Izinso

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Izinso ziyizitho ezimbili ezimise okwebhontshisi ezibomvu-nsundu ezitholakala ezilwaneni ezinomgogodla. Zitholakala ngakwesobunxele nangakwesokudla esikhaleni se-retroperitoneal, futhi kubantu abadala cishe.Zithola igazi emithanjeni yezinso ehlanganisiwe; igazi liphuma emithaneni yezinso. Inso ngayinye inamathele kuyi-ureter, ipayipi elithwala umchamo okhishwe isinye.

Izinso zihlanganyela ekulawuleni isilinganiso soketshezi oluhlukahlukene lomzimba, i-osmolality yoketshezi, ukulinganisela kwe-asidi, amazinga ahlukahlukene e-electrolyte, kanye nokukhishwa kobuthi.Ukuhlunga kwenzeka ku-glomerulus: ingxenye eyodwa kwezinhlanu yesisindo segazi esingenayo ezinso iyahlungwa. Izibonelo zezinto eziphinde zimuncwe amanzi angenayo i-solute, i-sodium, i-bicarbonate, i-glucose, nama-amino acid. Izibonelo zezinto ezikhiqizwa yi-hydrogen, i-ammonium, i-potassium ne-uric acid.I-nephron iyingxenye yokwakheka nokusebenza kwezinso. Inso ngayinye yomuntu omdala iqukethe ama-nephron angaba yisigidi esisodwa, kuyilapho inso yegundane iqukethe kuphela ama-nefron angaba ngu-12,500. Izinso nazo zenza imisebenzi ngaphandle kwama-nephron.Ngokwesibonelo, bashintsha isandulela se-vitamin D sibe uhlobo lwayo olusebenzayo, i-calcitriol; futhi bahlanganise ama-hormone e-erythropoietin ne-renin.

Isifo sezinso esiqhubekayo (i-CKD) siye sabhekwa njengenkinga yempilo yomphakathi ephambili emhlabeni wonke.Ukwanda okulinganiselwa emhlabeni wonke kwe-CKD kungama-13.4%, futhi iziguli ezinezinso ezingasebenzi zidinga ukwelashwa kwezinso kulinganiselwa phakathi kwezigidi ezingu-5 nezingu-7.Izinqubo ezisetshenziswa ekunakekeleni isifo sezinso zihlanganisa ukuhlolwa kwamakhemikhali kanye ne-microscopic komchamo (ukuhlanzwa komchamo), ukulinganiswa kokusebenza kwezinso ngokubala isilinganiso sokuhlunga se-glomerular esilinganiselwayo (eGFR) kusetshenziswa i-serum creatinine; kanye ne-biopsy yezinso kanye ne-CT scan ukuhlola i-anatomy engavamile. I-dialysis kanye nokufakelwa kwezinso kusetshenziselwa ukwelapha ukwehluleka kwezinso; eyodwa (noma kokubili ngokulandelana) yalokhu cishe ngaso sonke isikhathi kusetshenziswa lapho ukusebenza kwezinso kwehla ngaphansi kuka-15%.I-Nephrectomy ivame ukusetshenziselwa ukwelapha i-renal cell carcinoma.

I-renal physiology iwukuhlolwa kokusebenza kwezinso.I-Nephrology iwumkhakha wezokwelapha olawula izifo zokusebenza kwezinso: lezi zihlanganisa i-CKD, i-nephritic ne-nephrotic syndromes, ukulimala kwezinso okubucayi, kanye ne-pyelonephritis. I-Urology ixazulula izifo zezinso (nomgudu womchamo) anatomy: lezi zihlanganisa umdlavuza, ama-cyst ezinso, amatshe ezinso namatshe omchamo, kanye nokuvaleka komgudu womuchamo. Igama elithi "Xoʹrenal" liyisichazamazwi esisho ukuthi "Xo·ʹrenalʹ" futhi imvelaphi yalo isiFulentshi noma isiLatini. Nakuba ngokweminye imibono, "izinso" kufanele zithathelwe indawo "izinso " emibhalweni yesayensi efana "nomthambo wezinso", abanye ochwepheshe baye basekela ukulondoloza ukusetshenziswa kwezinso njengoba kufanele kufaka phakathi "emthambo weinso".