Izinkanyezi

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Indawo okwakheka kuyona izinkanyezi emafini aluthuli i-Magallanic cloud.

INkanyezi into eyimbulunga enkulu, eyakhiwe ikakhulukazi ngeHwanzi (Hydrogen) kanti futhi evuthayo ebanjwe umNyondo ukuze ihlale iyimbulunga. Inkanyezi ekuyiyona esondele kuthina nomhlaba wethu ileyo esiyibiza ngeLanga. Into edala ukuthi ezinye izinkanyezi zibonakale zincane kuneLanga kubangelwa ibanga elimaphakathi kwaNomkhubulwane kanye nazo lezoZinkanyezi. Izikanyezi ekuyizona ezigqhame kakhulu kunezinye ilezo eziqoqelene ezakha iziShomo (Constellations) noma iziNyonta, kanye nezinye iziNkanyezi ezikhanya ukudlula ezinye eziqanjwe amagama thizeni. iziMfundindalo zomkhathi sezihlanganise uqukethomagama leziNkanyezi esizaziyo kanye namagama abavumelana ngawo umhlaba jikelele. Kulokho amehlo ethu akwazi ukukubona kanye nolwazi oseluqoqwe imishini, kukhombisa ukuthi umKhathilibe ungase ube nezinkanyezi ezilinganiselwe kwisi- kuya kwisi-, kanti iningi lalezi azibonakali ngamehlo nje.

IsiThombe selanga, uhlobo lwe-G-type main-sequence star, elisondelene noNomkhubulwane.

Ukuzalwa kwenkanyezi kuqala ngemfingqomNyanda yefulomoya elakhiwe ngeHwanzi, kanye nenani elincane lezinye izakhi. Isisindo seNkanyezi ilonanqoba elikhetha ushintshoshintso kanye nendlela ezofa ngayo leyoNkanyezi. Empilweni yayo, iNkanyezi iqhakaza ngokukuhlanganiswa kweHwanzi ukuthi kwakhiwe iHwelanga kumsuka wayo, okukhiqiza imPekumpeku ehamba ingaphakathi leNkanyezi kuze kube ifinyelela ebusweni bayo, nokuyilapho ikhafulelwa emKhathini. Ezinsukwini zayo zokugcina, umsuka wayo uba insalelankanyezi :isiThomiyana esimhlophe, iNkanyezi entunge, noma lapho inesisindo esikhulu ngempela, ibe isiGwinqa.

Cishe zonke izakhi ezisinda ukwedlula umThanya zakhiwe ubumbanozakhi okwenzeka kumsuka weNkanyezi noma kwizinsalelankanyezi. UTho oluqukethe amaKhemikhali acebile lubuyiselwa kwinqeke ngenkathi iNkanyezi ijikijela ingxhenye yobuhalalazi obutholakala ebusweni bayo emKhathini, noma ngenkathi ifa ngokuqhuma(IsiDangazelakazi noma isiDangazela), lpho loluTho luxubana namafu atholakala kwinqeke ukuzekwakhe isizukulwane esisha seziNkanyezi. IzimFundindalo zomkhathi ziyakwazi ukuthola ulwazi ngobunjalo beziNkanyezi okubandakanya isisindo, iminyaka, ubunsimbi, ushintshoshintso, ibanga(phakathi kwenkanyezi kanye noNomkhubulwane), kanye nokunyakaza emkhathini ngokuthi babuke indlela ukukhanya kweNkanyezi okushintsha ngayo, iWigo, kanye nokushintsha kwendawo iNkanyezi ekuyona ekuhambeni kwesiKhathi.  

IsiShomo i-Leo ibonakala ngaphandle kweziPopolo. Imigqha idwetshiwe ukukhomisa.

IziNkanyezi ziyakwazi ukwakha izizungezonhlelo nezinye zezinto ezisemkhathini, njengoba sibona kwizizungezonhlelo zemiZulwane kanye nezinye iziNkanyezi. Lapho khona iziNkanyezi ezimbili ezikwizungezonhlelo zizungezana ngokusondelene, ubudlelwano bemNyondo yazo bubanomthelelo ekushintshashintsheni kwazo. IziNkanyezi ziyakwzi ukuba ingxhenye yamaqulo ezinkanyezi abanjwe ndawonye umNyondo. Lamaqulo abizwa ngokuthi Amaqulo eziNkanyezi.

Ngokomlando, izinkanyezi bezibalulekile kwabasemandulo umhlaba jikelele. Zibeyingxenye yezenkolo, ukusetshenziswa njengezitholandlela, njengezibekiso zokuthwasa konyaka, kanye nokuchasisela ikhalenda.

IziMfundindalo zomkhathi zakuqala zaziwuboa umehluko phakathi kwezinkanyezi "eziyizinzonzobala", lezo ezinganyakazi kwisikhuphelo sezinkanyezi, kanye nalezo "ezizulazulayo" (imiZulwane), okuyizona ezidikizelayo maziqhathaniswa nalezo eziyizinzonzobala ezinsukwini noma emasontweni.[3] IziMfundindalo zomkhathi zasemandulo eziningi zazikholelwa ukuthi iziNkanyezi zechomeke kwisikhuphele sezinkanyezi nanokuthi zazingashinsthi. IziMfundindalo zomkhathi zaqoqela izinkanyezi kwiziNyonto kanye neziShomo  bazisebenzisa ukuthungatha ukunyukuza kwemizulwane kanye nesishundla seLanga.[1] Ukunyukuza kweLanga mawukubuka ngokwezinkanyezi ezinzonzobele (kanye nomKhathizwe) yayisetshenziswa ukwakha amaKhalenda, okuyiwona ayesetshenziswa ukulawula izenzo zokwelima.[4] Ikhalenda lika-Gregor, ekuyilona elisetshenziswa cishe umHlaba wonke, liyiLangakhalenda elisebenzisa iNgoni kwinsika yomjikezelo wemZulwane mayiqhathaniswa neNkanyezi yayo.

I-Ethimoloji[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Igama elithi "star" (INkanyezi) lisuselwa olimini i-Proto-Indo-European kwimpande yebizo u-" h₂stḗr" elisho iNkanyezi, kodwa lapho sihlolisisa sithola ukuthi lingabizeka njengo h₂eh₁s -("ukusha", nokuyilapho igamalesingii elisho umlotha "ash" eliqhamuka khona)+ -tēr(isisilazo se-agentive). Mawuqhathanisa negama lesiLathini uStella, elesiGrikhi elithi ustern,kanye nelesiJalimana ustern. Ezinye izazi zikholelwa ukuthi leligama libolekwe olimini isi-Akkadian egameni elithi "istar" (uNokhwezi), yize kunjalo abanye abakholelwa kulombono lo.

Igama elithi "Star" linempande yebizo efanayo kulamagama alandelayo: i-asterisk, i-asteroid (umHlabana), i-astral, iconstellation (isiShomo), kanye ne-Esther.

Umlando wobukoMkhathi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Abantu kade baqala ukubona imifanekiso lapho khona bebuka izinkanyezi. Lomdwebo wnyaka we-1690 ukhombisa isishomo iBhubesi (Leo), lomdwebo wadwetshwa uJohannes Hevelius.

Ngokomlando, izinkanyezi bezibalulekile kwabasemandulo umhlaba jikelele. Beziyingxenye yezenkolo, bezisetshenziswa ukuthola indlela ngokusetshenziswa komkhathi, ukukala ukuthwasa kwesikhathi, kanye nokwakha amakhalenda.

Izimfundindalo zomkhathi zasemandulo zakwazi ukubona umehluko phakathi kwezinkanyezi "ezimile", lezo ingqwanga yazo eyayingshintshi kwisibekedu somkhathi, kanye nalezo "eziyimuzulane" (imizulane/imihlaba), ezinyakaza ngendlela ecacile mawuziqhathanisa nalezo ezimile esikhathini esingangezinsuku noma amasonto.

Iningi lezimfundindalo lalikholelwa ukuthi izinkanyezi zazinamathiselwe kwisibekedu somkhathi kanti futhi zazingashintshi neze. Ngokujwayelekile, izimfundindalo zaqoqela izinkanyezi kumaqoqo ezinyonta kanye nezishomo baphinde bazisebenzise ukulandelela ukunyakaza kwemizulane kanye nokulandelela ilanga. Ukunyakaza kwelanga lapho kuqhathaniswa nezinkanyezi (kanye nomkhathizwe) kwakusetshenziswa ukwakha amakhalenda, okuyiwona ayesetshenziswa ukulawula izenzo ezaziphathelene nokulima. Ikhalenda likaGrigori, okuyilona elisetshenziswa cishe umhlaba wonke, liyikhalenda lelanga elisuselwa kwingoni yomjikelezo yomhlaba maqondana nelanga.

Ishathi elidala lezinkanyezi laqhamuka ezweni laseGibithe ngonyaka we-1534 BC. Ukukethomagama lwezinkanyezi elidala elaziwayo lahlanganiswa izimfundindalo zasemandulo zamaBhebiloni aseMezophothamiya ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yezinkulungwane ezimbili ngaphambi kuka kristu, ngezikhathi sombuso samaKhasithe (c. 1531–1155 BC).

Uqukethomagama lezinkanyezi lokuqala kwezomkhathi wamaGrikhi lahlanganiswa u-Aristillus cishe ngo-300 BC, ngosizo luka Timocharis. Uqukethomagama lwezinkanyezi luka Hipparchus (ngesenshuri lesibili ngaphambili kokuzalwa kukaJesu) okufakaphakathi izinkanyezi eziyi-1020, kanti futhi lasetshenziswa ukuhlanganisa uqukethomagama lwezinkanyezi lukaPtolemy. UHipparchud waziwa ngokuphakamisa isidangazela sokuqala sokuthi silekhodwe. Iningi lezishomo kanye nezinkanyezi lisebenzisa amagama asuselwa kwezomkhathi zaseGrikhi

Nangaphezulu kokungashintshi komkhathi, izimfundindalo zomkhathi zaseShayina zazazi ukuthi izinkanyezi ezintsha zazijwayele ukuvela. Ngonyaka we-185 yankulunkulu wama kristu, babengabokuqala ukuthi babhale ngesidangazelekazi, manje esaziwa nge-SN 185.