe, kodwa ngoba babefuna izingane eziningi. Wasekela kwesisekelo yakhe ngokubabonisa ukuthi imishado yabo, lapho umyeni wayeyinhloko, kwahlelwa ngokuvumelana nemithetho ka ukuphathwa kahle: labo abasesikhundleni umyalo (quae principantur) emphakathini wabo zazihlale elisebunyeni, kuyilapho abangaphansi (subiecta) babe amaningi . Wanikeza izibonelo ezimbili zalobudlelwano: i-dominus-servus - inkosi-inceku (ekuhumusheni okudala: isigqila ) nomoya kaNkulunkulu . IBhayibheli livame ukufanisa ukukhonza onkulunkulu abaningi, okusho ukukhonza izithombe nobufebe. [22] U-Augustine ulandisa ngalokho: "Ngenxa yalokhu akekho uNkulunkulu Weqiniso wemiphefumulo, ngaphandle kwaMunye: kepha umphefumulo owodwa ngokusebenzisa onkulunkulu abaningi bamanga ungaziphatha kabi ngokobulili, kodwa ungazali." [23]

Ngenkathi abantu besizwe bekhula, inzalo yayingasekho isizathu esivumelekile sesithembu: "kwakusemthethweni phakathi kobaba basendulo:noma ngabe kuvumelekile manje, ngangingeke ngiphangise ukusho (utrum et nunc fas sit, non temere dixerim).Ngoba manje asisekho isidingo sokuzala izingane, njengoba kwakunjalo ngaleso sikhathi, lapho, noma ngabe abafazi bethatha izingane, kwavunyelwa, ukuze kube nenzalo eningi kakhulu, ukushada nabanye abafazi ngokwengeziwe, okuyinto manje engekho emthethweni. " [24]

UMkhandlu waseTrent usilahla isithembu: "Uma kukhona othi, kuvumelekile ukuthi amaKrestu abe namakhosikazi amaningi ngasikhathi sinye, nokuthi lokhu akuvinjelwa yinoma yimuphi umthetho waphezulu; makaqalekiswe. . " [25]

Ezikhathini zanamuhla idlanzana lezazi zemfundiso yenkolo yamaRoma Katolika liphikise ukuthi isithembu, yize singesihle, singaba yindlela esemthethweni yomshado wamaKristu ezifundeni ezithile, ikakhulukazi e-Afrika.Isonto LamaRoma Katolika lifundisa kuCatechism yalo ukuthi

Ukungabi semthethweni kwesithembu ezindaweni ezithile kudala, ngokwamanye amavesi eBhayibheli, kunezimpikiswano ezengeziwe eziphikisana naso. UPaul Umphostoli ubhala ukuthi "thobelani abasemagunyeni, hhayi ngenxa yokujeziswa kuphela kepha nangenxa kanembeza" (KwabaseRoma 13: 5), ngoba "amagunya akhona amiswe nguNkulunkulu." (KwabaseRoma 13: 1) USt Peter uyavuma lapho ethi "zithobeleni ngenxa yeNkosi kuwo wonke amagunya amiswe phakathi kwabantu: kungaba enkosini, njengegunya eliphakeme, noma kubabusi, abathunyelwe nguye ukujezisa labo yenza kabi, ubancome abenza okulungile. " (1 Petru 2: 13,14) Izithembu ezinesithembu zithi, inqobo nje uma izithembu zingazitholi amalayisense asemthethweni emishado noma zifune "isimo somshado ojwayelekile womthetho" kwabanye abalingani, ayikho imithetho ephoqelelwe ephulwayo njengalapho imibhangqwana eyayingumfazi oyedwa hlalisana ngokufanayo ngaphandle kwelayisensi yomshado.

Isonto lamaLuthela[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

ILutheran World Federation ibambe ingqungquthela yesifunda e-Afrika, lapho kwamukelwa ukwamukelwa kwezithembu ngobulungu obugcwele yiSonto lamaLuthela eLiberia njengoba kuvunyelwe.Isoonto LamaLuthela eLiberia, nokho, alibavumeli abantu abanesithembu asebephenduke amaKrestu ukuthi bashade namakhosikazi amaningi ngemuva kokuba sebethole isakramente le- Holy Baptism .Izithunywa zevangeli ezingamaLuthela eMaasai nazo ziyakubekezelela ukwenziwa kwesithembu naseNingizimu yeSudan, ezinye izithembu ziba ngamaKrestu angamaLuthela.

ISonto likaJesu Kristu Lama-Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngemuva kokuthi uJoseph Smith abulawe yisixuku ngomhla ka-27 Juni 1844, umzimba omkhulu wamaLatter Day Saints washiya iNauvoo walandela uBrigham Young waya e-Utah lapho kwaqhubeka khona umkhuba wokushada ngobuningi. Ku-1852, uBrigham Young, umongameli wesibili weSonto LDS, wavuma obala umkhuba wokushada ngobuningi ngentshumayelo ayinikeza. Kwalandelwa izintshumayelo ezengeziwe zabaholi abaphezulu bamaMormon ngobuhle besithembu. [26] : 128 Impikiswano yalandelwa lapho isithembu saba yimbangela yezenhlalo, ababhali baqala ukushicilela imisebenzi egxeka isithembu. Ipulangwe ukhiye we Republican Party ka- 1856 platform kwaba "lokwenqabela ezindaweni labo izinsalela ezimbili ubuqaba, isithembu nokugqilazwa."Ngo-1862, iCongress yakhipha umthetho iMorrill Anti-Bigamy Act owawucacisa ukuthi umkhuba wesithembu wawungekho emthethweni kuzo zonke izindawo zase-US . ISonto le-LDS likholelwa ukuthi umkhuba wabo osuselwa enkolweni wokushada ngobuningi uvikelwe nguMthethosisekelo wase- United States,Nokho, ngazwilinye isinqumo seNkantolo Ephakeme sango- 1878 uReynolds v. I-United States imemezele ukuthi isithembu besingavikelwe nguMthethosisekelo, ngokususelwa kumgomo omude wokuthi "imithetho yenzelwa uhulumeni wezenzo, futhi ngenkathi engenakuphazamisa inkolelo nemibono yenkolo nje, angahle enze nemikhuba."

UbuHindu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IRig Veda ibalula ukuthi ngesikhathi seVedic, indoda ingaba nabafazi abangaphezu koyedwa.Lo mkhuba kufakazelwa kuma-epics afana noRamayana neMahabharata . IDharmashastras ivumela owesilisa ukuthi ashade nabesifazane inqobo nje uma unkosikazi wokuqala evuma ukumshada. Naphezu kokuba khona kwayo, kwakuvame ukwenziwa ngamadodaasezingeni eliphezulu. Abantu abavamile babevunyelwe kuphela umshado wesibili uma unkosikazi wokuqala engakwazi ukuzala indodana noma abe nengxabano ethile ngoba awukho umthetho wedivosi enkolweni yamaHindu.


Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "n", but no corresponding <references group="n"/> tag was found

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