UNelson Mandela

From Wikipedia

UNelson Rolihlahla Mandela (/mænˈdɛlə/;[1]  wazalwa ngomhla ka 18 Julayi 1918 – washona ngomhla ka 5 Disemba 2013) wayengumlweli wenkululeko eNingizimu Afrika, owayelwa nembuso wobandlululo,usopolitiki, kanye nosiza abantu ngesihle ngezimali, owaba nguMongameli weNingizimu Afrika ukusukela ngo 1994 ukuya ku 1999. Waba nguMongameli wokuqala omnyama osebenza kuhulumeni, kanti futhi owayekhethwe kukhetho lokuqala lwenqubo yedimokhrasi. Uhulumeni wakhe wagxila kakhulu ekuqedeni izinsalela zenqubo yombuso wobandlululo ngokususa izikhungo zobandlululo ngokwebala ezazenziwe ngokomthetho wobandlululo lwebala kanti futhi egxila nasekubangeni umoya wokubuyisana phakathi kwezinhlanga zabamhlophe nabamnyama. Wasebenza kwezepolitiki njengomuntu omnyama womdabu onguMongameli weqembu le-African National Congress (ANC), ukusukekela ngo-1991 ukuya ku-1997.

NjengomXhosa owazalelwa emndenini wobukhosi wabaThembu, uMandela wafunda eyunivesithi yase-Fort hare kanye nase-yunivesithi yase-Witwatersrand, lapho afunda khona ngomthetho. Wayehlala eJohannesburg, kanti futhi wajoyina umzabalazo wezepolitiki wokulwa nenqubo yobukoloni, wajoyina iANC nokuba ngomunye wabaqala uphiko lwezentsha lwe-Youth League. Ngemuva kokuba umbuso wedlanzane lamabhunu weqembu le-National Party uqinise inqubo yombuso wobandlululo ngokwebala, owawusebenzela ukusiza abamhlophe kuphela, waqokwa ukuba nguMongameli wegatsha le-ANC leTransvali, waba nodumu nokwaziwa kakhulu ngesikhathi somkhankaso wokucikela phansi imithetho yobandlululo, umkhankaso owawaziwa ngokuthi yi-Defiance Campaign wango 1952, kanti waqokwa ukuba ngonsumpa kwinhlangano egatsheni leTransvaal, futhi nguye owaba ngumqhubi kwingqungquthela enkulu ngo-1955 eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Congress of the People. Ngesikhathi esebenza njengommeli noma igqwetha, waboshwa kaningi-ningi, eboshelwa ukucikela phansi imithetho yobandlululo, kanti yena nabanye abaholi be-ANC, baquliswa icala lokufuna ukuwisa umbuso wobandlululo ecaleni lodumu elaziwa ngokuthi yi-Treason Trial, elaqulwa ukusuka ngo-1956 ukuya ku 1961. Ngokugqugquzelwa yinqubo ye-Marxism, wajoyina iqembu lamabomvu le-South African Communist Party (SACP). Ngisho noma ekuqaleni wayezimisele ukuqhuba umzabalazo wokulwa nokubhikisha ngoxolo, yena ngokusebenzisana nabe-SACP basungula Umkhonto weSizwe ngo-1961, lapho khona abaqala umkhankaso wokucikela phansi izakhiwo zikahulumeni, umkhankaso owaziwa ngokuthi yi-sabotage campaign. Ngonyaka ka 1962, waboshwa waquliswa icala nokutholakala enecala lenguyazana yokuketula umbuso, kanti wagwetshwa isigwebo sokuhlala ejele impilo yakhe yonke, ecaleni eladuma kakhulu nokwaziwa njenge-Rivonia Trial.

UMandela wahlala ejele iminyaka engu 27, waqala wahlala esiqiwini se-Robben Island, kanti kamuva wadluliselwa ejele lase-Pollsmoor, nasejele lase-Victor Verster Prison. Ngenxa yengcindezi yemizabalazo yamazwe omhlaba, kanye nokwesabela impi yobuhlanga phakathi kwabamhlophe nabamnyama, uMongameli uF.W de Klerk wakhulula uMandela ngo-1990. UMandela no-De Klerk bangenela izingxoxo zokuqeda umbuso wobandlululo kwase kugqugquzelwa ukhetho lwazo zonke izinhlangano ngo-1994, lapho khona uMandela ahola khona i-ANC ukunqoba okhethweni kanti waba nguMongameli. Emuva kwalokhu waqhuba uhulumeni kazwelonke wobunye (Government of National Unity), owahlahla uMthethosisekelo omusha, uMandela wagxila kakhulu kwinqubo yomoya wokubuyisana kwezinhlanga zabamhlophe nabamnyama ezweni, kanti futhi lokhu kwaholela ekusungulweni kweKhomishana Yamaqiniso nokuBuyisana eyayaziwa ngelokuthi yi-Truth and Reconciliation Commission ukuphenya ngokucikelwa phansi kwamalungelo obuntu ngesikhathi esedlule. Ngisho noma uhulumeni kaMandela waqhubeka nenqubo yohulumeni wesikhathi esedlule inqubo ye-liberalism kwezomnotho, uhulumeni wakhe, wasungula izindlela zokukhuthaza izinguquko kwezomhlaba, ukulwa nenhlupheko, kanye nokunabisa amasevisi onakekelo lwezempilo. Emkhakheni wamazwe omhlaba, wasebenza njengomlamuli kwicala lokubhonywa kweNdiza ye-Pan Am Flight 103, kanti futhi waba nguNobhala-Jikelele wenhlangano ye-Non-Aligned Movement ukusukela ngo-1998 kuya ku 1999. Kwisihlandla sesibili sombuso wazikhulula ukuba nguMongameli, isikhundla sobungameli sathathwa yisekela lakhe uThabo Mbeki. UMandela njengomhlonipheki ezweni, noma engeseyena uMongameli, waqhubeka nemisebenzi yokusebenzela isizwe ngesihle, esebenza kumkhankaso wokulwa ne-HIV/AIDS esebenza ngaphansi kwehlangano yakhe ayisungula ye-Nelson Mandela Foundation.

UMandela wayengumuntu abantu abangomqondi uhlangothi aye kulo empilweni yakhe yonke. Abamsolayo ngasohlangothini lwesokudla noma ontamolukhuni babemgxeka bethi uyikhomanisi, kanti labo abangasohlangothini lwesinxele abazishoshovu zomzabalazo babemgxeka ngokuthi ongumuntu ofuna ukusheshe axoxisane nokuxolela abasekeli bombuso wobandlululo. Kodwa waba ngumuntu ohlonishwa kakhulu kumazwe omhlaba ngentshiseko yakhe emzabalazweni nasekubangeni uxolo, wathola izindlondlo zokuhlonishwa ezingu 250, ezibandakanya i-Nobel Peace Prize, kanye nendlondlo yePresidential Medal of Freedom yaseMelika, kanye nendlondlo ye-Lenin Peace Prize yaseSoviet. Uhlonishwa kakhulu eNingizimu Afrika, lapho abizwa khona ngesithakazelo sakhe sesiXhosa sikaMadiba, noma uTata ("Ubaba"), kanti futhi uchazwa njengo"Baba Wesizwe". 

Isiqikili

Impilo yakhe[hlela | edit source]

Ubungane bakhe: 1918–34[hlela | edit source]

UMandela wazalwa ngomhla ka 18 Julayi 1918 esigodini saseMvezo eMthata, ngaleso sikhathi eyayiyingxenye yeProvinsi yaseKapa.[2] Wethiwe igama lokuthi nguRolihlahla, okuyigama lesiXhosa elisho ukuthi "umbanginkinga",[3] eminyakeni yakamuva waziwa ngesithakazelo sakubo sokuthi nguMadiba.[4] Umkhulu wakhe ngasohlangothini lobaba nguNgubengcuka, owayeyinkosi yamaThembu endaweni yaseTranskei, eNingizimu Afrika, kwiprovinsi yaseMpuma Kapa.[5]

Omunye wamadodana enkosi yakhe, ogama lakhe linguMandela, waba ngumkhulu kaNelson lokhu okuwumthombo wesibongo sakhe.[6] Ngoba uMandela wayeyingane yenkosi ngonkosikazi wesibongo seXhiba, okusho Indlu yangesokuKhohlwa, isizukulu segatsha labesilisa kwindlunkulu yomendo wabantu abangalingani ngezikhundla, wayengakufanele ukuthatha isikhundla sobukhosi kodwa ukwamukelwa njengomunye womkhandlu wezibonda noma izinduna zasebukhosini [7] Ubaba wakhe uGadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, kwakuyinkosi yendawo kanye nenduna yasebhukhosini; wayeqokwe kuleso sikhundla ngo 1915, ngemuva kokuba lowo owayekuleso sikhundla wayebekwe icala lenkohlakalo, icala alibekwa ngumantshi kahulumeni wabamhlophe [8] Ngonyaka ka 1926, uGadla naye waxoshwa ngecala lenkohlakalo, kodwa uNelson watshelwa ukuthi ubaba wakhe ulahlekelwe ngumsebenzi ngoba wayephikisana nomantshi, owayeyindlovu kayiphikiswa owayenezidingo ezimbi.[9] Umuntu owayekhonza umvelingqangi wabo uQamata,[10] UGadla wayengumuntu ogane amakhosikazi amaningi, wayenamakhosikazi amane, amadodana amane kanye namadodakazi ayisishagalolunye, ayehlala ezigodini ezehlukene. Umama kaNelson kwakungunkosikazi wesithathu kababa wakhe uGadla, igama lakhe kwakunguNosekeni Fanny, owayeyindodakazi kaNkedama, owayeyinkosikazi yeSandla sangakweSokudla, kanye nelunga lesibongo samaMpemvu esiXhosa.[11]

"Akekho emndenini wakithi owaya esikoleni [...] Ngosuku lokuqala esikoleni, uthisha wami, uNkosazana Mdingana, sonke wasinika amagama esiNgisi. Lokhu kwakuyinkambiso phakathi kwama-Afrika ngalezo zinsuku, kanti lokhu kwakwenziwa ukulandela usiko lwesingizi lwaseBrithani kwezemfundo. Ngalolo suku, uNks Mdingane, wangitshela ukuthi igama lami nginguNelson. Angazi ukuthi kungani anginika leli gama." Mandela 1994.

Kamuva ukuchaza ukuthi impilo yakhe esemuva yayigxila kumasiko nenkambiso yamaThembu kanye neziyila zakhona,[13] UMandela wakhula nodadewabo ababili endlini kamamawakhe esigodini sakubo saseQunu, lapho khona owayengumelusi wezinkomo, echitha isikhathi esiningi nabanye abafana .[14] Yena nabazali bakhe babengafundile, kodwa babengamaKrestu, umama wakhe wamthumela esontweni lendawo lamaWeseli (Methodist) ngesikhathi eseneminyaka ecishe ibe yisikhombisa. Wabhabhathiswa, wanikezwa igama lesiLungu elungu-"Nelson" alinikezwa nguthisha wakhe[15] Lapho uMandela eseneminyaka ecishe ibe yisishagalolunye, ubaba wakhe weza wazohlala eQunu, lapho afela khona ebulawa yisifo esingaziwa, kodwa uMandela ukholelwa ukuthi wabulawa yisifo samaphaphu .[16] Ngokuzizwa ehlukile, kamuva wathi ufuze ubaba wakhe ngokuba umuntu olwayo nonekhanda eliqinile kanye nomuntu ozimisele kakhulu ukulwa nenqubo enganabulungiswa nozimisele kakhulu ukulwela inqubo yobulungiswa [17]

Umama kaMandela wamthatha waya naye eNdlunkkulu eMqhekezweni, lapho abekwa khona ngaphansi kweso nonakekelo lweNkosi uJongintaba Dalindyebo. Ngisho noma engakwazanga ukubona umama wakhe iminyaka eminingi, uMandela wayezwa ukuthi uJongintaba kanye nonkosikazi wakhe uNoengland babemphethe kahle njengengane yabo, bamkhulisa njengendodana yabo kanye nendodana yabo uJustice kanye nendodakazi yabo uNomafu.[18] Njengoba uMandela wayehamba isonto eya enkonzweni njalo ngeSonto kanye nabanakekeli bakhe, ubuKrestu kwabayingxenye enkulu yempilo yakhe.[19] Wangena isikole se-mission yamaWeseli (Methodist) esasiseduzane nendlu yobukhosi, wafunda i-English isiNgisi), isiXhosa, ezomlando noma i-history, kanye nejoyigrafi.[20] Waba nothando kakhulu nogqozi ngomlando wama-Afrika, elalela imilando yabantu abadala ababevakasha ekhaya, kanti futhi udaba lokulwa nenqubo yobukoloni ne-imperialism yabamhlophe yamufakela ugqozi kakhulu, ikakhulukazi kwizindaba ezazixoxwa nguNkosi Joyi[21] owayethanda ukuvakashela ebukhosini. Ngaleso sikhathi wayengababoni amakoloni abamhlophe baseYuropha njengabacindezeli kodwa njengabantu abazosiza, abaletha imfundo eningizimu ne-Afrika.[22] Kodwa lapho eneminyaka engu 16, yena noJustice, kanye nabanye abafana, bahamba bavakashela eTyhalarha ukuyokwenza  usiko lokusoka  (circumcision) lokhu okwakukwenza ukuthi badlule ebufaneni babe ngamadoda, lapha emcimbini wobusoka wanikezwa igama lokuthi unguDalibunga.[23]

eClarkebury, eHealdtown, nase-Fort Hare: 1934–40[hlela | edit source]

Isithombe sikaMandela, cishe ngonyaka ka 1937

Ngokuzimisela ukuthola amakhono okuba yisobonda nomeluleki wendlu yobukhosi bamaThembu, uMandela waqala imfundo yesekondari esikoleni seClarkebury Methodist High School, Engcobo, okuyisikhungo semfundo yenqubo yabamhlophe, okwakuyisikole esikhulu sabantu abamnyama bama-Afrika, eThembuland.[24] Kanti futhi wayezihlanganisa nabanye abafundi ngokulinganayo nabo engazibeki phezulu, uchaza ukuthi lapha kulesi sikhathi ukuhlangana nabanye abafundi kwamenza angasazibeki phezulu, wahlobana kakhulu nentombazana okokuqala, waqala ukudlala nemidlalo yasemabaleni kanti futhi waba nothando olukhulu  kwimpilo yakhe yonke lokwenza nokunakekela ingadi[25] Lapho eqeda imfundo yakhe ye-Junior Certificate eminyakeni emibili,[26] ngonyaka ka 1937, waya eHealdtown, Methodist College eFort Beaufort okwakuyikholishi engenwa kakhulu umndeni wobukhosi wamaThembu lapho afunda khona noJustice.[27]  Utshishomkhulu wale kholishi wayegcizelela kakhulu ukubaluleka kolimi lwe-English kanye nosiko lwesiNgisi kanye nokubaluleka kohulumeni, kodwa uMandela waqala ukuthokozela kakhulu amasiko esi-Afrika, waba nomngani wakhe wokuqala owayengeyena uMxhosa, owayengumSuthu, kanti futhi, uthisha wakhe waba nomthelela kakhulu kuye, okwakungumXhosa owenza inkambiso engajwayelekile nokwephula isiyilo ngokugana umSuthu.[28] Wayechitha isikhathi esiningi esubatha egijima ibanga elide kanye nokwenza umdlalo wezingqindi, onyakeni wakhe wesibili waba ngu- prefect.[29]

Ngokusekelwa nguJongintaba, uMandela waqala ukufundela izifundo zeziqu ze-Bachelor of Arts (BA) eUniversity of Fort Hare, okwakuyisikhungo esiphezulu sabantu abafundile abamnyama esise-Alice, eMpuma Kapa, nabafundi abangu-150. Lapho khona, wafundela izifundo ze-English, i-anthropology, i-politics, i-native administration, kanye ne-Roman Dutch law kunyaka wakhe wokuqala, ngoba wayefisa ukuba ngutolika noma umabhalane ehhovisi le-Native Affairs Department.[30] UMandela wayehlala e-Wesley House edomethri, lapho ahlobana khona nabantu bangakubo abafana no-K. D. Matanzima, kanye no-Oliver Tambo, owaba ngumnani wakhe omkhulu kanye neqabane lakhe iminyaka eminingi .[31] Ngokuqhubeka nento ayithokozelayo yemidlalo, uMandela wangenela umdanso we-ballroom,[32] wangenela nemidlalo yamadrama, wadlala indima, emdlalweni wadlala indima ka-Abraham Lincoln,[33] kanti futhi wangenela namaklasi eBhayiibheli kumphakahti wendawo njengelunga lonhlangano yabafundi, i-Students Christian Association.[34] Ngisho noma ayenabangani abangemalunga e-African National Congress (ANC) kanye nentshukumo yokulwa ne-imperialism ngoba babefuna iNingizimu Afrika ekhululekile ekhululekile kwingcindezelo ye-British Empire, UMandela wayeyigwema le mizabalazo engafuni ukuyingenela,[35] kanti futhi esekela imizamo yempi yaseBrithani ngesikhathi kuqala impi yesibili yomhlaba, i-Second World War.[36] Wasiza ukuqala ikomiti yabafundi bonyaka wokuqala, kanti futhi balwisa umoya wabafundi bonyaka wesibili ,[37] ekupheleni konyaka wokuqala, wangenela umkhandlu wabafundi i-Students' Representative Council (SRC) babamba ugwayimbo ngenxa yokudla okubi ababekudla, kanti ngokungenela lo mbhikisho wamiswa eyunivesithi okwesikhashana, kanti wagcina ngokushiya eyunivesithi engaqedanga iziqu noma idigri yakhe[38]

Ukufika kwakhe eJohannesburg: 1941–43[hlela | edit source]

Ukubuyela eMqhekezweni ngoDisemba ka-1940, uMandela wathola ukuthi yena noJustice uJongintaba usebalungiselele umendo wesintu ukuthi bagane,ngokucasuka, yena noJustice babalekela e Johannesburg behamba ngendlela edlula eQueenstown, lapho abafika khona ngenyaka ka-Epreli 1941.[39] UMandela wathola umsebenzi lapho ayesebenza khona njengonogaba wasebusuku eCrown Mines, okwakuyisipiliyoni sakhe sokuqala sangempela lapho abona khona ukuthi ikhapitalizimu isesbenza kanjani eNingizimu Afrika, kodwa waxoshwa kulowo msebenzi lapho induna ithola ukuthi ubeleke ekhaya.[40] Ehlala nomzala wakhe elokishini laseGeorge Goch, uMandela waziswa kumuntu owayesebenza ukuthengisa izindlu nowayeyigqala lomzabalazo uWalther Sisulu, owamtholela umsebenzi njengomabhalana wama-article kwinkampani yabammeli bakwa-Witkin, Sidelsky, and Eidelman. Inkampani yayiqhutshwa ngumjuda oyi-liberal, uLazar Sidelsky, owayenomoya wokuhhogelana nomzabalazo we-ANC.[41] Kule nkampani, uMandela waba nobungani noGaur Radebe okwakungumXhosa owayeyilunga le-ANC kanye nenhlangano yamabomvu amaKhomanisi, i-Communist Party, kanye no-Nat Bregman, owayengumJuda naye eyikhomanisi, owaba ngumngani wakhe wokuqala womuntu omhlophe.[42] Ngokuhambela imihlangano yamakhomanisi kanye nemicimbi yawo, waba nomoya wokuthatheka kakhulu ukubona ukuthi kanti abelungu, Ama-Afrika, AmaNdiya namaKhaladi ayakwazi ukuhlangana  njengabantu abalinganayo. Washo kamuva ukuthi akazange ajoyine Iqembu lamaKhomanisi, ngoba amakhomanisi akubona abantu abakholelwa kubuKrestu lokhu ayekubona kungahambelani nenkolo yakhe ngoba yena wayengumKrestu, kanti futhi yena wayebona umzabalazo waseNingizimu Afrika uphakathi kwabohlanga lwabelungu nabomdabu base-Afrika, wayengabona ukuthi kuwumzabalazo we-class warfare.[43] Waqhubeka nemfundo yakhe ephakeme, uMandela wabhalisa ukufunda ne-University of South Africa lapho khona wayefunda ngokukhoresponda, kanti efunde isiqu sake sebachelors ebusuku.[44]

Ngokuhola iholo elincane, uMandela warenta ikamela emndenini wakwaXhosa e-Alexandra township; ngisho noma le ndawo yayiyindawo yabantu abahluphekile, futhi inobugebengu, kanye nokungcola komoya, i-Alexandra, kwakuyindawo uMandela ayeyithanda kakhulu.[45] Ngisho noma wayezizwa ephoxekile ukuhlupheka kwakhe, washela intombi yomSwazi, ngaphambi kokuba ashele intombi eyayiyindodakazi[46] kamasitende wakhe. Ukuze alondoloze imali, nokuthi abe seduzane nedolobha eJohannesburg, uMandela wasuka wayohlala enkomponi ye- Witwatersrand Native Labour Association, lapho ayehlala khona nabesilisa bezinhlanga ezehlukene, njengoba inkomponi yayivakashelwa ngamakhosi abomdabu bezinhlanga ezehlukene, yilapho ahlangana khona neNkosi yabeSuthu, eyayivela eliving among miners of various tribes; as the compou-Basutoland.[47] Ekupheleni konyaka ka 1941, uJongintaba wavakasha, waxolela uMandela ngokubaleka. Lapho ebuyela ekhaya uNkosi wabaThembu washona ngobusika buka-1942; kanti uMandela noJustice bafika ngosuku sekwedlule ngalo umngcwabo .[48] Ngomu a kokuphasa uvivinyo lwe-BA ngo-1943, uMandela wabuyela eJohannesburg ukuyongenela umzabalazo wezepolitiki njengommeli,l kunokuthi abe yinduna yomkhandlu wabaThembu.[49] Kamuva washo ukuthi lokhu akumenzanga akhumbule ukubuyela emuva ukuyoba yisibonda sebambela lenkosi, kodwa uthi, "ngazithola ngenza lokho engangibona kufanele ngikwenza.."[50]

Imisebenzi yakhe kwiRivolushini[hlela | edit source]

Ukufundela ukuba ngummeli kanye nokungenela uphiko lwentsha ye-ANC Youth League: 1943–49[hlela | edit source]

UMandela waqala ukufundela ukuba ngummeli e-University of Witwatersrand, lapho khona owaye nguye yedwa umuntu isitshudeni esemnyama somdabu sase-Afrika kwi-faculty. Ngisho noma kwakukhokna ababemphethe ngobandlululo ngokwebala, kodwa wakwazi ukwenza ubungani nabamhlophe abangama-liberal, kanye namakhomanisi aseYuropha, amaJuda, kanye nezitshudeni zamaNdiya, phakathi kwabangani bakhe kwakukhona u-Joe Slovo kanye noRuth First.[51] Njengoba wayeqhubeka nokuqondisisa kakhulu ezepolitiki, ngo-Agast ka-1943, uMandela wamasha, uusekela ugwayimbo lamabhasi olwaba nempumelelo, lapho abantu ababebhekiseshila khona ukwenyuswa kwemali yokugibela amabhasi.[52] Ngokujoyina i-ANC, uSisulu waba nomthelela kakhulu kuye, kanti wayechitha isikhathi esiningi nezinye izishukumi ngomzabalazo, endlini kaSisulu eOrlando, kulezi zishukumi kubandakanya abantu abanjengo-Oliver Tambo.[53] okwaba ngumngani wakhe omkhulu.. Ngo 1943, uMandela wahlangana no-Anton Lembede, okwakuyilunga le-ANC, yena owayegxila kakhulu ngokubona izinto ngeso elibhekela kuphela ama-Afrika ngenqubo ebizwa i-African nationalism, eyayiphikisana kakhulu ukuthi kube nokuhlangana kwezinhlanga zabammnyama nabamhlophe ekulwiseni inqubo yobukoloni ne-imperialism, noma ukuhlanganyela ngombimbi lwe-alayense namakhomanisi.[54] Ngisho noma uMandela wayenobungani nabezinye izinhlanga ezingezona zobomdabu kanye namakhomanisi, uMandela wavumelana kakhulu nemibono kaLembede, yokuthi ama-Afrika abomdabu, kumele bazimele gelekeqe bangasebenzisani nezinye izinhlanga emzabalazweni wabo wokulwela inkululeko kwezepolitiki.[55] Ngokuthatha isinqumo sesidingo sokuba nophiko lwentsha, ukugqugquzela iningi lama-Afrika, ekulwiseni ingcindezelo yabo, uMandela wayengomunye wezithunywa ezahlangana noMengameli we-ANC u-Alfred Bitini Xuma bahlangana naye ekhaya lakhe e- Sophiatown; uphiki lwentsha ye-African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) lwasungulwa ngeSonto lePhasika ngo 1944, esikhungweni se-Bantu Men's Social Centre eyayisemgwaqeni we-Eloff Street, kanti kulolu phiki lwentsha, uLembede waba nguMengameli, kwathi uMandela waba yilungu lesigungu se-executive committee.[56]

uMandela noEvelyn ngoJuly 1944, emshadweni kaWalter kanye noAlbertina Sisulu esikhungweni se-Bantu Men's Social Centre.[57]

Endlini kaSisulu, uMandela wahlangana no-Evelyn Mase, owayeqeqeshela ukuba ngu-nesi kanti futhi eyisishukumi se-ANC, owayevela e-Engcobo, Transkei. Waba nobudlelwane naye, kwathi ngo-Okthoba ngo 1944 bashada, ekuqaleni babehlala ezihlobeni zika-Evelyn, ukufikela lapho abaphuma  khona bayohlala endlini abayirenta e-Orlando ekuqaleni konyaka ka 1946.[58] Ingane yabo yokuqala uMadiba "Thembi" Thembekile, wazalwa ngoFebruwari ka 1945, indodakazi yabo uMakaziwe, wazalwa ngo-1947, kodwa yashona, ibulawa yisifo se-meningitis ezinyangeni eziyisishagalolunye izelwe.[59] UMandela wayethokozela impilo yasekhaya yomndeni, bavakashelwa ngumama wakhe kanye nodadewabo, uLeabie ukuzohlala nabo.[60] Ekuqaleni konyaka ka 1947, kwaphela isikhathi sakhe sokwenza ama-article enkampanini yakwa-Witkin, Sidelsky and Eidelman, wayesebuyela ukuyofunda ngokugcwele, ngokusizwa zimali-mboleko ezazivela kwabe-Bantu Welfare Trust.[61]

NgoJulayi 947, uMandela waphuthumisa uLembede owayegula esibhedlela, lapho ashonela khona, kwasekuthi esikhundleni sakhe sokuba ngumengameli we-ANCYL, kwangena uPeter Mda owayengesona isishoshovu kakhulu ngenqubo yokuthi bangasebenzisani nezinye izinhlanga ezingezona ezabomdaba abamnyama kanye namakhomanisi, uPeter Mda, wavuma ukuthi basebenzisane nezinye izinhlanga, lokhu okwenza ukuthi bangavumelani noMandela, kanti uMandela waqokwa ukuba ngunobhala we-ANCYL. UMandela akavumelananga nenqubo kaMda, ngoDisemba ka 1947, wasekela inqubo yokuthi kuxoshwe amakhomanisi ku-ANCYL, ngoba wayethi inqubo yabo ayihambelana nombono wesi-Afrika.[63] Ngo 1947, uMandela wakhethwa ukuba yilungu lesigungu le-ANC egatsheni le-Transvaal Province esebenza ngaphansi kukamongameli werijini, uC.S Ramohanoe. Lapho uRamohanoe ethatha isinqumo esiphikisana nekomidi, ngokusebenzisana namaNdiya kanye namakomanisi, uMandela waba ngomunye walabo abamphoqelela ukuthi ashiye isikhundla.[64]

Kukhetho lwaseNingizimu Afrika lwango 1948, lapho khona abamhlophe kuphela ababevunyelwe ukuvota, iqembu elikhulukazi lama-Afrikaner  le-Herenigde Nasionale Party ngaphansi kuka-Daniel François Malan yilo elawina, ngokushesha lahlangana nelinye iqembu lama-Afrikaner, elalibizwa i-Afrikaner Party ukubumba iqembu lama-Afrikaner elabizwa i-National Party. Leli qembu elalinobandlululo Ngokusobala,yilo elagxilisa nokunabisa imithetho yobandlululo nokwenza imithetho emisha yobandlululo kanye nokwehlukanisa izinhlanga ngokobuhlanga. Kanti iqembu le ANC, laya ngokukhula nokuba nomthelela kakhulu, uMandela kanye namaqabane akhe baqala ukugqugquzela ukuthi kuthathwe izinyathelo ezinqala nezingqonde ngqo ekulwiseni ubandlululo, ngokwenza imibhikisho efana nogwayimbo kanye neziteleka, lokhu bakwenza ngokulandela inqubo eyalandelwa yimiphakathi yamaNdiya aseNingizimu Afrika. UXuma wayengasekeli lezi zinyathelo kanti futhi ngenxa yalokho wasuswa esikhundleni sobungameli, isikhundla sakhe sathathwa nguJames Moroka, kanye nekomidi lesigungu lezindlamlilo ezifana noSisulu, uMda, uTambo noGodfrey Pitje.[66] Kamuva uMandela wachaza ukuthi kamuva, "sasesiqala ukufaka i-ANC endleleni yokuba yinhlangano yokuthatha izinyathelo ezinqala kanye nokwenza i-ANC ukuthiibe yinhlangano yerivolushini."[67] Ngoba wayesezinikele kakhulu kwezepolitiki, uMandela wafeyila unyaka wokugcina eYunivesithi yaseWitwatersrand, kathathu, wagcina ngokunqatshelwa ukuthi athole idigri yakhe ngoDisemba ka-1949.[68]

Umkhankaso omkhulukazi wokulwa nemithetho yobandlululo owawaziwa ngokuthi yi-Defiance Campaign kanye nobuNgameli beTransifali ngo: 1950–54[hlela | edit source]

Imibala emithathu ye-ANC: omnyama, omele abantu abansundu, oluhlaza, omele izwe nomhlaba, igolide omele imithombo ye-Afrika[69]

UMandela wathatha isikhundla sikaXuma kwisigungu sikazwelonke se-ANC ngoMashi ka-1950,[70] kanti ngawo lowo nyaka wakhethwa ukuba ngumongameli wophiki lwabasha i-ANCYL.[71] NgoMashi, kwabanjwa ingqungquthela enkulu eyayibizwa iDefend Free Speech Convention eJohannesburg, eyahlanganisa ama-Afrika, AmaNdiya, kanye nezishoshovu nezishukumi zamakhomanisi ukwenza isimemezelo sesiteleka sikaMeyi se-May Day ukubhikisha ukulwa nenqubo yobandlululo kanye nombuso wedlanzana labamhlophe. UMandela waphikisana nesiteleka ngoba sasigqugquzelwa zinhlanga ezehlukene kanti futhi singaholwa yi-ANC, kodwa iningi labasebenzi abamnyama labamba iqhaza kulesi siteleka, lokhu okwakhulisa kakhulu ingcindezi yencindezelo yabamnyama kanye nokusungulwa komthetho wokuvalwa komlomo amakhomanisi, umthetho owawaziwa ngokuthi yi-Suppresion of Communism Act, 1950, lokhu okwathinta kakhulu imizabalazo nezinyathelo zamaqembu ehlukene.[72] Kwikhonferense ye-ANC yangoDisemba ka-1951, uMandela waqhubeka nokulwisa umzabalazo ohlanganisa izinhlanga ezehlukene, kodwa ivoti lamudla ngoba iningi labantu abavumelananga nombono wakhe.[73]

Ukusukela lapho, waphikisana nombono ka-Lembede wokuthi umzabalazo ungenelwe ngama-Afrika kuphela, waqala ukungamela umbono wokuthi izinhlangano ezehlukene kumele zisebenzisane ukulwa nombuso wobandlululo.[74] Abantu abanengoMoses Kotane baba nomthelela omkhulu kumbono wakhe ngenqubo yomzabalazo, kanti futhi namazwe e-Soviet Union ngokusekela izimpi zokulwela inkululeko yabacindezelwe, umbono kaMandela wokungathembi amakhomanisi, waqala uya ngokuphela, kanti wafunda kakhulu nemibhalo yama-Marxists afana no-Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin, noMao Zedong, ekugcineni wamukela nokwengamela inqubo ye-Marxist ye-dialectical materialism.[75] Lapho ephawula ngobukhomanisi, kamuva wathi, "ngazithola ngidonseleka kumbono wokuba nezwe lapho okungenakubandlululana nokwamaklasi abantu abakuwo ukuze kube ne-classless society lokhu ngokubona kwami, kwakuhambisana kakhulu nosiko nenkambiso yama-Afrika, lapho khona impilo okwabelwana khona ngezinto nokusingathana komphakathi ngenqubo ebizwa i-communalism."[76] Ngo-Epreli ka-1952, uMandela waqala ukusebenza kwinkampani yabammeli i-H.M. Basner,[77] ngenxa yokungena kakhulu emzabalazweni, lokhu kwakusho ukuthi uchitha isikhathi esincane kakhulu nomndeni wakhe.[78]

Ngo-1952, i-ANC yaqala ukulungiselela umkhankaso we- Defiance Campaign wokulwisana nombuso wobandlululo, ngokusebenzisana namaNdiya kanye namaqembu amakhomanisi, kwasungulwa nebhodi elikhulukazi likazwelonke lamavolontiya elalibizwa ngokuthi yi-National Voluntary Board ukuqgugquzelala amavolontiya. Umkhankaso wawuhlelwe ngokuthi wenziwe ngendlela engenalo negwema udlame, ngenqubo eyayibizwa i-nonviolent resistance eyathelelwa kakhulu umthethelwa ngu-Mahatma Gandhi; abanye basekela lenqubo yomzabalazo ongenadlame ngokubonelela izizathu zezobu ethic, kodwa uMandela wayebona lokhu kuyinqubo ebambekayo nesebenzisekayo (pragmatic).[79] EThekwini, uMandela wakhuluma kwirali yangomhla ka 22 Juni, uMandela wakhuluma kwizihlwele zabantu abalingana u 10 000, lokhu okwaqala umkhankaso wokubhikisha, kanti ngalokho waboshwa wagqunywa ejele laseMarshall Square.[80] Ngenxa yemizabalazo yemibhikisho, ubulunga be-ANC baya ngokukhula kakhulu ukusukela ku 20 000 ukuya ku 100 000; uhulumeni ekuphenduleni kwakhe, waphendula ngokubopha uquqaba lwabantu, waqala nomthetho omusha wangu 1953, owaziwa ngokuthi yi-Public Safety Act, 1953 ukwenzela ukuthi kuqhutshwe ngenqubo yokubopha kushankathelwe wonke umuntu, ngomtheteho we-martial law.[81] Ngenyanga kaMeyi, iziphathimandla zavala uMongameli we-ANC weTransfali, u-J. B. Marks nokumqabela ukuthi angakhulumi ebantwini, ngenxa yokuthi engakwazi ukuqhubeka nomsebenzi wakhe uJ B Marks esikhundleni sakhe, wancoma ukuthi uMandela athathe isikhundla sakhe. Ngisho noma labo ababengafuni uluthi umzabalazo uhlanganyelwe zinhlanga ezehlukene, babangamfuni, uMandela wakhethwa ukuba ngumongameli werijini ngenyanga ka Okthoba.[82]

Umuzi wakudala kaMandela's eJohannesburg elokishini laseSoweto

Ngenyanga ka Julayi ngo-1952, uMandela waboshwa ngaphansi komthetho omusha we-Suppression of Communism Act kanti futhi waquliswa icala nabanye abantu abangu 21, phakathi kwabo kwakukhona uMoroka, uSisulu, kanye no-Yusuf Dadoo – eJohannesburg. Watholakala enecala ngaphansi ngaphansi kwenqubo eyayibizwa i-"statutory communism", okwakuyithemu elalisetshenziswa ngumbuso wangaleso sikhathi, ukuchaza noma yibaphi ababephikisana nenqubo kanye nemithetho yobandlululo, isigwebo sabo kwakuwukuthi baye ejele basebenze khona kanzima izinynga eziyisishagalolunye, kodwa lesi sigwebo salengiswa iminyaka emibili.[83] NgoDisemba, uMandela wavalwa umlomo izinyanga eziyisithupha, engavunyelwe ukuhambela imihlangano noma ukukhuluma nabantu ababili ngasikhathi sinye, lokhu kwenza ukuthi ubungameli bakhe beTransfali bongasebenzi, kanti futhi ngalesi sikhathi, uMkhankaso we-Defiance Campaign waphela amandla ngenxa yalezi zenzo zencindezelo nokuboshwa.[84] NgoSeptemba ka 1953, u-Andrew Kunene wafunda inkulumo kaMandela ethi, Indlela eya enkululekweni inzima noma i- "No Easy Walk to Freedom" emhlanganweni we-ANC eTransfali, isihloko sale nkulumo sasicashunwe kunkulumo yomholo waseNdiya, u-Jawaharlal Nehru, kanti futhi lomholi waba nomthelela omkhulu kwinqubo yomqondo kaMandela. Le nkulumo yaba yisisekelo esikhulu sesu okwakumele lulandelwe lapho i-ANC ivalwa. Lelisu lwabizwa ngokuthi yi-Plan, noma iM-Plan, kanti lalibandakanya ukwaba inhlangano ngezikhawu ezincane ezazizwa ngouthi yi- cell structure kanti ubuholi babuzoba ngobusemkhakheni owodwa.[85]

UMandela wathola umsebenzi njengommeli kwinkampani ye-Terblanche and Briggish, ngaphambi kokuba aye kwinkampani yama-liberal ka-Helman and Michel, kanti waphasela ukuba ngummeli ngokuphelele.[86] Ngo-Agast ka 1953, uMandela and Tambo, baqala inkampani yabo yabameli eyayisebenzela emaphakathi ne-Johannesburg. Kwakuyiyona yodwa inkampani yabantu abansundu ezweni, yayihlala igcwele abantu abamnyama ababenezikhalazo eziningi, kanti yayibhekana kakhulu namacala okuhlukunyezwa kakhulu ngamaphoyisa (police brutality). Inkampani yabo, yayizondwa kakhulu yiziphathimandla zangaleso sikhathi, ngakho-ke yaphoqelelwa ukuthi isuke kule ndawo eyayikuyo iye kude, ngoba bathathelwa imfume ngaphansi komthetho wokwehlukanisa izinhlangano ngokuhlala owawaziwa ngokuthi yi-Group Areas Act; ngenxa yalokho baya bebanamakhasimende ambalwa. Ngisho noma indodakazi yabo yesibili uMakaziwe Phumia yazalwa ngoMeyi ka-1954, kodwa ubudlelwane bakhe no-Evelyn babaphansi kwengcindezi, kanti futhi u-Evelyn wayethi kuMandela akekho qotho ebudlelwaneni babo. Kunamahlebezi okuthi wayethandana nelunga le-ANC u- Lillian Ngoyi kanye nonobhala uRuth Mompati; uRuth waba nengane naye.[88] Ngokucasulwa yindlela  yokuziphatha kwendodana yakhe, uNosekeni umama wakhe wabuyela eTranskei, kanti u-Evelyn wajoyina ibandla loFakazi bakaJehova  elaziwa ngokuthi yi- Jehovah's Witnesses kanti futhi waphikisana nokukhahlela inqubo kaMandela yokuzinikela emzabalazweni wezepolitiki.[89]

Ingqungquthela enkulukazi eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi-Congress of the People kanye nokuquliswa icala elikhulukazi elaziwa ngokuthi yi-Treason Trial: 1955–61[hlela | edit source]

Ngemuva kokungenela ubhikisho olungaphumelelanga, ukuvimbela ukususwa kwabo bonke abantu abamnyama eSophiatown, eJohannesburg ngoFebruwari ka-1955, uMandela wabona ukuthi impi yezikhali isifanele ukuqeda inqubo nombuso wobandlululo wedlanzana labamhlophe.[91] Wseluleka uSisulu ukucela izikhali kwiRiphabhuliki yeShayina i-People's Republic of China, ngisho noma umbuso waseShayina wawusekela umzabalazo wokulwa nobandlululo, kodwa bababona ukuthi inhlangano ayikazimiseli kahle ukuthatha umzabalazo wezikhalli ngenqubo yomshoshaphansi eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-guerilla warfare.[92] Ngokusebenzisana nezinhlangano ezilandelayo, i-South African Indian Congress, i-Coloured People's Congress, kanye ne-South African Congress of Trade Unions kanye ne-Congress of Democrats, i-ANC, yahlela ingqungquthela enkulukazi i-Congress of the People, yamemezela kubo bonke abantu baseNingizimu Afrika ukuthumela iziphakamiso, iziphakamiso ezathunyelwa ngabantu, zahlanganiswa ukuba yiShatha yenkululeko eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi-Freedom Charter eyabhalwa phansi ngu-Rusty Bernstein, eyayimemezela ukuthi kube nombuso ongenabandlululo, yenqubo yedimokhrasi, engenabandlululo ngokwebala, kanti futhi eyokwenza ukuthi umnotho wezwe ube ngaphansi kombuso ngenqubo ebizwa i-nationalisation kwizimbono ezinkulu. Lapho kwemukelwa ishatha yenkululeko kwikhonferense eyabanjwa ngoJuni 1955, e-Kliptown eyayihanjelwe zithunywa ezingu 3000, amaphoyisa ahlakaza le ngqungquthela, kodwa yaba yiyo eyabayisisekelo se-idiyoloji kaMandela.[93]

Ngemuva kokubalwa kwakhe umlomo kwesibili ngoSeptemba 1955, uMandela waya eholideyini wayosebenza eTranskei ukuxoxa ngemiphumela yomthetho wokugudlulela abantu abamnyama kumabantustan ngomthetho we-the Bantu Authorities Act, 1951 nabaholi bemiphakathi yakubo, kanye nokuvakashela umama wakhe uNoengland ngaphambi kokubawith adlulele e-Cape Town.[94] NgoMashi ka 1956, wabuye wavalwa umlomo futhi okwesithathu, nokunqatshelwa ukuthi angakhulumi nabantu abaningi, lokhu okwakumbophezela ukuthi angaphumi endaweni yase-Johannesburg iminyaka emihlanu, kodwa waweqa lo mthetho owawumvimbela ukuthi angaphumi eJohannesburgit.[95] Umendo wakhe wabhidlika, kanti u-Evelyn wamshiya uMandela, wathatha izingane zabo wahamba nazo, wayohlala nomfowabo. Lapho evula icala ledivosi, wathi uMandela ubemhlukumeza emshaya, kodwa uMandela waliphika icala lokuthi ubemhlukumeza umkakhe, kanti futhi walwela ukuthi athole izingane.[96] U-Evelyn walihoxisa icala ngoNovemba, kodwa uMandela yena waqhubeka necala ledivosi ngoJanuwari ka 1958, idivosi yabo yaphethwa ngoMashi, kanti izingane zanikezwa u-Evelyn.[97] Ngesikhathi bedivosa waqala ukuqomisa kanye nokufakela umoya wezepolitiki kumsebenzi wezenhlalakahle u-Winnie Madikizela, ashada naye eBizana ngoJuni 1958. Kanti kamuva uWinnie wangenela imizabalazo ye-ANC, ngemuva kwalokho waboshwa izihlandla eziningi engena ephuma ejele amavik.[98] Bobabili noWinnie baba nezingane ezimbili, uZenani owazalwa ngoFebruwari ka 1959 kanye noZindziswa yena owazalwa ngoDisemba 1960.[99]

UMandela lapho eshisa ipasi lakhe esidlangalaleni ngo-1960, wenza lokhu phambi kwabacosheli bezindaba ababephethe amakhamera[100]

Ngo,Disemba ka 1956, uMandela waboshwa, eboswa namanye amalunga esigungu sikazwelonke se-ANC, wabekwa icala lokufuna ukuwisa umbuso elaziwa kakhulu ngelokuthi i-"high treason". Wafakwa ejele laseJohannesburg, kanti ngaleso sikhathi kwakunemibhikisho eminingi, kanti bakhishwa ngebheyili ngemuva kokuba behloliwe.[101] Ukushushiswa nokuvikelwa kwecala kwaqala ngoJanuwari ka-1957, kanti amagqwetha abo, ayenganyelwe ngu-Vernon Berrangé, kanti ukuqulwa kwecala kwaqhubeka kwaze kwamiswa ngoSeptemba. NgoJanuwari ka 1958, u-Oswald Pirow waqokwa ukuba ngumshushisi wecala, kwathi ngoFebruwari, ijaji lanquma ukuthi kunobufakazi obenele lokuthi abamangalelwa ukuthi bayiswe eNkantolo eNkulu ye-Transvaal Supreme Court.[102]  Icala labo le-Treason Trial laqala ngokomthetho ePretoria ngo-Agast 1958, kanti abamangalelwa benza isicelo sokuthi amajaji amathathu asuswe esikhundleni sawo kungene amanye ngoba onke ayexhumane ne-National Party. Ngo-Agast ishaji eyodwa yasuswa, kanti ngo-Okthoba, abashushisi bahoxisa icala, balihlela kabusha, babuya ngoNovemba sebelihlele kabusha, ngokuthi abaholi be-ANC benze icala le-high treason, ngouthi bafune ukuqumba umbuso wabamhlophe phansi ngokumemezela ukuthi kusetshenziswe izikhali, kanti abamangalelwa baliphika leli cala..[103]

Ngo-Epreli ka 1959, labo ababengafuni ukuthi umzabalazo wama-Afrika uhlangane nezinye izinhlangana (ama-Africanist), ababenganelisekile yinqubo ye-ANC yokuhlanganyela  nezinye izinhlanga, basungula inhlangano ye-Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC); Umngani kaMandela u--Robert Sobukwe wakhethwa ukuba ngumengameli wayo, ngisho noma uMandela wayengavumelani nenqubo yabo yokungafuni ukusebenzisana nezinye izinhlanga ngoba wayekuthatha lokhu njengonqubo engavuthiwe nokuhluzeka, futhi ebonisa ukuswela ulwazi.[104] Omabili la maqembu akhankasela ukuqedwa kwamapasi ekuqaleni kanyaka ka 1960, kanti kulowo mkhankaso, ama-Afrika ashisa amapasi ababephoqelelwa ukuthi bawaphathe ngaso sonke isikhathi. Enye yemibhikisho eyayihlelwe yi-PAC, amaphoyisa adubula kuyo abantu, lokhu okwabangela ukuthi kufe abantu abangu 69 ababebhekisha eSharpeville massacre. Lesi sehlakalo sabangela ukuthi amazwe omhlaba agxeke kakhulu umbuso wawamhlophe eNingizimu Afrika, kanti futhi lokhu kwabangela ukuthi kube nemibhikisho eminingi eNingizimu Afrika, lapho khona uMandela ashisa khona ipasi lakhe esidlangalaleni ukubonisa ukuzwelana nabantu abahlaselwa bebhikisha.[105]

Ekubhekaneni kwabo nemikhankaso, uhulumeni wasungula umthetho wesimo esibucayi, kanye nokufaka umthetho wezempi namasosha, kanti futhi wavala izinhlangano ze-ANC ne-PAC imilomo, kanti ngoMashi wabopha uMandela kanye nezinye izishukumi zomzabalazo, zagqunywa ejele izinyanga ezinhlanu ngaphandle kokubekwa amacala, kanti futhi babegqunywe ejele lesimo esingahlanzekile ejele lasePitori.[106] Ukufakwa kwabo ejele, kwabangela izinkinga koMandela nabanye ababeboshiwe ngoba abakwazanga ukubonana nabammeli babo ecaleni elaziwa ngokubeka izwe kwisimo sengozi elaziwa nge-Treason Trial, ngakho-ke kwathathwa isinqumo sokuthi abammeli bakhombise ukukhononda ngokuhoxa ekubameleni kuze kufike lapho abammangalelwa bekhululwa khona ejele, uma umthetho wesimo esibucayi i-state of emergency usususiwe, okwenzeka ekupheleni kwenyanga ka-Agast ngo 1960.[107] Ezinyangeni ezilandelayo, uMandela wasebenzisa isikhathi sakhe ukugqugquzelela ingqungqukethela enkulukazi ye-All-in African Conference endaweni eseduzane noMgungundlovu (Pietermaritzburg), eNatali, ngoMashi ka 1961, lapho khona izithunywa ezingu 1, 400 ezazilwisa ubandlululo ezahlangana khona, nokuvumelana ukuthi kwenziwe isiteleka sokuhlala emakhaya kungasetshenziwa ngomhala ka 31 Meyi, ngosuku lapho iNingizimu Afrika yamenyezelwa khona njengeriphabhuliki.[108] Ngomhla ka 29 Mashi, eminyakeni eyisithupha ngemuva kokuqala kokuqulwa kwecala le-Treason Trial, amajaji akhipha isinqumo, sokuthi abukho ubufakazi obenele bokubeka labo ababequliswa icala ukuba namacala, e-"high treason", ngoba babengagqugquzelelil ukuthi kube nenqubo yobukhomanisi, kanti futhi babengagqugquzeleli ukuthi kube nerivolushini yodlame, umphumela waleli cala, lafakela uhulumeni[109] izinhloni nokuphoxeka kakhulu.

I-MK, i-SACP, nokuhambela amazwe eAfrika: 1961–62[hlela | edit source]

Igumbi elakhiwe ngotshani iLilies Farm, lapho uMandela wayezifihle khona

Lopho ezifihle njengomshayeli wezimoto, uMandela wahambela lonke izwe kungekho obonayo, ehamba egqugquzelela izakhiwo zomshoshaphansi ze-ANC, kanye nokuhlelela isiteleka sokuhlala emakhaya kungayiwa emsebenzini. Kwabezindaba namaphephendaba wethiwa igama lokuthi ngu-"Black Pimpernel"  – igama elalivela kumbhali u-Emma Orczy wencwadi yenoveli ayibhala ngo-1905 yegama elithi-The Scarlet Pimpernel – kwakhishwa iwaranti yokuboshwa kwakhe ikhishwa ngamaphoyisa.[110] UMandela wabamba imihlangano yemfihlo, kanti ngemuva kokuba uhulumeni ehluleke ukumisa isiteleka, waxwayisa ukuthi izishukumi zomzabalazo ziiyosebenzisa udlame ngokusebenza ngamaqembu ePAC Poqo.[111] Wakholelwa ukuhti i-ANC kumele ibumbe iqembu elihlomile ukuze udlame lwenziwe ngendlela ehlelekile nelawulekayo, kanti futhi wabonisana nomholi we-ANC u- Albert Luthuli – yena ngokombono wakhe owayengavumelani nodlame kanti kwakungewuye yedwa owabona udlame lungafanele, nabanye abahambisana naye babebona kanjalo.[112]

Ngokufakelwa ugqozi zinyathelo zomkhankaso omkhulukazi owawuqhutshwa ngu-Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement ngomzabalazo we-Cuban Revolution, ngo-1961, uMandela, uSisulu noSlovo baqala ibutho lo- Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation", kanti uma leli gama lifingqwa libizwa i-MK). Ngokuba ngusihlalo wequmbu lamasha-nhliziyo, uMandela wathola ulwazi ngokufunda imibhalo ye-Marxist nemizabalazo yokulwa ngomshoshaphansi ka-Mao no-Che Guevara kanye nezinye izinkakha zababhali ngethiyori yezempi zemishoshaphansi abafana no- Carl von Clausewitz.[113] Ngisho noma lo mzabalazo wezikhali waziswa njengohlukene ne-ANC ngokosiko, ukuze ukuchaphazeli kabi igama le-ANC, kodwa kamuva leli butho laziwa njenge-MK okuyibutho elihlomile leqembu le-ANC.[114] Amalunga amaningi e-MK, kwakungamakhomanisi abamhlophe, ababefihla uMandela emakhaya abo; ngemuva kokucasha eflethini lika-Wolfie Kodesh endaweni yase-Berea, uMandela wasuka waya ePulazini, umnikazi walo owakuyikhomanisi, ipulazi le-Liliesleaf Farm elalitholakala endaweni yaseRivonia, lapho ajoyinana khona no-Raymond Mhlaba, uSlovo, kanye noBernstein, okwaba nguye owabhala umthethosisekelo we-MK.[115] Ngisho noma kamuva uMandela waphika ukuthi wake waba yilunga lenhlangano yamakhomanisi, i-Communist Party, ucwaningo olwashicilelwa ngo-2011, lukhombisa ukuthi wake wayijoyina inhlangano yamakhomanisi ekupheleni kweminyaka yango 1950, kanti ekuqaleni kweminyaka yango 1960.[116] Lokhu kwaqinisa yinhlangano ye-SACP kanye ne-ANC ngemuva kokushona kukaMandela. Ngokusho kwe-SACP, wayengelona nje ilunga kuphela, kodwa wayeyilunga lesigungu esiphezulu sikazwelonke i-Central Committee, kodwa lokhu ngezizathu zezepolitiki kwaphikwa kamuva.[2]

Ngokusebenza ngezakhiwo zomshoshaphansi zama-cell, iMK yahlela izinyathelo zokucikela phansi izakhiwo zikahulumeni, lokhu kwakuzokwenziwa ukucindezela uhulumeni kodwa kungalimali abantu. I-MK yahlela ukutshala amabhomu kwizakhiwo zezobusosha zikahulumeni, ukutshala amabhomu kwizikhiwo zamaplanti kagesi, olayini bezingcingo, kanye nezixhumanisi zezokugibela, lokhu kwenziwa ebusuku, lapho kwakuhlelwe khona ukuthi abantu bazobe bengasekho kulezo zindawo. UMandela wachaza ukuthi bakhetha ukucikela phansi izakhiwo ngoba lokhu kwakungenabungozi kakhulu kuluntu, kwakungafanele kufe abantu ngezenzo zokucikela phansi, kanti futhi ukuthi kungafi muntu kwakuzoba yithemba lokuhlanganisa izinhlanga ngemuva kocikelo phansi; kodwa wakwemukela ukuthi, uma umkhankaso wokucikela phansi izakhiwo, ungaphumeleli, kuyolandela umzabalazo we-guerilla warfare uma kunesidingo.[119] Maduzane nje, umholi we-ANC uLuthili, wanikezwa indondo yamazwe omhlaba yoxolo eyeziwa ngelokuthi yi-Nobel Peace Prize, i-MK yamemezela ubukhona bayo ngokuthi kuqhushumbiswe amabhomu angu 57 ngomhla wosuku olwaziwa ngokuthi olukaDingane, okuyi- Dingane's Day (ngomhla ka16 Disemba) 1961, okwalandelwa ngolunye ucikelo phansi lwangosuku olwandulela olokuqaka konyaka okungu-New Year's Eve.[120]

I-ANC yathatha isinqumo sokuthumela uMandela njengesithunywa kwinqungquthela yomhlangano omkhulukazi ngo-Februwari 1962, we-Pan-African Freedom Movement for East, Central and Southern Africa (PAFMECSA) umhlangano wabanjelwa e-Addis Ababa, e-Ethiopia.[121] Waphuma eNingizimu Afrika ngokuhamba ngendlela edlule e-Bechuanaland, kuhambo lwakho, wavakashela e-Tanganyika kanti khona wahlangano nomengameli wakhona uJulius Nyerere.[122] Lapho efika e-Ethiopia, wahlangana noNkosi u-Emperor Haile Selassie I, kanti futhi wanikeza inkulumo yakhe ngemuva kokukhuluma kuka-Selassie kwikhonferense.[123] Ngamua kwe-symposium, wahambela e-Cairo, Egypt, lapho abona khona izinguquko ezazenziwa nguMongameli uGamal Abdel Nasser, kanye wayesehambela izwe lase-Tunis, eTunisia, lapho khona uMongameli Habib Bourguiba owamnika isixa semali engu £5000 kanye nezikhali. Waqhubeka wadlulela e-Morocco, eMali, eGuinea, eSierra Leone, eLiberia, kanye nase-Senegal, lapho athola khona imali kuMongameli wase-Liberia, uMongameli u-William Tubman kanye noMengameli weGuinea, uMongmeli u-Ahmed Sékou Touré.[124] Owayesuka e-Afrika eya eLondon, eNgilandi, lapho ahlangana khona nabantu bezishukumi zababelwisa umbuso wobandlululo, ababiki bezindaba, kanye nosopolitiki abaziwayo.[125] Lapho ebuyela e-Ethiopia, waqala uqeqesho lwekhozi yezinyanga eziyisithupha zempi yomshoshaphansi, kodwa waqeda kuphela izinyanga ezimbili ngaphambi kokuba abizwe ukubuyela eNingizimu Afrika.[126]

Ukuboshwa aye ejele[hlela | edit source]

Ukuboshwa kanye necala le-Rivonia: 1962–64[hlela | edit source]

Ngomhla ka 5 Agaust 1962, amaphoyisa abamba uMandela kanye nomlingani wakhe u-Cecil Williams eduzane nase-Howick.[127] Kukhona amahlebezi okuthi iziphathimandla zanikezwa ulwazi ngokuthi ukuphi uMandela, kodwa uMandela yena akawanakanga kakhulu la mahlebezi.[128] Omunye umbono uthi ukwaziwa komkhondo wakhe wokuthi ukuphi, kwanikezwa amaphoyisa aseNingizimu Afrika, yinhlangano yezobunhloli yase-United States, i-Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), eyayinovalo lokuthi uMandela uyikhomanisi, kanti le-claim yasekelwa yilowo owayeyinxusa noma i-diplomat ye-US, owadalula ukluthi ube nesandla kudaba lokuboshwa kukaMandela.[129][3] Wabosha ejele laseJohannesburg Marshall Square, kanti uMandela wabekwa icala lokuthi ugqugquzele abasebenzi ukuthi bateleke kanye nokuphuma ezweni ngaphandle kwemvume. Ngokuzimele ecaleni nokulekelelwa nguSlovo njengomeluleki wakhe, uMandela wayefuna ukusebenzisa icala ukubonisa umoya we-ANC wokulwisa ubandlululo ngokwebala, kanti ngaleso sikhathi abasekeli bakhe bebhikishe ngaphandle kwenkundla.[131] Wasuswa wasiya ejele lasePitori lapho uWinnie ayekwazi ukumvakashela khona, lapho esesitokisini waqala ukufundela iziqu zomthetho ngokukhoresponda, iziqu ze-Bachelor of Laws (LLB) efunda ne-University of London.[132] Icala lakhe laqala ukuqulwa ngo-Okthoba, kodwa waphazamisa inkundla ngokugqoka imvunulo yosiko lwakhe,i-kaross, futhi wenqaba ukubiza ofakazi, kanti futhi waphendula ithuba lobufakazi bokuzikhalela (plea of mitigation) ukuba yinkulumo yezepolitiki. Lapho elahlwa yicala, wagetshwa iminyaka emihlanu esejele, kanti lapho ephuma enkundleni, abasekeli bacula ihhubo lesizwe i-"Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika".[133]

Ngo 1963 ngoJulayi, amaphoyisa ahlasela iPulazi leLilies, babopha labo abatholwa lapho, kanye nokushaqa amaphepha aye lapho, lapho abathola khona amaphepha ayebonisa imisebenziye-MK, kanti abanye ababebhalwe kulawo maphepha kwakungu-Mandela. Ukuqulwa kwecala le-Rivonia Trial kwaqala eNkantolo ePhakeme ePitori ngo-Okthoba, lapho uMandela namaqabane akhe khona ashajwa khona ngamacala amane okucikela phansi kanye nozungu lokuwisa umbuso ngodlame, uMshushusi wabo omkhulu kwakungu-Percy Yutar.[136] Ijaji kwakungu-Quartus de Wet kanti futhi ngokushesha ijaji labonisa ukungeneli kobufakazi, kwasekuthi uYutar wahlela kabusha amashaji, lapho aqala khona icala elisha ukusukela ngoFebruwari ka 1964, lapho abiza khona ofakazi abangu 173, kanye nokuletha imiqulu yezinkulungwane kanye nezithombe ekuqulweni kwecala.[137]

Ngisho noma abane ababebekwe icala, baphika uulthi bebengenele kwi-MK, uMandela nabanye abahlanu bavuma ukuthi yibo ababecikela phansi izakhiwo, kodwa baphika ukuthi babengenele impi yomshoshaphansi ye-guerilla ukulwa nombuso.[138] Basebenzisa ukuqulwa kwecala ukukhombisa izizathu zomzabalazo wabo wezepolitiki; ekuvulweni kwecala ngabammangalelwa, uMandela wanikeza inkulumo yakhe yamahhora amathathu, eyayithi uzimisele ukufa ("I Am Prepared to Die") . Leyo nkulumo yayifakelwe ugqozi, yinkuluma yegqala elingu-Castro kwinkulumo eyayithi umlando uyongikhulula ("History Will Absolve Me") – kanti le nkulumo yabikwa kakhulu ngabezindaba ngisho noma kwakuyinkulumo eyayingavumelekile ngokomthetho ukwaziswa (censorship).[139] Ukuqula kwaleli cala kwaba nedumela kakhulu, kwaba neningi kumhlaba wonke elalimemezela ukuthi bakhululwe abammangalelwa Abanhlangano yezizwe ezihlangane i-United Nations kanye nenhlangano ye-World Peace Council, kanti futhi iyunivesithi ye-University of London Union yavoteoa uMandela ukuba nguMongameli wayo.[140] Ngomhla ka 12 Juni 1964, ujaji justice De Wet, wathola uMandela kanye nababili ayeshajwe nabo ukuba namacala kuwo womane amashaji; kodwa ngisho noma umshushiswi wayefuna kube nesigwebo sentambo (death sentence) ijaji labanikeza isigwebo sokudilikelwa yije noma isikwego sokuthi baphile impilo yabo yonke besejele (life imprisonment).[141]

Isiqiwi se-Robben Island: 1964–82[hlela | edit source]

UMandela kanye nalabo ayequliswa nabo icala basuswa ePitori basiwa ejele lasesiqiwini e-Robben Island, kanti bagqunywa kulelo jele iminyaka engu 18.[142] Babengavunyelwa ukuhlangana nezinye iziboshwa ezingezona ezepolitiki, ezaziku-Section B, UMandela wayebekwe kwiseli elimanzi elinomsokama likasimende, elilingana u 8 feet (2.4 m) by 7 feet (2.1 m), kanti wayelaliswa ecansini eliwucwecwana.[143] Wayehlala ethukwa kanye nokuhlukunyezwa emzimbeni ngonogada bejele abamhlophe, kanti futhi yena nayeboshwe nabo ecaleni le-Rivonia, babesetshenziswa ukuqhekeza amatshe nsuku zonke, kwaze kwathi ngo-1965 baqala ukusetshenziswa kwi-quarry ye-lime. UMandela wayengavunyelwe ukufaka izibuko zamehlo ukumvikela elangaeni kanye nakwi-lime, kanti lokhu kwalimaza unomphela amahlo akhe.[144] Kanti ebusuku wayefunda, efundela isiqu se-LLB, kanti futhi babenqatshelwa nokuthola amanyuziphepha, futhi yena wayekhiyelwa endaweni yakhe yedwa ekwi-solitary confinement izikhathi eziningi ngokutholakala eshushumbise izicashunywana ezinqanyulwe kumaphephandaba.[145] Ekuqaleni wayebekwe kwizinga eliphansi kakhulu lobuboshwa lika-Class D, lokhu okusho ukuthi wayevunyelwe ukuvakashelwa kanye kanye nokuthola incwadi kanye ezinyangeni eziyisithupha, kanti futhi zonke ezinye izincwadi nemibhalo, wayengavunyelwe ukukuthola.[146]

I-quary ye-lime esiqiwini sase-Robben Island lapho khona uMandela nabanye ayeboshwe nabo ababesetshenziswa khona kanzima njengeziboshwa

Iziboshwa zezepolitiki, zazenza umsebenzi kanye nesiteleka sokudikila ukudla (hunger strikes) – kanti ukudikila ukudla kwakungelona isu elisebenza kahle, ngokubona kukaMandela – lokhu babekwenzela ukuthuthukisa isimo sasejele, kanti futhi lokhu bekubona njengengxenye yomzabalazo wokulwa nombuso wobandlululo.[147] Iziboshwa ze-ANC, zamkhetha ukuba yingxenye  yekomidi eliphezulu elaziwa ngokutyi yi-"High Organ" labesilisa abane, okwakungo-Sisulu, uGovan Mbeki, kanye no-Raymond Mhlaba, kanti futhi wazibandanya neqembu elalimele zonke iziboshwa zezepolitiki esiqiwini le-Ulundi, kanti lokhku kwenza ukuthi baxhumane ne-PAC, kanye namalunga eqembu le-Yu Chi Chan Club.[148] Ngokusungula iYunivesithi yesiqiwi i-"University of Robben Island", lapho khona zonke iziboshwa zazifundisa abanye emikhakheni ezinolwazi olunzulu kuyo, yena wayexoxa ngezihloko eziqondene nezenhlalisano nezepolitiki kumaqabane akhe.[149]

Ngokuhambela izinkonzo zobuKhresto zangeSonto, uMandela wafunda ngenkolo yobusulumane ebizwa i-Islam.[150] Kanti futhi wabuye wafunda nolimi lwe-Afrikaans, ngethemba lokuthi uzokwazi ukukhuluma nonogada kanye nokuba guqula ukuze baqonde umzabala.[151] Waba nezivakashi eziningi zodumo ezazimuvakashela ejele, njengomeli weqembu lama-liberal ephalamende u-Helen Suzman weqembu le-Progressive Party, owaba nguye owayemvakashela kakhulu ejele nokuzama ukulwela ukumsiza ejele.[152] NgoSeptembe ka-1970, wahlangana nelunga lephalamende yaseBrithani weqembu le-Labour Party MP Dennis Healey.[153] Ungqongqoshe waseNingizimu Afrikak wophiko olalubizwa ezobulungiswa ngaleso sikhathi u-Jimmy Kruger wamuvakashela ngoDisemba ka-1974, kodwa yena noMandela babengazwani.[154] Umama wakhe wamvakashela ngo-1968, kanti umama wakhe washona maduzane nje ngemuva kwalokho, kanti indodana yakhe yokuqala uThembi yashona engozini yemoto ngonyaka olandelayo, uMandela akavunyelwanga ukuya kuleyo mingcwabo yomibili kamama wakhe kanye nowendondana yakhe.[155] Kanti umkakhe wayengakwazi ukumvakashela njalo ngoba naye wayede eboshwa njalo eboshelwa ezepolitiki, kanti indodakazi yakhe, yamvakashela okokuqala ngoDisemba ka-1975; uWinnie yena ekuphumeni kwakhe ejele ngo-1977, wadingiselwa endaweni yase-Brandfort, kanti futhi nalapho uWinnie wayengakwazi ukuyobona umyeni wakhe ejele.[156]

Ukusukela ngo-1967, isimo sasejele sathuthuka sabangconywana, iziboshwa zabantu abamnyama zaniikezwa amabhulukwe emilenze emide ngoba zazikade zigqokiswa izikhindi, zavunyelwa nokudlala imidlalo, kanti nesimo sokudla sathi ukubangconywana.[157] Ngonyaka ka-1969, uGordon Bruce weluka isu lokubaleka ejele likaMandela, kodwa lelo lisu layekwa ngemuva kokuba kutholakale ukuthi kwase kukhona impimpi kuzungu lwaleli lisu, lempimpi eyayisebenzela abophiko lwe-South African Bureau of State Security (BOSS), le mpimpi yayingenela leli lisu ngoba yayifuna ukuthi uMandela adutshulwe afe ngesikhathi sokuzama ukweqa ejele.[158] Ngo-1970, uPiet Badernhorst waba yisikhulu sekhomanda. UMandela wabona kuqiniswa isandla ekuhlukunyezweni kwezibosha ngokwengqondo nangokomzimba, wakhalaza kumajaji ayevakashele iziboshwa, kanti lokhu kwenza ukuthi uBadenhorst asiwe kwenye indawo.[159] Isikhundla sakhe sathatha nguKhomanda Willie Willemse, owaba nobudlelwane bensebenziswano noMandela, kanti futhi wayezimisele ukuthuthukisa isimo ejele. [160]

Ngo-1975, uMandela wase eyisiboshwa esisezingeni le-Class,[162] esasimvumela ukuthi avakashelwe zivakashi eziningana kanye nokuthola izincwadi eziningana, kanti futhi waxhumana nosopolitiki owayelwa nombuso wobandlululo uMangosuthu Buthelezi kanye noDesmond Tutu.[163] Ngalowo nyaka waqala ukubhala incwadi ngomlando wempilo yakhe, eyashushumbiswa yasiwa eLondon, kodwa ayezange ishicilelwe ngaleso sikkhathi, ngoba izikhulu zasejele zathola amakhasi ambalwa aleyo ncwadi, kanti wephucwa nelungalo lokuqhubeka nezifundo zakhe, lokhu okwenziwa iminyaka emine.[164] Wasebenzisa leso sikkhathi ukunaka ingadi yakhe, kanye nokuqhubeka nokuzifundela nje, kwaze kwalapho esivunyelwe futhi ukuthi aqhubeke nokufundela iziqu zakhe ze-LLB ngo-1980.[165]

Ekupheleni kweminyaka yoma 1960, udumo lukaMandela isikhundla salo sasesiqala ukuthathwa Steve Biko kanye nentshukumo ye-Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). Ngokubona ukuthi umsebenzi we-ANC wawungabonakali umphumela waowo, i-BCM yamemezela ukuthi kuqalwe intshukumo yezinyathelo ezishisayo, kodwa ngemuva kokuba kube novukelo lwaseSoweto, olwaziwa ngokuthi yi-Soweto uprising lwango-1976, iningi lamashanhliziyo e-BCM laboshwa, lwagqunywa ejele le-Robben Island.[166] UMandela wazama ukwakha ubudlelwane na la mashanhliziyo amasha, ngisho noma wayenokubasola ngobudlamlilo babo, kanye nokuthi la mashanhliziyo ayebukela phansi izishukumi zabamhlophe ezazilwa nobandlululo.[167] Ukuvuseleleka kodumo lukaMandela, kwabuye kwaqala ngoJulayi ka 1978, lapho eqeda iminyaka engama 60.[168] yokuzalwa kwakhe. Wanikezwa iziqu zokubungazwa zobudokotela eLesotho, kanye nendlondlo ye-LeJawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding ezweni laseNdiya ngo-1979, kanti futhi wanikezwa nenkululeko yedolobha ebizwa i-Freedom of the City of Glasgow, ezweni lase-Scotland ngo 1981.[169] Kwathi ngoMashi ka 1980 isiqubulo noma isilogeni sokuthi Makukhululwe uMandela se-"Free Mandela!" sasungulwa ngumbhali wezindaba u-Percy Qoboza, kanti lesi siqubulo saqala umkhankaso omkhulukazi wamazwe omhlaba, owabangela ukuthi abophiko lwezokuvikelela kwinhlangano yeZizwe ezihlangane, i-UN Security Council yenze isimemezelo sokuthi akhululwe ejele.[170] Ngisho noma kwaba nengcindezi enkulu yamazwe angaphandle, uhulumeni wobandlululo wenqaba ukumkhulula, kanti futhi kulokhu, uhulumeni wobandlululo wayesekelwa yinqubo yomshoshaphansi yamazwe amakhulu eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi-Cold War kodwa uhulumeni wobandlululo wathola ukwesekelwa nguMongameli we-US uMongameli u-Ronald Reagan kanye noNdunankulu (uPrime Minister) waseBrithani u-Margaret Thatcher; bobabili laba baholi bamazwe amakhulu aphesheya, bathi inhlangano kaMandela i-ANC, yinhlangano yobuphekula zikhuni (terrorist organisation) kanti futhi izwelana nobukhomanisi, futhi laba baholi basekelwa ukuthi i-ANC iqhubeke nokucindezelwa umbuso wobandlululo.[171]

Ejele lePollsmoor: 1982–88[hlela | edit source]

Ngo-Epreli ka 1982, uMandela wadluliselwa ejele le-Pollsmoor Prison eTokai, Cape Town kanye nabanye abaholi abaphezulu be-ANC abanjengo Walter Sisulu, u-Andrew Mlangeni, u-,Ahmed Kathrada kanye noRaymond Mhlaba; ngaleso senzo sokudluliselwa ePollsmoor, babekholelwa ukuthi bakhishwa inyumbazane ukuze bangahlangana neziboshwa ezisha zentsha yezishukumi ezazisanda kufika ejele.[172] Isimo saseJele lasePollsmoor, sasingcono kakhkulu kunesase-Robben Island, ngisho noma uMandela wayekhumbula amaqabane esiqiwini kanye nendawo enhle yesiqiwi.[173] Ngokuba nomoya wokuzwana nesikhulu sekhomanda, uBrigadier Munro, wavumela uMandela ukuthi enze ingadi ophahleni (roof garden),[174] kanti ngalesi sikhathi, uMandela wayesefunda kakhulu, kanye nokubhala izincwadi ezibhalela abangaphandle, ngoba manje wayesevunyelwe ukubhala izincwadi ezingu 52 ngonyaka.[175] Waqokwa ukuba yi-patron yenhlangano eyayihlanganisa izinhlanga ezehlukene ye- United Democratic Front (UDF), eyayisungulelwe ukuphikisana namithetho emisha yobandlululo eyayenza inkohliso yokuqeda ubandlululo, imitheshwana (reforms) eyasungulwa nguMongameli weNingizimu Afrika, u-P. W. Botha. Uhulumeni wobandlululo neqembu lakhe uBotha le-National Party laqala ukuvumela Amakhaladi namaNdiya ukuvota kumaphalamendana amancane abo, kanti la maphalamendana nabo, ayelawula ezemfundo, ezempilo kanye nezezindlu, kodwa abantu abansundu bama-Afrika, bona babekhishelwe ngaphandle kule nqubo; njengoMandela, i-UDF, yabona le nqubo njengemizamo yokwehlukanisa intshukumo yokulwa nobandlululo ngokwezinhlanga.[176]

Umfanekiso we-Bust  kaMandela owasimekwa eLondon, e-South Bank usimekwa umkhandlu omkhulukazi we-Greater London Council nabamahhovisi akhona ka-Ken Livingstone ngo-1985

Udlame lwaya ngokudlondlobala kulo lonke izwe, kanti iningi labantu lalesabela ukuthi kuzoba nokuvukelwana kwesizwe sonkana. Ngenxa yengcindezi yamazwe omhlaba, amabhangi angaphandle amisa utshalomali eNingizimu Afrika, lokhu okwabangela ukuthi umnotho ungakhuli. Amabhangi amaningi noThatcher ancenga uBotha ukuthi akhulule uMandela  – lokhu kwenzeka ngesikhathi uMandela eba nedumela khulu, kanti la mabhangi ayefuna ukwehlisa ulaka ezweni.[177] Ngisho noma uBotha wayebona uMandela eyikhomanisi elikhulukazi elilandela inqubo ye-Marxist kakhulu ("arch-Marxist"),[178] ngoFebruwari ka-1985, uBotha wathembisa ukukhulula uMandela uma nje engathembisa nokuyeka inqubo yomzabalazo wezepolitiki wezikhali (on condition that he "unconditionally rejected violence as a political weapon"). UMandela lesi sithembiso sikaBotha, wasikhahlela ngazo zombili izinyawo, wakhulula isitatimende esafunda yindodakazi yakhe uZindzi, esasibuza umbuzo wokuthi, nhloboni lena yenkululeko athenjiswa yona nguBotha, isihloko sesitatimende sakhe, sasithi: "What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people [ANC] remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts.")[179][4]

Ngo-1985, uMandela wahlinzwa ngenxa youvuvukala kwemvilaphi, ngaphambi kokuthi ahlaliswe yedwa kuphiki lwangezansi lwejele e-ground floor.[181]  ama-"seven eminent persons", laba kwakuyizithunywa, ezazithunywe ukuthi zizoxoxisana nombuso kaBotha ukuthola isixazululo, kodwa uBotha wenqaba ukuhlangana nalaba balisa balezi zithunywa, ngoJuni walowo nyaka wamemezela umthetho omusha wesimo esibucayi owaziwa ngokuthi yi-state of emergency, kanye nokuphaka amaphoyisa kuzo zonke izindawu zabantu abamnyama ukuthi baboshwe ngobuningi. Kanti izidlamlilo ezaziwa nombuso nenqubo yobandlululo zavuka indlobana zawuvuthela kakhulu umzabalazo, kanti nabe-ANC nabo baqinisa isandla kakhulu ngohlaselo, lapho abahlasela izihlandla ezingu 231 ngo-1986 kanti eingu 235 ngo-1987. Udlame lwabhoka ngamandla ezweni njengoba uhulumeni waphaka kakhulu amasosha kanye namaphoyisa ukuzama ukucisha umlilo wemikhankaso yomzabalazo, kanti futhi uhulumeni wobandlululo wanikeza nezikhali amanye amaqembu amaZulu ngaphansi kwenhlangano ye- Inkatha, ukuhlasela abantu emalokishini, kanti lokhu nakho kwavuthela kakhulu nokubhebhethekisa udlame ne-ANC.[182] UMandela wacela ukubamba umhlangano noBotha, kodwa uBotha wenqaba, kunalokho uMandela wahlangana ekhusini noNgqongqoshe owayebhekene nezamaphoyisa ezweni u-Kobie Coetsee ngo-1987, kanti futhi waphinda waba neminye imihlangano engu 11 eminyakeni elandelayo engu 3. UCoetsee, wahlela imihlangano yokuxoxisana noMandela, kanti futhi wahlangana nezinye izikhulu zikahulumeni ezine, kwimihlangano eyaqala ngoMeyi 1988, futhi leli qembu lavuma ukukhulula abanye ababoshwa bezepolitiki kanye nokuthi kumele kuvulwe umlomo inhlangano ye-ANC kodwa uma ingathembisa ukuhlukana nomzabalazo wezikhali kanye nokunqamula ubudlelwane nenhlangano yamakhomanisi, iCommunist Party, kanti futhi oMandela bangaqikeleli ukuthi kumele kube novoto olubandakanya wonke umuntu lokubusa kweningi ngenqubo ye-majority rule. UMandela wazenqaba zonke lezi zimo abombuso wobandlululo ababezibeka, washo nokuthi umzabalazo wezikhali, uyyokwa uma uhulumeni wobandlululo naye engayeka udlame kubantu.[183]

Ukuqeda konyaka wobu 70 kaMandela ngoJulayi ka 1988, kwahuha amehlo abantu bamazwe omhlaba kakhulu, okwaba nedumela kakhulu yinkhonsathi eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi-tribute concert eyabanjelwa eLandani eWembley Stadium eyafakelwa kumathelevishini amazwe omhlaba futhi yabukelwa ngabantu abalinganiselwa kuma 200 million kuwo wonke umhlaba.[184][5] Ngisho noma ayebonwa njengeqhawe elikhulu kumazwe omhlaba, kodwa wayenezinkinga emndenini wakhe, ngoba abaholi be-ANC, bamazisa ukuhti umkakhe uWinnie, usezihlome njengomholi wegenge yezigelekeqe zezigebengu ezazizibiza ngokuthi yi- "Mandela United Football Club", kanti le genge yayihamba ihlasela abantu nokubabulala lapho khona okwakubandakanya noubulawa kwezingane  – eSoweto. Abanye abantu bameluleka ukuthi adivose nomkakhe, kodwa yena waqoka ukuhlala nomkakhe kanye nokwethembeka kuye, umkakhe waquliswa icala maqondana nezenzo zale genge watholakala enecala.[186]

Ejele lase-Victor Verster kanye nokukhululwa: 1988–90[hlela | edit source]

U-"Nelson Mandela – umlweli wenkululeko eNingizimu Afrika "South Africa" njengoba kubhalwe ngesi-Russian kulesi sitembu sesikhumbuzo sango 1988 eSoviet  sangesikhathi sika-Gorbachev

Ngemuva kokuba ephole kwisifo sofuba (tuberculosis) esasibangelwe yisimo esibi somsokama ayekuso kwiseli lakhe,[187] ngoDisemba ka-1988, uMandela wudluliselwa ejele lase-Victor Verster Prison eduzane nase-Paarl. Lapha wahlaliswa endlini yokunethezeka kanogada, lapho ayenompheki wobuchwephese emphekela, wasebenzisa isikhathi sakhe ukuqedelela isiqu sakhe se-LLB.[188] Kule ndawo, wayevunyelwe ukuba nezivakashi eziningi kanti futhi wenza nendlela yokuxhumana ngokungumshoshaphansi, nomholi we-ANC owayeseludingisweni u-Oliver Tambo. [189][6] Ngonyaka ka 1989, uBotha washaywa yi-stroke, kodwa waqhubeka nokuba ngumongameli wombuso, kodwa wayeka esikhundleni sokuba ngumholi we-National Party, isikhundla sakhe sathathwa ngu-F. W. de Klerk.[191] UBotha wamangaza uMandela ngokummema ukuzophuza itiye naye, lesi simemo uMandela wasibona njengesobugani.[192] Emavikini ayisithupha ngemuva kwalokho, isikhundla sokuba ngumongameli wombuso, sikaBotha, sathathwa ngu-de Klerk, lo mongameli omusha wayekholelwa ukuthiinqubo yobandlululo ayisasebenzeki, ngakho-ke iziboshwa eziningi zezepolitiki ze-ANC.[193] Ngemuva kokuba kobandakazi olukhulu lwaseJarimani olwaziwa ngokuthi yi-Berlin Wall ngoNovemba ka-1989, u de Klerk wabizwa umhlangano wekhabhinethi yakhe ukuzoxoxa ngokuvulwa komlomo kwenhlangano ye-ANC kanye nokukhulula uMandela. Ngisho noma abanye azakwabo babengavumelani naye bephikisana naye, ude Klerk wahlangano noMandela ngoDisemba ukuxoxa naye ngesimo, kanti obabili la madoda, abona lo mhlangano ungowobungani, ngaphambi kokuvula imilomo yazo zonke izinhlangano zezepolitiki ezazivalwe imilomo ngoFebruwari ka 1990, kanye nokumememezela ukukhululwa kukaMandela ngaphandle kokubeka imibandela.  .[194][7] Maduzane ngemuva kwalokho, kwavunyelwa ukuthi izithombe zikaMandela ziboniswe kwabezindaba, lokhu kwakungokokuqala nqa eminyakeni engu 20 lokhu kuvunyelwa eNingizimu Afrika.[196]

Lapho ephuma ejele lase-Victor Verster Prison ngomhla ka 11 Februwari, uMandela waphuma ebambe isandla sikaWinnie phambi kwezihlwele zabantu kanye nabezindaba, kanti lokhu kwasakazwa kuwo wonke amazwe omhlaba .[197][8] Washayelwa ngemoto waya eCape Town's City Hall lapho ayelindwe khona zihlwele zabantu, wanikeza inkulumo yakhe, yokuzinikela ukusebenzela uxolo nokubuyisana kwezinhlanga zabamhlophe, kodwa wakubeka wakucacisa uuthi umzabalazo wezikhali we-ANC awukapheli uzoqhubeka njengendlela yezenzo zokuvikela abantu kudlame lombuso wobandlululo ("a purely defensive action against the violence of apartheid.") Wathi unethemba lokuthi uhulumeni uzovuma ukubanga isimo sokuthi kungasabi bikho isidingo somzabalazo wezikhali ("there may no longer be the need for the armed struggle"), kunalokho, kube nokugxila ekuletheni uxolo nokuthula emiphakathini yeningi labantu abamnyama, kanye nokubanikeza ilungalo lokuvota kukhetho lukawonkewonke nolwezindawo.[199][9] Ezinsukwini ezilandelayo, wahlala emzini ka-Desmond Tutu, uMandela kanye nabangani bakhe kanye namashanhliziyo, abezindaba, wanikeza inkulumo lapho okulinganiselwa khona ukuthi kwakunabantu abangu 100 000 eJohannesburg, esitediyamu se-Soccer City.[201]

Ukuqedwa kwemithetho yobandlululo[hlela | edit source]

Ukuqala kwezingxoxo: 1990–91[hlela | edit source]

ELuthuli House eJohannesburg, okwaba yikomkhulu le-ANC ngo-1991

UMandela waqhubeka wavakashela amazwe eAfrika, lapho ahlangana khona nabasekeli, kanye nosopolitiki, eZambia, eZimbabwe, eNamibia, eLibya nase-Algeria, waqhubekela eSweden lapho ahlangana khona noTambo, waya naseLandani, lapho avela khona kwikhonsathi enkulukazi yenkululeko ye-Nelson Mandela: An International Tribute for a Free South Africa concert eyabanjelwa eWembley Stadium.[202] Wakhuthaza amazwe ukuthi aqhubeke nokunswinya umbuso wobandlululo, eFrance wemukelwa khona nguMongameli wakhona, uFrançois Mitterrand, eVatican City wamukelwa nguPope John Paul II, kanti eUnited Kingdom wahlangana noThatcher. E-United States, wahlangana noMongameli uGeorge H.W. Bush, wakhuluma kwizinkundla zakhona zombili ze-Congress wavakashela amadolobha ayisishagalombili, ikakhulukazi enedumela kubantu abamnyama baseMelika okungama- African-American.[203] Ezweni lase-Cuba wahlangana noMongameli uFidel Castro, okwakungumuntu owayesemhloniphe kakhulu nokumbuzana isikhathi eside, kanti bobabili babangabangani abakhulukazi.[204] Wahlangana  noMongameli u-R. Venkataraman waseNdiya, uMongameli u-Suharto wase-Indonesia, UNdunankulu u-Mahathir Mohamad eMalaysia, uNdunankulu uBob Hawke wase-Australia, wavakashela nezwe lasse-Japan; akazange esaya e-Soviet Union, izwekazi elalisekele i-ANC isikhathi eside.[205]

NgoMeyi ka 1990, uMandela wahola ithimba le-ANC lokuqala izingxoxo nethimba likahulumeni, lapho bahlangana khona namadosa angu 11 ama-Afrikaner. La madoda ohlangothi lombuso bamangazwa kakhulu ulwazi lukaMandela lomlando wama-Afrikaner, kanti izingxoxo zaholela kwimibhalo yengxoxo eyabizwa ngokuthi yi-Groot Schuur Minute, lapho uhulumeni avuma khona ukususa umthetho wesimo esibucayi i-state of emergency. Ngo-Agasti, uMandela ngokubona ukuthi kwakungalinganwa ngamandle, ibutho le-ANC lalingaqinile kakhulu, uMandela wamemezela ukuthi kumiswe umzabalazo wezikhali, kule ngxoxo ye-Pretoria Minute, kanti kulesi senzo sakhe, wagxekwa kakhulu yizindlamlilo zezomzabalazo wezikhali, abe-MK .[206] Wachitha isikhathi esiningi ezama ukuhlanganisa kanye nokwakha inhlangano ye-ANC, lapho akhuluma khona kwikhonferense eJohannesburg ngoDisemba, eyayihanjelwe zithunywa ezingu 1600, kanti iningi lazo labona ukuthi uMandela akasesona isidlamlilo njengalokho ababekulindele H.[207] Kwikhonferense kazwelonke yango 1991 yeANC, eThekwini, uMandela wakwamukela amaphutha e-ANC kanti futhi wamemezela nenhloso yakho yokwakha inhlangano eqinile nesebenza kahle ngokufanele. Kwikhonferense, wakhethwa njengoMongameli we-ANC, ukuthatha isikhundla sikaTambo, kanti futhi kwakhethwa nekomidi lesigungu esiphezulu esasinabantu bezinhlanga ezehlukene nabobulili obehlukene, emkhakheni kazwelonke.[208]

UMandela wanikezwa ihhovisi endlunkulu ye-ANC ebhilidini elalisanda kuthengwa eShell House, maphakathi neJohannesburg, kanti futhi wayohlala noWinnie endlini yakhe enkulu eSoweto.[209] Umendo wabo awuqhubekanga kahle ngoba wathola nolwazi lokuthi unkosikazi wakhe akathembekile uthandana noDali Mpofu, kodwa waqhubeka nokusekela umkakhe ecaleni ayebekwe lona lokuthumba kanye nokushaya ngokulimaza (kidnapping and assault). Wagqugquzela ukuthola imali yokukhokela abammeli bomkakhe ecaleni, wathola khona imali kwabenhlangano ye-International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa kanye nakumholi wase-Libya uMuammar Gaddafi, kodwa kwathi ngoJuni 1991, umkakhe watholakala enecala, kanti ngalokho wanikezwa isigwebo seminyaka eyisithupha elingisiwe kodwa yaphgungulwa leminyaka ukuba yiminyaka emibili kwi-aphili.  Kwathi ngomhlaka 13 Epreli 1992, wamemezela esidlangalaleni ukwehlukana kwakhe noWinnie. I-ANC nayo yathi uWinnie akehle esikhundleni sekomidi lesigungu esiphezulu ngokukhwabanisa imali ye-ANC; uMandela wasuka waphuma wayohlala kwisabhabhu yeJohannesburg ye-Houghton.[210] Imizamo kaMandela yokuletha izinguquko zokuthula yayisebucayini isikazwa wudlame olwalenzeka emalokishini phakathi kwabantu abamnyama olwalwaziwa kwabezindaba njengokuthi yi-"black-on-black" violence, particularly between ANC and Inkatha supporters in KwaZulu-Natal, in which thousands ikakhulukazi lolu dlame lolubonakala kakhulu phakathi kwabasekeli be-IFP kanye ne-ANC eKwaZulu-Natali, lapho khona okwafa khona izihlwele zabantu. UMandela wahlangana nomholi weNkathu uButhelezi, kodwa abantu be-ANC bavimbela ukuqhubeka kwalezi zingxoxo ngoba zazingasizi ukuletha uxolo, udlame lwalulokhu luphendlekile. UMandela wathi kukhona abengalo yesithathu abaphendla udlame, abaphendli babaziwa ngokuthi yi-"third force" laba baphendli babetholakala kwabophiko namasevisi ezobunhloli ngasohlangothini lukahulumeni wobandlululo, okwakuyibo ababephemba ukubulawa kweningi labantu abamnyama "slaughter of the people") kanti futhi uMandela wakubeka ngokusobala ukuthi uDe Klerk unesandla kudlame olwenzekayo  – waqala ngokuthi angasamethembi uDe Kleerk – ikakhulukazi ngemuva kobulawo lwabantu ngesihluku esikhulu kwi-Sebokeng massacre.[211] NgoSeptemba ka 1991, kwaba nekhonferense yokubanga ukuthula eyabanjelwa eJohannesburg, lapho khona uMandela, uButhelezi kanye no-de Klerk abasayhina khona isivumelwano soxolo sokuqeda udlame, ngisho noma udlame lwaqhubeka ngemuva kwalesi sivumelwano.[212]

Izingxoxo ze-CODESA: 1991–92[hlela | edit source]

Ingqungquthela enkulukazi yezingxoxo eyabizwa ngokuthi yi-Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) yaqala ngoDisemba ka 1991, eJohannesburg endaweni ye-World Trade Centre, yayihanjelwe zithunywa ezingu 228, ukuvela kumaqembu ezepolitiki angu 19. Ngisho noma u-Cyril Ramaphosa nguye owayehola ithimba le-ANC, uMandela nguye owangokhuza phambili, kanti futhi ngemuva kokuba uDe Klerk agxeka udlame lwe-ANC, uMandela wasukma ngemuva kukaDe Klerk watshela uDe Klerk ezikabhoqo ngokuthi ungumholi kahulumeni wegcunswana elincane lenkohlakalo elingenagunya nokwesekelwa yiningi labantu bezwe, ("head of an illegitimate, discredited minority regime"). Izingxoxo ezazishushuzelwa kakhulu yi-National Party kanye ne-ANC, azifezanga lutho olutheni olubambekayo.[213] Kwabuye kwabanywa enye iCODESA 2 ngoMeyi ka-1992, lapho khona uDe Klerk wayecindezela ukuthi izwe leNingizimu Afrika ngemuva kobandlululo, kumele libe yizwe elikrayiwe nokwehlukaniswa, ngenqubo eyeziwa ngokuthi yi-federal system lapho khona okuyoba nabengameli abayoshintshashintshana ngesikhundla ukuvikela abezinhlanga ezinezibalo ezincane (ethnic minorities); uMandela lokhu wakukhahlela ngazo zombili, wathi izwe ngekalakraywa ngokobuhlanga, liyizwe elilodwa ngaphansi kwenqubo ye-unitary system eliyobuswa yiningi lapho khona wonke umuntu ovotayo.[10] Ngemuva kobulawo lwabantu abaningi kwi-Boipatong massacre kubulawa abantu baselokishini nabasekeli be-ANC bebulawa ngamabutho eNkatha ayesekelwe ngamasosha namaphoyisa ombuso wobandlululo, uMandela wamisa izingxoxo, ngaphambi kokuthi ahambele umhlangano wamazwe ase-Afrika i-Organisation of African Unity eSenegal, lapho khona amemezela ukuthi abe-UN Security Council babenesesheni yesipesheli, lapho aphakamisa khona ukuthi kube nebutho lamazwe omhlaba lokugcina uxolo elaziwa ngokuthi yi-UN peacekeeping force okwakumele liphakwe eNingizimu Afrika, ukuvimbela udlame lombuso lwe-"state terrorism". A-UN bathumela inxusa labo u-Cyrus Vance ukuza ezweni ukuzolekelela izingxoxo.[215] I-ANC yamemezela imikhankaso kawonkewonke ezweni, kanti ngo-Agast, i-ANC yagqugquzelela isiteleka sikawonkewonke eNingizimu Afrika, kanti abasekeli be-ANC bamasha baya ePitori.[11]

U-De Klerk noMandela bexhawulana e-World Economic Forum, ngo-1992

Ngemuva kokubulawa kweningi labantu kwi-Bisho massacre, lapho khona okwabulawa abantu abasekeli be-ANC abangu 28 ANC kanye nesosha elilodwa, bebulawa ngokudutshulwa amasosha e-Ciskei Defence Force ngesikhathi sokumasha, uMandela wabona ukuthi imikhankaso kawonkewonke ibangela kudlame oluningi, wabuya waqhuba izingxoxo ngoSeptemba. Wavuma ukuqhuba izingxoxo ngaphansi kwesimo sokuthi zonke iziboshwa zezepolitiki zikhululwe, nokuthi amabutho amazulu ephucwe izikhali zawo ayehlasela ngazo abantu, kanye nokuthi kufanekelwe imifensi emide emahhositela amaZulu, ukuvimbela ukuthi abantu beNkatha bangahlaseli abantu emalokishini; lokhu kwabangela ingcindezi kuDe Klerk, kanti uDe Klerk waphoqeleka ukukuvuma lokhu noma wayengafuni.[12] Izingxoxo zavumelana ngokuthi kumele kubanjwe ukhetho lukawonkewonke, ukuphetha ngokuthi kube nohulumeni weminyaka emihlanu, uhulumeni owaziwa ngokuthi uhulumeni we-coalition government of national unity kanye nenkundla yomthethosisekelo kazwelonke, lokhu kwenza ukuthi i-National Party iqhubeke ukuba nomthelela kwezepoliltiki. I-ANC yavuma ukuvikela imisebenzi yabasebenzi bakahulumeni abamhlophe, kanti futhi lokhu kwasolwa kakhulu ngabantu ngaphakathi.[218][12] UMandela noDe Klerk bavumelana ngomthethosisekelo wesikhashana (an interim constitution) owawulandela inqubo eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-liberal democratic model, eguyaza ukwehlukana kwemikhakha kahulumeni, ukubanga ukuthi kube nenkundla yomthethosisekelo, kanti futhi kumthethosisekelo kwafakelwa nomthetho-mkhulu wamalungelo owaziwa ngokuthi yi-bill of rights efana neyase-US; kanti futhi izwe lehlukaniswa ngezifundazwe noma amaprovinsi ayisishagalolunye, kanti iprovinsi neprovinsi ibe no-premier noma undunankulu wayo kanye nabasebenzi bophiko lukahulumeni kwiprovinsi ngayinye, lokhu kwakusho ukuhambisana nesifiso sikaDe Kleri kanye noMandela sokuthi kube nenqubo ye-federalism kodwa kube kuyizwe elilodwa nohulumeni oyedwa wobumbano lesizwe.[219][13]

Ngokukhthazeka ukuthi inqubo yedimokhrasi yayisikazeka isikazwa wudlame lontamolukhuni leqembu elalizibiza ngokuthi yi-Concerned South Africans Group (COSAG), okwakuyi-alayense noma umbimbi lwamaqembu ontamolukhuni bma-Afrikaner, kanye namaqembu aye funa ukukraya izwe libe zizwana eziseceleni ezingeyona ingxenye yezwelonke nesizwe sonkana, amaqembu afana neNkatha, ngoJuni 1993, iqembu lontamolukhuni le-Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) lahlasela abantu ezingxoxweni ezazibanjelwa e-Kempton Park World Trade Centre.[221] Ngemuva kokubulawa komholi we-ANC u-Chris Hani, uMandela wenza isimemezelo ngenkulumo kazwelonke, encenga abantu ukuthi behlise imimoya bangenzi uvukelo, ngemuva kwalokho wavela emngcwabeni kaTambo eSoweto, uTambo wabulawa yi-stroke.[14] NgoJulayi 1993, uMandela noDe Klerk bavakashela e-US kodwa bengahambisani ndawonye, bahlangano noMongameli wakhona wangaleso sikkhathi u-Bill Clinton kanti bobabili banikezwa indondo ye-Liberty Medal.[15] Ngemuva kwalokho, uMandela noDe Klerk bayonikezwa indondo yomhlaba  yoxolo bobabili, indondo ebizwa ngokuthi i-Nobel Peace Prize ezweni laseNorway.[224] Ngokututuzelwa nguThabo Mbeki, uMandela waqala ukuhlangana nosomabhizinisi abakhulu, kanti futhi washayela phansi ngenqubo yokuthathwa kwempahla yesizwe ibe ngaphansi kombuso, inqubo ebizwa ngokuthi yi-nationalisation, ngokwesabela ukuthi izokwesabisa abotshalomali bamazwe angaphandle. Ngisho noma le nqubo yakhe yakamuva yasolwa yilabo abangasohlangothini lobusoshalizimi be-ANC, waqala ukukhuthaza inqubo yokuthengiswa kwempahla yombuso ukuthi ibe sezandleni zosomabhizinisi, inqubo eyezwa ngelokuthi i-privatisation nomai- private enterprise kanti lokhu wakwenza ngokukhuthazwa amaqembu obukhomanisi aseShayina ne-Vietnam, la maqembu ahlangana nawo engqungqutheleni yamazwe omhlaba ngoJanuwari ka 1992, ingqungquthela ye-World Economic Forum eSwitzerland.[16] Kanti futhi uMandela wabuye wavela nakwifilimu eyayenziwa ngenkokheli noma umholi wabamnyama yaseMelika, wavela eklasini njengothisha, enza inkondlo yaleyo nkokheli kwisiqephu sokugcina, inkokheli engu-Malcolm X kwisiqephu sokugcina sefilimu sango 1992 esasenziwa ngayo le nkhokheli yaseMellika u- Malcolm X.[17]

Ukhetho lukawonkewonke lezwe ngo: 1994[hlela | edit source]

UMandela lapho evota kukhetho lwango-1994

Njengoba ukhetho lwase luhlelelwe umhla ka 27 Epreli ngo-1994, i-ANC yaqala ukukhankasela lolu khetho, yavula amahovisi ezokhetho angu 100, kanye nokusungula inqubo yokubhonisana nabantu eyayibizwa ngokuthi ama-People's Forums kulo lonke izwe, lapho khona uMandela wayehamba ekhuluma khona, kanti futhi engumholi owaziwayo nohlonishwa kakhulu yibo bonke abantu eNingizimu Afrika.[227] I-ANC yakhankasa ngaphansi kohlelo lwemvuselelo nentuthuko olwabizwa nge-Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) ukwakha izindlu eziyisigidi noma imiliyoni eminyakeni emihlanu, ukuqala inqubo yemfundo yabo bonke abantu, kanye nokutholakala kwamanzi nogesi. Isiqubulo noma isilogeni sayo sasithi, impilo engcono kubo bonke abantu  ("a better life for all"), noma kwakungacacile kahle ukuthi le ntuthuko izozithola kuphi izimali.[228] Ngaphandle kwephephandaba le-Weekly Mail ne-New Nation, Abaningi bemigude yezindaba, babephikisana nokhetho lukaMandela, ngoba besabela ukuthi kuzoba nokuvukelana kwesizwe, kunalokho, abezindaba babesekela uukhethwa kwe-National Party noma i-Democratic Party.[229] UMandela wachitha isikhathi esiningi egqugquzelela i-ANC ukuthola imali, wahambela amazwe enyakatho neMelika, eYuropha, kanya namazwe ase-Asia, ukuhlangabe nezicebi zakhona, ezibandakanya labo ababesekela umbuso wobandlululo.[230] Kanti futhi wabuye wakhankasela nokuthi izingane ezineminyaka engu 14 zivunyelwe ukuvota okusho ukuthi iminyaka yokuvota yehliswe ku-18 iye ku-14; kanti lokhu kwakhahlelwa yi-ANC, ingavumelani nalo mgomo futhi lokhu bakwenza inhlekisa ngaye.[231]

Ngokukhathazeka ukuthi i-COSAG yayizophazamisa ukhetho nokulucikela phansi, ikakhulukazi ngenxa yezinxushunxushu ezenzeka e-Bophuthatswana kanye nekomkhulu le-ANC i-Shell House Massacre – lapho okwenzeka khona izehlakalo zodlame, olwalubandakanya i-AWB neNkatha ngokunjalo, uMandela wahlangana nosopolitiki bama-Afrikaner, namajenerali, abandakanya o-P. W. Botha, uPik Botha kanye nooConstand Viljoen, ukuze abancenge ukusekela kanye nokusebenza ngaphansi kwenqubo yedimokhrasi, kanti futhi enoDe Klerk bahlangana noButhelezi neNkathi yakhe, ukumncenga ukuthi angenele ukhetho, kunokuthi aqale impi yokukraya izwe iziqeshana ngezinhlanga.[232] Njengabaholi bamaqembu amabili amakhulu, uDe Klerk noMandela, bavele kuthelevishini benengxoxo-mpikiswano, ngisho noma uDe Klerk wabonakala ekhuluma kangcono kuleyo ngxoxo, uMandela welula isandla waxhawula uDe Klerk, okwamumangaza, lokhu okwenza ukuthi abantu baphawule ngokuthi uMandela wuye ongqobile kwingxoxo-mpikiswano.[233] Ukhetho lwaqhubeka noma kwabakhona okusadlame okwathanda ukuphazamisa ngoba i-AWB  yatshala ibhomu elabulala abantu abangu 20 ibhomu elatshalwa ngemoto. Njengoba kwakulindelekile, i-ANC yawina ukhetho ngama 63% wamavoti, okusho ukuthi yacishe yathola iningi eliyinxenye yokubili-kokuthathu (two-thirds majority) ukuze ikwazi ukushintsha umthethosisekelo yodwa. Kanti i-ANC yawina kumaprovinsi ayisikhombisa, lapho khona iNkatha ne-National Party abathatha khona amaprovinsi amabili, okuyiKwaZulu-Natali kanye neNtshona-Kapa.[234][18] UMandela wavotela esikoleni sOhlange High School eDurban, kodwa ngisho noma ukuwina kwe-ANC kwaqinisekisa ukuthi uMandela abe nguMongameli, wakwemukela ukuthi ukhetho luye lwaphazanyiswa yinkwabaniso eyenzeka kwezinye izindawo kanye nokucikelwa phansi okwenzeka ngesikhkathi sokhetho.[236][19]

UbuNgameli bakhe eNingizimu Afrika: 1994–99[hlela | edit source]

Inkundla entsha yesiShayamthetho yokuqala, umsebgenzi wayo wokuqala kwaba ukukhetha uMandela njengoMongameli wezwe wokuqala omnyama kwinqubo yedimokhrasi. Ekugcotshweni kwakhe ePitori ngomhla ka 10 Meyi ngo 1994, ukugcotshwa kwakhe kwabukelwa yizihlwele-hlwele zabantu kuwo wonke umhlaba kumathelevishini. Ukugcotshwa kwakhe, kwahanjelwa yizivakashi zabantu abangu 4000, okwakubalwa kubo abaholi bamazwe omhlaba, abehlukene.[238] UMandela waba ngumholi wohulumeni wobumbano lesizwe i-Government of National Unity kanti kulohulumeni, iningi lamalunga kwakungaka-ANC – kanti futhi kwakuyiyo yodwa eyayingenaso isipiliyoni sokubusa – kulo hulumeni kwakukhona iqembu le-National Party kanye neNkatha. Ngaphansi koMthethosisekelo wesikhashana, iNkatha ne-NP zathola izihlalo kuhulumeni, ngoba zaziwine izihlalo ezingu 20. Ngokuhambisana nezivumelwano, uDe Klerk waba ngusekelamongameli wokuqala noma i-Deputy President, kwathi uThabo Mbeki wakethwa ukuba ngumongameli wesibili.[239][20] Ngisho noma uThabo Mbeki kwakungeyena umuntu ayezikhethel yena, uMandela wancika kuye kakhulu maqondana nemigomo kanye nemininingwane yemigomo.[241] UMandela wangena ehhovisi lobungameli e-Tuynhuys eCape Town, uMandela wavumela ukuthi uDe Klerk aqhubeke nokuhlala endlini yobungameli e-Groote Schuur estate, yena wayohlala eduzane e-Westbrooke manor, ayibiza ngokuthi yi-"Genadendal", okusho indawo noma isigodi somusa ("Valley of Mercy") ngolimi lwe-Afrikaans.[242] Wagcina umuzi wakhe e-Houghton, kanti futhi wayokwakha umuzi eQunu, lapho ayehlala njalo evakashela khona, ehamba-hamba endaweni yakubo, ukuhlangana nabantu bendawo, kanye nokusiza ekuxazululeni izingxabano.[243]

UMandela wamuvela ehhovisi lobungameli e-Tuynhuys, eCape Town.

Lapho eqeda unyaka ka 76, waqala ukuhlushwa yizifo zobudala,ngisho noma waqhubeka nokuba nomdlandla womsebenzi, wazizwa enomzwangedwa.[244] Wayehlala evakashelwa ngosaziwayo abafana no-Michael Jackson, uWhoopi Goldberg, kanye namantombazane eqembu le-Spice Girls, kanti futhi wabanobungani no-Harry Oppenheimer we-Anglo-American, kanye nonkosikazi wamanghisi u-Queen Elizabeth II oowavakasha ngoMashi 1995 kuvakasho lwe-state visit eNingizimu Afrika, lokhu kwenza ukuthi agxekwe kakhulu ngabe-ANC ababengahambisani nenqubo yobukhapitali.[245] Ngisho noma wayezunguzwe yizinto eziningi zobucebi, yena wayeziphilela impilo elula engeyona eyobucebi, kanti futhi ingxenye yomholo wakhe elinganiselwa ku-R552,000 wayeyinikela kwisikhwama sezingane se-Nelson Mandela Children's Fund, asisungula ngo-1995.[246] Ngisho noma aqeda inqubo yokunswinya abezindaba inqubo ye-press censorship, kanti futhi wayefuna abezindaba bakhululeke ekubikeni ezezindaba ngenqubo eyeziwa nge-freedom of the press, kanti futhi waba nobungani nababhali bezindaba amajenalisti, kodwa uMandela wayegxeka udaba lokuthi izizinda eziningi zabezindaba, ubunikazi bazo busesezandleni zabamhlophe abacebile, kanti wayekholelwa ukuthi lezi zizinda zezindaba zihlala njalo zigxila ekubikeni ngobugebengu kuphela ngendlela eyethusa abantu.[247] Wayehlala njalo eshintsha izimpahla ezigqokayo, ngemuva kokuba ebengumongameli, kanti enye yezinto ayethanda ukuzigqoka ngamayembe alula nalengayo abizwa ngokuthi ama-Batik shirts, agcina ngokwaziwa ngokuthi ama-"Madiba shirts", lokhu wayekugqoka ngisho eya nasemicimbini yosiko neyangokomthetho.[248][21]

NgoDisemba ka 1994, uMandela washicilela incwadi yomlando wakhe, esihloko sithi, indlela ende eya enkululekweni (Long Walk to Freedom,) okuyi-autobiography yemibhalo ayibhala esesejele, kodwa yafakelwa imibono emisha yezingxoxo azenza nombhali owaziwayo wejenalisti yaseMelika u-Richard Stengel.[250] Kamuva kwikhonferense yama 49 ye-ANC, eyabanjelwa e-Bloemfontein, kanti kule khonferense kwakhethwa ikomidi lesigungu likazwelonke lezidlamlilo, phakathi kwalabo abakhethwa kwakunoWinnie Mandela. Kodwa ngisho noma uWinnie abonisa umoya wokuthi ufuna babuyelane noMandela, uMandela waqhubeka nedivosi yabo ngo-Agast 1995.[251] Ngo 1995, uMandela wayesenobudlelwane no-Graça Machel, unkosikazi wase-Mozambican owayekwezepolitiki futhi emncane kuye ngeminyaka engu 27, owayengumfelwa wawolo owayengumongameli waseMozambique u-Samora Machel. Babeqale bahlangana ngo 1990, lapho unkosikazi kaMachel wasesililweni sokubulawela umyeni, kanti ubudlelwane babo baqhubeka njengabalingani, kanti futhi uGraca wayevame ukumphelekezela kuhambo lwakhe oluningi lapho ehambele amanye amazwe. Okokuqala lapho emcela umshado, uGraca akafunanga ukushada naye ngoba wayefuna ukuhlala engumuntu ozimele, kanti lokhu kwakusho ukuthi uMandela kufuneka ahlukanise isikhathi sakhe phakathi kokuvakasha eMozambique kanye nokuba se-Johannesburg.[252]

Umoya wokubuyisana kweSizwe[hlela | edit source]

Ngoba uMandela wayesingathe izwe elalisaguquka ukusuka kwinqubo yombuso wedlanzana labamhlophe ukuba ngumbuso wenqubu yeningi yedimokhrasi, uMandela wabona ukuthi ukubuyisana kwesizwe kwakuwumsebenzi wakhe obalulekile emsebenzini wakhe wobungagmeli.[254] Ngoba wayebonile ukuthi amanye amazwe e-Afrika uma ephuma kwinqubo yobukokloni, kwakuba nokulimala kwezomnotho kakhulu ngesikhathi abahlophe befuduka bebalekela imibuso emisha yabamnyama, uMandela wayefuna ukuqinisekisa abamhlophe eNingizimu Afrika ukuthi nabo bavikelwe kanye nokumelwa ngaphansi kwenqubo yeningi ebandakanya zonke izinhlanga eyayethiwe ngabanye njenge-"the Rainbow Nation".[255] Ngisho noma uhulumeni wakhe wobumbano wawuneningi labantu be-ANC,[256] wazama ukwakha ubumbano ngokuqoka uDe Klerk njengoSekela Mongameli wokuqala, kanye nokuqoka izikhulu ze-National Party ukuthi zibe ngoNgqongqoshe kwezolimo, Eze-Eneji, Ezesimo semvelo, ezaMaminerali ne-Eneji, kanye nokuqoka uButhelezi ukuthi abe nguNgqongqoshe weZangaphakathi (Minister for Home Affairs).[257] Ezinye izikhundla kwikhabhinethi zanikezwa amalunga e-ANC  – abanjengo-Joe Modise, uAlfred Nzo, uJoe Slovo, uMac Maharaj kanye noDullah Omar – okwakukudala bengamaqabane, kodwa wabuye wafakela nabanye abasha abanjengo-Tito Mboweni kanye noJeff Radebe, laba kwakungabantu abaseyintsha yangaleso sikhathi.[230] Ubudlelwane bukaMandela noDe Klerk babunengcindezi, ngoba uMandela wayecabanga ukuthi kukhona izinto uDe Klerk azenza ngamabomu zokucikela phansi umoya wokubuyisana, kanti noDe Klerk naye wayebona ukuthi uMandela umcikela phansi..[258] NgoJanuwari 1995, uMandela wagxeka kakhulu uDe Klerk ngokuthi anikeze amaphoyisa angu 3 500 ushwele ngaphambi koketho, kanti futhi kamuva wamgxeka ngokuthi avikele lowo owayenguNgqongqoshe wezamasosha, u-Magnus Malan ngesikhathi lona owayengungqongqoshe wamasosha ebekwa icala lokubulala.[258]

UMandela ngokwakhe qobo wavakashela izikhulu zombuso wobandlululo, ezibandakanya umfelokazi ka-Hendrik Verwoerd uBetsie Schoombie kanye nommelil owamshushisa ngokuboshwa kwakhe uPercy Yutar, akanye nokuyobeka izimbali ethuneni leqhawe lama-Afrikaner u-Daniel Theron.[259] Wayegcizelela kakhulu ukuxolelana nokubuyisana, nokumemezela ukuthi "abantu abanezibindi abesabi ukuxolela abanye abantu nokubuyisana nabo, ukuze kube noxolo ("courageous people do not fear forgiving, for the sake of peace)."[260] Wakhuthaza abantu abamnyama ukuthi basekele iqembu likazwelonke lomdlalo we-rugby elalingathandwa ekuqaleni, iqembu le-Springboks, ngesikhathi iNingizimu Afrika, kuyiyo eyayingamele indebe yomhlaba yalo mhlalo we-1995 Rugby World Cup. Ngemuva kokuba ama-Springboks kuma-final ewine indebe ngokushaya iqemu lezwe lase-New Zealand, UMandela nguwe owethula indebe, kukaputeni, u-Francois Pienaar, ongumu-Afrikaner, egqoke ijezi lama-Springbok lenombolo yakhe u-Pienaar unombolo 6 ngemuva ejezini. Lokhu kwamufakela idumela nakakhulu, njengoba kwakubona njengomoya wokubuyisana phakathi kwabamhlophe nabamnyama baseNingizimu Afrika, njengoba uDe Klerk asho kamuva ukuthi "uMandela unqobe izinhliziyo zezigidi-gidi zababukelli abamhlophe bomdlalo we-rugby."[261][22] Imizamo kaMandela yokubuyisana yenza ukuthi iningi labantu abamhlophe bangasabi navalo, kanti futhi lokhu kwasolwa kakhulu abantu abamnyama bamashanhliziyo.[263]  Phakathi kwalabo ababemsola, kwakungunkosikazi wakhe uWinnie, owathi i-ANC isha amagqangqu kakhulu ngokubonelela izidingo zabamhlophe, kunokusiza iningi labantu abamnyama abasenhluphekweni.[264]

UMandela wasingatha ukusungulwa kwekhomishana yamaqiniso nokubuyisana i-Truth and Reconciliation Commission ukuze iphenyisise ngezenzo zubugebengu ngaphansi kombuso wobandlululo, ezenziwa ngumbuso wobandlululo kwabamnyama kanye nezenzo ze-ANC, kanti futhi waqoka uDesmond Tutu ukuthi abe ngusihlalo wale khomishina. Ukuze abanamacala bangesabi, iKhomishana yabeka ukuthi izonikeza ushwele ngobugebengu ngesikhathi sobandlululo kulabo abadalula amaqiniso bakhiphe ubufakazi bezenzo zabo ngesikhathi sombuso wobandlululo. Ukusukela ngoFebruwari 1996, ikhomishana yabamba izinkundla zokulalela iminyaka emibili, lapho khona okwalalelwa khona ubufakazi bobugebengu bokudlwengula, ukuhlukumeza ngokomzimba nengqondo, ukutshala amabhomu, kanye nokubulawa kwabantu ngomshoshaphansi, lokhu eyakwenza ngaphambi kokunikeza umbiko wayo wokugcina ngo 1998.UDe Klerk kanye noButhelezi benza isicelo enkantolol ukuthi ubufakazi obuqondene nabo kokuthile embikweni wekhomishana bucindezelwe bungavezwa, kanti futhi lesi sicelo savunyelwa yinkantolo.[265] UMandela wancoma umsebenzi weKhomishana, wabeka nokuthi, ikhomishana "isize ukuthi siqhele kwinqubo yesikhathi esedlule, ukuze sikwazi ukubhekana nesikhathi samanje kanye nekusasa" .[266]

Izinhlelo zangaphakathi zezwe[hlela | edit source]

Izindlu eSoweto ezakhiwa ngaphansi kohlelo lwe-RDP

Umbuso kaMandela wathola izwe elalinegebe elikhulu lokungalingani nokwehlukana, kanti futhi izinga lomcebo labamhlophe liphezulu, kuthi abamnyama babesezingeni eliphansi kakhulu futhi namasevisi engaphakelwa ngokulinganayo phakathi kwemiphakathi yabamhlophe nabamnyama.Kwinani labantu abangama 40miliyoni, abantu abangu 23miliyoni bebengenawo ugesi, izindlu zangasese, abantu abangu 12 miliyoni bebengenawo amanzi ahlanzekile, kuthi izingane ezingu 2miliyoni bezingekho esikoleni zingafundi, kanti inani labantu abalinganiselwa kwingxenye yokubili-kokuthathu, bebengakwazi ukubhala. Kwakunenani labantu abangamaphesenge angu 33% abaswele imisebenzi, cishe uhafo wesizwe bekungabantu abaphila ngaphansi komkhawulo ofanele wendlala nokuhlupheka.[267] Umthombo wezimali kahulumeni kwakucishe kungenalutho kuwo, kanti ingxenye yokukodwa-kokuhlanu kwebhajethi kahulumeni yayisetshenziselwa ukhokha izikweledu zikahulumeni, okusho ukuthi kwakufanele kuphungulwe kakhulu inani elalizosetshenziselwa uhlelo lwemvuselelo nentuthuko i-Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) uhulumeni ayeluthembisile, kanti futhi kungenzeki ukuthi uhulumeni impahla ayifake ngaphansi kophiko lwakhe ngenqubo ye-nationalisation, nemisebenzi ingadaleki.[268] Ngo-1996, uhlelo we-RDP lwasusa esikhundleni salo kwafakelwa umgomo we-Growth, Employment and Redistribution (Gear), owawuqinisekisa ukuthi eNingizimu Afrika kunenqubo yomnotho ohlangene ngenqubo eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi-economic growth ngokusebenzisa uhlaka lomnotho wezimakethe olwaziwa ngokuthi yi-market economics kanye nokukhuthaza abatshali-zimali bangaphandle ukuthi batshale izimali ezweni; kanti abaningi kwi-ANC babona ukuthi le nqubo, yomgomo ongafuneki we-neo-liberal umgomo ongayiqendi inqubo yokungalingani ngokwenhlalisano, kodwa uMandela wawuvikela lo mgomo wezimakethe.[269] Ngokusebenzisa lo mgomo we-neo liberal, uhulumeni kaMandela kwakusho ukuthi unamathela kulokho okwazi ngelokuthi yi-"Washington consensus" okwakuyinqubo ekhuthazwa nokuvuthelwa ngabezinhlangano ze-World Bank kanye ne-International Monetary Fund.[270]

Ngaphansi koboNgameli bukaMandela, kwanyusa inani lezenhlalakahle ukusukela ku 7% ngo-1997/1998 ukuya ku 13% ku-1998/1999.[271] Uhulumeni wenza isilinganiso kumagranti emixhaso yemiphakathi, okubandakanya amagranti okukhubazeka, amagranti ezondlo zezingane, kanye nezimpesheni zabadala, kanti ngesikhathi esedlule, le mixhaso yayinikwa ngokwehlukana kwezinhlanga zabamnyama nabamhlophe eNingizimu Afrika.[271] Ngo 1994, kwasungulwa uhlelo lonakekelo lwezempilo lwamahhala ezinganeni ezingaphansi kweminyaka eyisithupha, kanye nabesimame abakhulelwe, kanti lokhu kwahlinzekwa kubo bonke abasebenzisa uhlelo lwezimpilo lukahulumeni ezibhedlela nasemaklliniki kahulumeni lokhu kwenziwa ngonyaka ka 1996.[272][23] Ngonyaka ka 1999, i-ANC yase ikwazi ukuziqhenya ngokuthi ngenxa yemigomo yabo, abantu abangama 3 miliyoni base benezingcino zolayini bothelefoni, kanti izingane ezingu 1.5miliyoni zona zafakelwa ezikoleni, kwakhiwa kanye nokuthuthukisa amakliniki angu 500, abantu abantu 2miliyoni bafakelwa ugesi, abantu abangama 3 miliyoni bahlinzekwa ngamanzi ahlanzekile, kwakhiwa nezindlu ezingu 750 000, ezizihlinzeka abantu abangama 3miliyoni ngenani .[274]

UMandela ngesikhathi evakashele eBrazil ngonyaka ka 1998

Umthetho wokubuyiswa komhlaba wango 1994, ongu-The Land Restitution Act of 1994 wenza ukuthi abantu abalahlekelwa yimpahla yabo ngenxa yomthetho wobandlululo ngomhlaba, owaphuca abantua bamnyama imihlaba yabo, umthetho ka 1913 we- Natives Land Act, 1913 ukuze bakwazi ukukleyimi ukubuyiselwa imihlaba yabo, wenza ukuthi kubuyisa imihlaba yamakleyimi emihlaba.[24] Umthetho wokuhlela kabusha ezimihlaba ka 1996, we-The Land Reform Act 3 ka 1996 wavikela amalungelo abasebenzi abahlala futhi besebenza emapulazini nabatshala khoma emapulazini kanye nokufuya imfuyo yabo emapulazini. Lo mthetho, waqinisekisa ukuthi labo bahlali basemapulazini bangachithwa emapulazini ngaphandle kokuba kunomyalelo wenkantolo noma uma bengaphezu kweminyaka engu 65.[25] Umthetho wokuthuthukiswa kwamakhono wango 1993, we-Skills Development Act of 1998 wahlinzeka ngokuqalwa kwezinqubo zokuthola izimali kanye nokuqhubela phambili ukuthuthukiswa kwamakhono ezindaweni zemisebenzi.[26] Ngokwamukela ukuthi imboni yomkhiqizo wezikhali eNingizimu Afrika, ibaluleke kakhulu, umandela wavumela udaba lokuhwebelana ngezikhali, ngisho noma kwenziwa imithethe-nqubo eqinile maqondana ne- Armscor ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izakhali zaseNingizimu Afrika zingathengiselwa imibuso ecindezela izakhamuza zayo.[278] Ngaphansi kombuso kaMandela, kwakhuthaza umkhakha wezokuvakasha (tourism), lokhu okwenza ukuthi lo mkhakkha ube ngobaluleke kakhulu kumnotho weNingizimu Afrika.[279]

Abanye abasolayo, njengo-Edwin Cameron wasola umbuso kaMandela ukuthi awusebenzi ngomdlandla ukulwa nobhubhane lwe-HIV/AIDS ezweni; cishe ngonyaka ka 1999, kwase kunenani lamaphesente angu 10% labantu baseNingizimu Afrika abase bengenwe yi- HIV. UMandela kamuva wavuma ukuthi akazange alunake kakhulu udaba lobhubhane lwe-HIV/AIDS, lokhu kwenzeka ngenxa yokuthi abantu abakuthandi ukukhuluma ngodaba lwezocansi eNingizimu Afrika, kanti futhi washo nokuthi lolu daba wayeluyekele uMbeki ukuthi abhekane nalo.[280][27] UMandela wasolwa ngokuthi akasebenzanga ngomdlandla ukulwisana nobugebengu, nokuthi iNingizimu Afrika, inezinga eliphezulu kakhulu kunamanye amazwe lobugebengu[28], kanti futhi amagenge ezigelekeqe zezigebengu zamazwe omhlaba akhulu kakhulu ezweni, eminyakeni elishumi.[283] Umbuso kaMandela wasolwa kakhulu nangokuthi wayehluleka ukubhekana nenkinga yenkohlakalo kwezezimali (corruption).[284]

Ezinye izinkinga zabangwa ukuthi iningi labantu abamhlophe bamakhono, baphuma ngobuningi ezweni leNingizimu Afrika befudukela kwamanye amazwe, laba bamhlophe bathi babaleka ezweni ngoba bebalekela ubugebengu obabuya ngokudlanga, kanye nokubalekela ukukhokhela izinga eliphezulu lentela, kanye nomphumela wenqubo yokubonelela nokunikeza abamnyama amathuba emisebenzini ngenqubo abamhlophe ababeyibiza ngokuthi yi-positive discrimination enikeza abamnyama amathuba emmisebenzi. Lokhu kufuduka ngobuningi kwabamhlophe ezweni, kwabangela ukulahleka kwalabo abanamakhono okwaziwa ngokuthi yi-brain drain, kanti uMandela wayegxeka labo abamhlophe abafudukayo ezweni beya kwamanye amazwe.[285][29] Kanti ngakolunye uhlangothi, izwe leNingizimu Afrika laba neningi labantu abayizigidi-gidi ikakhulukazi abamnyama ababengena ezweni ngokushushumba ngelokwaziwa ngokuthi ama-illegal migrants laba bantu babebuya kumazwe ase-Afrika ahlupheke kakhulu, kanti futhi kwakunombono ongemuhle ngalaba bantu abangena ezweni, abanye babebasho ngamagama aziswana besho nokuthi balethe izifo ezweni kanye nobugebengu, uMandela wancenga abantu bezwe ukuthi bamukele laba bantu abangena ezweni "njengabafowethu nodadewethu".[287]

Ezangaphandle kwezwe[hlela | edit source]

UMandela wayenombono wokuthi ubudlelwane beNingizimu Afrika namazwe angaphandle bufanele buncike nokwenziwa ngaphansi kwesisekelo sokuthi lawo mazwe ahlonipha amalungelo abantu balawo mazwe ekuhlonipheni kwamalungelo abantu, kulawo mazwe".[288] Ngokulandela isibonelo seNingizimu Afrika, uMandela wakhuthaza ezinye izizwe ukuthi nazo ziqikelele ukuxazulula izinkinga ngezingxoxo nge-diplomacy kanye nomoya wokubuyisana.[289] NgoSeptemba ka 1998, uMandela waqokwa ukuba ngunobhala-jikelele (Secretary-General) wenhlangano yezizwe ezizimele nezingathathi nhlangothi eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi-Non-Aligned Movement, kanti yabamba ikhonferense yayo yonyaka eDurban. UMandela wasebenzisa leli thuba ukugxeka inkohlakalo nomoya wobuzwe bobudlova awubizwa ngokuthi yi-"narrow, chauvinistic interests" kahulumeni wezwe lase-Israel ngoba leli lizwe lacikela phansi inqubo yokubonisana namaPalestina, lokhu okuqhubela phambili izinxushunxushu nezingxabano kwi-Israeli-Palestinian conflict kanti futhi wanceka nezwe laseNdiya kanye nePakistan ukuthi zihlale phansi zibonisane ngenxabano yase-Kashmir (Kashmir conflict), kanti kulokhu kuncenga amazwe ukuthi abonisane ngezingxoxo kunokulwa, wagxekwa kakhulu yizwe lase-Israel kanye nelase-India.[290] Ngokufakelwa ugqozi ukukhula komnotho wamazwe aseMpumalanga Asia (East Asia), uMandela waqala ukwakha ubudlelwane namazwe ase-East Asia, ikakhulukazi i-Malaysia, kodwa lobu budlelwane naleli lizwe bahlakazeka ngenxa yokuqala kwezinkinga komnotho kula mazwe ngezehlakalo ezabizwa ngokuthi yi- 1997 Asian financial crisis.[30] Wazama ukubhekana nenkinga yamazwe aseShayina amabili, ngokwaziwa ngokuthi yi-'Two China Problem' ngokuthi azame ukuxhumana nawo omabili lamazwe, okuyi-the People's Republic of China (PRC), okanti leli lizwe lalibonisa ukukhula komnotho ngezinga eliphezulu kakhulu, kanye nezwe lase-Taiwan, okwakukudala lilokhu lihwebelana nokutshala izimali kumnotho weNingizimu Afrika. Kodwa lomzamo wakhe, wacasula izwe lase- PRC, kakhulu, kangangokuthi, ngoNovemba 1996 waphoqeleka ukunqamula ubuhlobo nezwe lase-Taiwan, kwathi ngoMeyi ka 1999, wavakashela ikomkhulu lezwe laseShayina i-Beijing.[292]

UMandela enoMongameli wase-US u-Bill Clinton. Ngisho noma wayemgxeka esidlangalaleni kwizikhashana eziningana, kodwa uMandela wayemthanda u-Clinton, kanti futhi wamsekela ngesikhathi iphalamende yakhona ifuna ukumgudlula esikhundleni sokuba nguMengameli wakhona ngenkambiso eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-impeachment proceedings.[293]

UMandela wagxekwa kakhulu ngokuba nobudlelwane obusondelene noMongameli wase-Indonesia uMongameli Suharto, ngoba umbuso kaSuharto wawucindezela kakhulu amalungelo abantu bezwe lakhe. Ngisho noma wavakashela izwe lase-Indonesia, uMandela wakhuthazana naye ngasese ukuthi aphume ngencindezelo nokuthatha izwe lase-East Timor, ngenkambiso eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-occupation of East Timor.[294] Kanti futhi uMandela wagxekwa kakhulu ngobudlelwane bombuso weNingizimu Afrika namazwe ase-Syria, i-Cuba kanye ne-Libya,[295] kanye nokuba nobudlelwane obukhulu bokusondelana nabantu abanjengo-Fidel Castro kanye no-Muammar Gaddafi. U-Castro wavakashela kuleli laseNingizimu Afrika ngo 1998, futhi uhambo lwakhe lwaba nedumela kakhulu, kanti uMandela wabuye wahlangana no-Gadaffi eLibya ukumnikeza indlondlo ye-Order of Good Hope.[296] Lapho amazwe eNtshonalanga aphesheya kanye nabezindaba, bemgxeka, uMandela wakukhahlela lokho kugxekwa kwakhe, nokusho ukuthi kusekelwe yimibono yobandlululo ngebala,[297] washo nokuthi izitha zamazwe aseNtshonalanga phesheya akuzona izitha zakhe ("the enemies of countries in the West are not our enemies.")[295] UMandela wayenethemba lokuthi angalekelela ukuxazulula inkinga nokungezwani okwakukhona phakathi kwamazwe ase-US neBrithani ne-Libya kanye nokwenza ukuthi abammangalelwa baseLibya bayoquliswa icala, amagama abo okwakungu-Abdelbaset al-Megrahi kanye no-Lamin Khalifah Fhimah, kanti laba bammangalelwa babebekwe izinsolongoNovemba ka 1991 zokuthi yibo ababangela ukuqhuma kwebhomu endizeni ye-Pan Am Flight 103. UMandela waphakamisa ukuthi laba bammangalelwa baseLibya kumele bayoquliswa icala kwelinye izwe elingaxhumene neLibya kanye ne-US neBrithani, kanti lokhu kwavunywa yibo bonke ababethinteka kulolu daba, futhi ecaleni lakho kwakuzosetshenziswa umthetho we- Scots law, kwasekuthi icala laqulelwa endaweni yase- at Camp Zeist e-Netherlands ngo-Epreli ka 1999, kanti futhi oyedwa kubammangalelwa watholwa enecala.[298][31]

UMandela wasekela isimemezelo sikaMbeki sokuvuselela i-Afrika ezaziwa ngelokuthi yi-"African Renaissance", kanti wayekhathazeka ngezinto ezenzeka kwizwekazi lekhontinente ye-Afrika.[300] Wazama ukwenza izingxoxo zokubuyisana nondlovukayiphikiswa wezempi eNigeria u-Sani Abacha military junta ukuthi aphume esikhundleni sokwengamela izwe, kodwa akangaphumelela kulo mzamo, yingakho ekugcineni wamemezela ukuthi umbuso ka-Abacha untswinywe ngenqubo eyaziwa ngokuthi ama-sanctions, lapho u-Abacha eqhubeke nokucikela phansi amalungelo abantu ezweni lakhe.[301] Ngonyaka ka 1996, waqokwa uuba nguSihlalo wezizwe eziseningizimu ne-Afrika, ezaziwa ngelokuthi yi-Southern African Development Community (SADC) kanti futhi wazama nokwenza izingxoxo zokubuyisana kwabantu baseCongo nomholi wakhona wangaleso sikhathi, lapho kuqala impi eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi-First Congo War eZaire.[302] Wazama nokuxazulula inkinga yempi yobuhlanga phakathi kwamaqembu ezepolitiki ama-Tutsi nama-Hutu kwempi yokuvukelana ngobuhlanga eBurundi eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Burundian Civil War, wasiza ukuqala izingxoxo zokubonisana, okwenza ukuthi isimo sakhona siye ngokuzinza kodwa noma singaqedanga uvukelwano lodlame.[303] Kwisenzo sokuqala sokusebenzisa amasosha aseNingizimu Afrika okwaziwa nge-South Africa's first post-apartheid military operation, ngoSeptemba ka 1998, kwathunyelwa amasosha eLesotho ukuyovikela umbuso kaNdunankulu wakhona u-Pakalitha Mosisili ngemuva kokuba kube nokhetho imiphumela yakhona okungavunyelwana ngayo, kanti lokhu kwabanga uvukelano lwesizwe. Isinqumo ngokwaso sokuthumela amasosha, asikhishwanga nguMandela uqobo, ngoba wayengaphandle kwezwe ngesikhathi kwenzeka lokho, kodwa isinqumo sakhishwa nguButhelezi, owayeyibambela likamongameli uMandela, ngesikhathi engekho.[304]

Ukuhoxa kwezepolitiki[hlela | edit source]

Kamuva ekungameleni kwakhe, uMandela wayesencike kakhulu kuSekela Mongameli uMbeki (osesithombeni)

UMthethosisekelo omusha weNingizimu Afrika (Constitution of South Africa) kwavunyelwana ngawo ephalamende ngoMeyi 1996, kanti wawubeka izikhungo eziningi ukuqikelela ukuthi kukhona izikhungo zezepolitiki nezokuphatha esisekelwe kwinqubo yedimokhrasi yomthethosisekelo.[305] UDe Klerk waphikisana nokusetshenziswa kwalo mthethosisekelo omsuha, kanti futhi yingakho yena neNational Party yakhe, baqoka ukuphuma kumbuso wobambiswano, ngoba bekhalazela lo mthethosisekelo omusha, kanti futhi uDe Klerk lona, wabika nokuthi abakuhulumeni abaku-ANC ababaphathi njengabalingani abalinganayo kumbuso.[306] I-ANC yathathela kuyo zonke izikhundla zekhabhinethi ezazibanjwe ngabe-National Party bengakaphumi, kanti uMbeki waba nguSekela Mongameli oyedwa.[307] Inkatha yona yasala iyingxenye yohulumeni wobambiswano,[308] kanti lapho uMandela noMbeki bengaphandle kwezwe, uButhelezi waqokwa ukuba yibamba likaMongameli, kanti lokhu kwenza ukuthi kube nobudlelwane obungcono phakathi kwakhe noMandela.[309] Ngisho noma uMandela ezikhathini eziningi, wayethatha izinyathelo ezibambekayo ekubuseni kwakho eminyakeni emibili yokuqala njengoMongameli,[310] ekugcineni wayesegunyaza uMbeki kwimisebenzi yakhe ekugcineni, ngemuva kwalokho, yena nje wayesebheka ezobunhloli kanye nezokuvikeleka.[311] Ngo 1997, kuhambo wakhe lokuvakashela eLondon, watshela abantu lapho ukuthi umbusi wansuku zonke eNingizimu Afrika, nguThabo Mbeki, mina sengidlulisela kuye okuningi."[310]

UMandela wabeka phansi izintambo zokuba nguMongameli we-ANC ngoDisemba 1997 kwikhonferense. Wayenethemba lokuthi Ramaphosa nguye ozothatha izintambo zobungameli ngemuva kwakhe, ngoba wayebona uMbeki enjengomuntu ongakwawzi uguquguquka ngokwesimo, kanti futhi wayembona engumuntu ongafuni neze ukuphikiswa, kodwa noma kunjaloi, i-ANC yakhetha uMbeki ukuba nguMongameli.[312] Lapho kuthathwa isikhundla sokuba nguMongameli kukaMandela, isigungu esiphezulu, sakela u-Jacob Zuma, ukuba yisekela likaMongameli, kanti uZuma ngumZulu owayekade eboshiwe esiqiwini sase-Robben Island ngeminyaka yangaphambilini ngaphambi kokuba aye ekudingisweni, kanti uWinnie wamnikeza inselele kulesi sikhundla, ngoba uWinnie wayesekelwa kakhulu enedumela, kodwa-uZuma nguye owathola isikhundla sokuba ngusekela mongameli kukhetho, kanti futhi uZuma wawina ngamavoti amaningi adlula akaWinnie kulolo khetho.[313]

Ubudlelwane bukaMandela noMachel baya ngokuqina; kangongokuthi nguFebruwari ka 1998, waze wathi, ngithandana nowesimame oyisimanga, kanti futhi kwathi lapho ecindezelwa ngumngani wakhe uDesmond Tutu, owamcindezela ukuthi kumele bashade noGraca ukuze babeyisibonelo esihle kubantu abasha, ngakho-ke walungiselela umshado, ukuthi uqondana nokuqeda kwakhe iminyaka engama 80 kwinyanga kaJulayi.[314] Ngakusasa kwakhona, wahlela idili nezikhulu zamazwe ehlukene angaphandle.[315] Ngisho noma umthethosisekelo wawuvumela umongameli ukusebenza esikhundleni amahlandla amabili eminyaka emihlanu kabili, uMandela wakhetha ukusishiya isikhundla sobungameli ngoba wayengazimisele ukuba ngumongameli kwisihlandla sesibili. Wanikeza inkulumo yakhe yokuvalelisa ePhalamende ngomhla ka 29 March 1999, lapho inkundla yephalamende izovala ukulungiselela ukhetho lukazwelonke lwango 1999, ngemuva kwalokho wathatha umhlalaphansi.[316] Ngisho noma uhlolo zimvo (opinion polls) eNingizimu Afrika, ukuthi abantu basebeqala ukungayisekeli kakkhulu i-ANC, kodwa uMandela ngokwakhe wahlala enedumela, kangangokuba wayesekelwa kakhulu eNingizimu Afrika ngabantu abalingana inali lama  80% futhi abantu bebonisa ukuneliseka ngokusebenza kwakhe njengomongameli wezwe.[317]

Ukuthatha umhlalaphansi[hlela | edit source]

Ukuqhubeka nentshukumo yemisebenzi yakhe yangasese kanye nokusiza abantu ngesihe: 1999–2004[hlela | edit source]

Lapho ethatha umhlalaphansi ngoJuni 1999, uMandela wayefuna ukuziphilela impilo ethulile nomndeni wakhe, kanti futhi efuna ukwehlukanisa isikhathi sakhe phakathi kokuhlala eJonnesburg kanye naseQunu. Waqala ukubhala incwadi yakhe ngesikhathi engumongameli, esihloko sithi:The Presidential Years, kodwa akayiqedanga ukuyibhala le ncwadi, ayizange isachicilelwa.[318] Wakuthola ukuhlala nje ekhaya angenzi lutho kunzima, wabuyela kwimpilo yakhe yokuhlala ematasatasa kanti futhi enohlelo lwemisebenzi ayenza nsuku zonke, lapho khona lapho wayehlangana naboholi bamazwe omhlaba kanye nosaziwayo,  kanti lapho eseJohannesburg, wayesebenzela iNelson Mandela Foundation, ayisungula ngo 1999, ukuze igxile kwizinhlelo zokuthuthukisa izindawo zasemakhaya, ukwakhiwa kwezikole, kanye nomkhankaso wokulwa nobhubhane lwe-HIV/AIDS.[319] Ngisho noma wayekade egxekwe kakkhulu ngokuthi udaba lwe-HIV/AIDS angalunaki ngesikhathi esingumongameli, wazinikezela kakhulu ekubhekaneni nalolu daba lapho esethathe umhlalaphansi, wachaza lolubhubhane "njengempi" esihlasele yabulala iningi labantu ukudlula nabantu abashona ezimpini zangempela, kanti futhi kulo mkhankaso wokulwa nobhubhane, wasebenzisana nabenhlangano ye-Treatment Action Campaign, wacela noMbeki ukuthi aqinisekise ukuthi uhulumeni asize abantu baseNingizimu Afrika abane-HIV ngemithi yama-anti-retrovirals.[320] Ngonyaka ka 2000, uNelson Mandela wasungula ithonamenti ye-Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament, eyayigqugquzelwa ngu-Gary Player.[32] UMandela walashelwa  walulama kwisifo somdlavuza noma ikhensa ye-prostate cancer ngoJulayi ka 2001.[322][33]

UMandela ngesikkhathi evakashele e-London School of Economics ngo-2000

Ngo 2002, uMandela wasingatha ukusungula kwe-Nelson Mandela Annual Lecture yokuthi njalo ngosuku oluthile lonyaka kunikezwe izinkulumo zesikhumbuzo sakhe, kwathi ngo 2003, kwavula i-Mandela Rhodes Foundation eyasimekwa kwi-Rhodes House, e-University of Oxford, ukuhlinzeka ngama-scholarship kwizitshudeni zase-Afrika eziqede iziqu zokuqala. La maprojekthi alandelwa yisikhungo sesikhumbuzo sakhe esaziwa ngokuthi yi-Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory kanye nomkhankaso we-46664 campaign wokulwa nobhubhane lwe-HIV/AIDS.[324] Wanikeza inkulumo youvala kwikhonferense enkulukazi yamazwe omhlaba eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi-XIII International AIDS Conference eDurban (eThekwini) ngo 2000,[34] kanti ngo 2004, wanikeza inkulumo kwenye ikhonferense enkulukazi ye-XV International AIDS Conference eBangkok, eThailand.[35]

UMandela waya ekhuluma kakhulu ngousezidlangalaleni ukusola abemibuso yaphesheya. Wasola kakhulu uhlaselo lwe-NATO ngohlaselo lwango 1999 lokungenela eKosovo lwe-NATO intervention in Kosovo kanti futhi lolu hlaselo walibiza ngokuthi yithi le mibuzo yaphesheya izama ukuzenza amaphoyisa kwamanye amazwe omhlaba.[36] Ngo 2003, wakhuluma ezikabhoqo ngesikhathi esola nokugxeka iplani ye-US ne-UK yokuqala impi ezweni lase-Iraq nge-War in Iraq, le mpi wayechaza njengento ewubuwula obuyingozi, kanti futhi wamtshela ezikabhoqo uMongameli waseMelika wangaleso sikhathi u-George W. Bush kanye noNdunankulu wangaleso sikhathi wase-UK u-Tony Blair wabasola nangokuthi bacikela phansi inhlangano yeziwe ezihlangane i-UN, washo nokuthi okukhulu okufunwa ngu-Bush ngempi yase-Iraq ukuqhwaga  i-oyela yase-Iraqs (Iraqi oil").[37] Futhi walibeka ngembaba elokuthi i-US yenze ubugebengu obukhulukazi bokuhamba ihlasela amanye amazwe omhlaba, ukudlala ezinye izizwe, esho ngokulinganisa nangokuhlaselwa kweJapan nge-atomic bombing of Japan; kanti le nkulumo yakhe yokusola nokugxeka la mazwe amabili i-US ne-UK, kwasolwa kakhulu ngabanye, kodwa kamuva wabuye waba nobudlelwane nokuxolelana no-Blair.[329][38] Wahlala elokhu ebheke ngeso elinzulu udaba lokuxabana kwe-Libya ne-UK, kanti futhi wabuya wavakashela ejele, lowo waseLibya owayeboshelwe ukuqhuma kwebhomu endizeni, u-Megrahi wamuvakashela ejele lase-Barlinnie prison kanti futhi wababaza nokukhuza ngesimo sasejele u-Megrahi ayekuso, nangendlela embi ayephethwe ngayo ejele, washo nokukubeka ukuthi impatho yakhe isho ukuhlumhlukumeza engqondweni nasemoyeni ngenqubo eyaziwa njenge-"psychological persecution".[39]

"Ukuphuma kumhlalaphansi, ukwenzela ukuthatha umhlalaphansi": 2004–13[hlela | edit source]

UNelson Mandela kanye noMongameli u-George W. Bush ehhovisi elaziwa ngokuthi yi-Oval Office, ngoMeyi 2005

NgoJuni 2004, lapho eneminyaka engu 85, kanti futhi nempilo yakhe isiya ngokuba buthakathaka, uMandela wamemezela ukuthi manje, usezothatha umhlalaphansi wangempela ("retiring from retirement") kanti futhi ngeke esenza imisebenzi yezinhlelo zakhe zangasese abezenza, waze wakhipha nelokuthi abantu bangasamshayeli izingcingo, yena uzobasheyela uma kunesidingo."[332][40] Kodwa waqhubeka nokuhlangana nabangani asondelene nabo kanye nabomndeni, iFoundation yakhe, yayibabuyisela emuva abantu abazama ukuxhumana naye, ngoba befuna azonikeza izinkulumo emiphakathini kanti futhi babevimbela abantu abazama ukwenza izicelo zokuzombona.[322]

Waqhubeka nokungenela ezinye izinhlelo zezindaba zamazwe omhlaba. Ngo 2005, wasungula i-Nelson Mandela Legacy Trust,[41] wavakashela izwe lase-US, lapho anikeza khona inkulumo kwi-Brookings Institution kanye naku-NAACP ngesidingo sokulekelela kwezomnotho we-Afrika.[41][42] Wakhuluma nalowo owayengu-Senator e-US, u-Hillary Clinton kanye noMongameli uGeorge W. Bush kanti futhi wahlangana okokuqala nalowo owayeyi-Senator e-US uBarack Obama.[42] Kanti futhi uMandela wabuye wakhuthaza noMongameli waseZimbabwe uRobert Mugabe ukuthi aqede ukucikelwa phansi kwamalungelo abantu baseZimbabwe, ngoba kwakunokuhlukunyezwa kwamalungelo abantu kulelo lizwe. Lapho ukunceka kwakhe uMugabe kungasebenzi, waqala ukumgxeka esidlangalaleni ngo-2007, futhi wamncenga nokuthi abeke phansi izintambo zokubusa ngesidima nangesithunzi."[336]  Kulowo nyaka uMandela, uGraca Machel, kanye noDesmond Tutu bahlela ingqugquthela yabaholi bamazwe omhlaba ukuhlangana eJohannesburg, ukuze basize ngemibono ejulile njengabantu abadala bomndeni omnyama, futhi umbono owawuzolalelwa wobukhaliphi nobudala, ukubhekana nezinkinga zamazwe omhlaba ezinzima. UMandela wamemezela ukubunjwa kwaleli qembu lomsipha isiqinile nobukhaliphi, leli qembu laziwa ngokuthi umkhandlo wabadala i- The Elders, kwinkulumo yakhe yosuku lokuzalwa kwakhe lapho eqeda iminyaka yama-89.[43]

UMandela lapho ehlangana no- Governor-General wase-Australia, uQuentin Bryce ngoMashi ka 2009.

Usuku lokuzalwa lukaMandela lwagutshwa kulo onke izwe lapho eqeda iminyaka engama 90, ngomhla ka 18 Julayi, 2008, kanti futhi wayezimisele ukugubha lolu suku eseQunu,[44] kanti futhi kwahlelwa nekhonsathi egameni lakhe e-Hyde Park, London.[45] Kwinkulumo yakhe yangalolo suku, uMandela wamemezela ukuthi bonke abazigwili kuwo wonke umhlaba, kumele basize abantu abahluphekile emhlabeni.[44] Ngaso sonke isikhathi so bungameli bukaMbeki, uMandela waqhubeka ukusekela i-ANC, ngisho noma isithunzi sakhe sasembozwa ngumsebenzi kaMbeki lapho ababevela khona emphakathini bobabili. UMandela wayenamela ubudlelwane nalowo owalandela esikhundni sobungameli u-Jacob Zuma,[340] kodwa noma kunjalo, abe-Nelson Mandela Foundation, baxhwaya lapho umzukulu kaMandela uMandla Mandela, endiziza uMandela ngendiza ukuze aye eMpuma Kapa ukuhambela irally kaZuma ngesikhathi kunezimpikiswano nemibango phakathi kukaMbeki noZuma ngo 2009.[340]

Ngonyaka ka 2004, uMandela wakhankasela ukuthi indebe yebhola lezinyawo yamazwe omhlaba izodlalelwa eNingizimu Afrika, i-2010 FIFA World Cup, nokumemezela ukuthi lesi kungaba yisipho esikhulukazi sezwe, ukuzobungazana nezwe lase-Afrika lapho ligubha iminyaka elishumi selokhu kwaphela umbuso wobandlululo.[46] UMandela nguye owethula indebe yamazwe omhlaba, ye-FIFA World Cup Trophy ngemuva kokuba iNingizimu Afrika inikezwe ithuba lokuthi kube yilona lizwe elizobambela imidlalo yendebe yebhola lezinyawo yamazwe omhlaba.[47] Ngisho noma wayengadlali indima etheni, ngoba impilo yakhe yase ibuthakathaka, uMandelwa wahambela umcimbi wokuvalwa kwendebe yemidlalo yebhola yamazwe omhlaba, lapho khona izihlwele zabantu ezamemukela ngelikhulu idumela ("rapturous reception").[48][49] Phakathi konyaka ka 2005 no-2013, uMandela nomndeni wakhe babesengxabanweni yomthetho bebanga imali ayeyibekele izizukulwana zakhe, kwi-trust yomndeni.[50] Phakathi nonyaka ka 2013, ngesikhathi uMandela egula esesibhedlela sasePitori ephethwe yisifo samaphaphu,abomndeni wakhe babebambene ngezihluthu enkantolo, maqondana nokulungiselela ukungcwatshwa kwakhe, ubangisano lwalumaqondana nendawo yokungcwatshwa kwakhe nezingane zakhe.[51][52][53]

Ukugula kwakhe phakathi kuka-2011 no-2013[hlela | edit source]

Izihlwele zamalunga omphakathi, lawo ayezohlonipha isithunzi sakhe, phandle kwekhaya lakkhe e-Houghton

NgoFebruwari 2011, wasiwa esibhedlela okwesikhashana, ngoba enenkinga yokuphefumula ngenxa ye-respiratory infection, lokhu kugula kwakhe kwahuha amahlo abantu bamazwe omhlaba,[54] kanti emuva kwalokho, wabuyela futhi esibhedlela lapho ene-infection yamaphathu, kanye nokususwa kwe-gallstone ngoDisemba ka 2012.[55] Ngemuva kokuba elashwe ngempumelelo, ekuqaleni kuka-March  2013,[56] i-infection yamaphaphu akhe, yabuye yavuka futhi, wahanjiswa esibhedlela sasePitori.[57] Kwathi ngomhla ka 8 June 2013, i-infection yamaphaphu, yabhoka futhi, wabuyeselwa futhi esibhedlela sasePitori, ekwisimo esingagculisi lapho kwakwembulwa-kwembeswa.[58] Ngomhla ka 23 Juni 2013, uZuma wamemezela ukuthi isimo sempilo kaMandela siya ngokuba bucayi kakhulu ("critical").[59][60][61]  u-UZuma ehambisana noSekela Mongameli we-Cyril Ramaphosa, baya bayohlangana nonkosikazi kaMandela u-Graça Machel esibhedlela ePitori, kanye nokuxoxa ngesimo sempilo yakhe.[62] Kwathi ngomhla ka 25 June, eCape Town, u-Thabo Makgoba wavakashela uMandela esibhedlela nokufika athandaze noGraça Machel Mandela "kulesi sikhathi sobunzima, sokulinda nokulindela".[63] Ngosuku olulandelayo, uZuma wavakashela uMandela esibhedlela, kanti futhi wakhansela nohambo lwakhe ayezoluthatha ngakusasa kwakhona aye eMozambique.[64] NgoSeptemba 2013, uMandela wakhishwa esibhedlela,[65] ngisho noma isimo sakhe sasingakazinzi kahle.[66]

Ngemuva kokuba ehlushwe yi-respiratory infection, isikhathi eside, uMandela washona ngomhla ka 5 Disembe 2013 eneminyaka engu 95. Washona ngehora lika 20:50 ngesikhathi sendawo [local time (UTC+2)] ekhaya lakhe e-Houghton, eJohannesburg,futhi ezungezwe umndeni wakhe.[67] UZuma wamemezela ukushona kwakhe ememezela kuwo wonke umuntu, kanti ukushona kwakhe wakumemezela kwithelevishini.[67][68] UZuma wamemezela ukuthi kube nesikhathi sokulila noma ukuzila izinsuku ezilishumi, kanti umhla ka 8 kuDisemba, kwakuzokwenziwa usuku lomthandazo nokuzihlaziya kuzwelonke, kanti inkonzo enkulu yabanjelwa e-Johannesburg eFNB Stadium ngomhlaka 10 Disemba 2013. Umzimba kaMandela wabekwa ukuze bonke abantu bazokwenza inhlonipho yokuwubukela, okwaziwa ngokuthi i-lay in state ukusukela ngomhla ka 11 ukuya ku 13 Disemba, e-Union Buildings ePitori, kanti inkonzo yomngcwabo ehlelwe umbuso, i-state funeral yabanjwa ngomhla ka 15 Disemba eQunu.[69][70] Umngcwabo wakhe, wahanjelwa yizikhulu zamazwe angaphandle aseduzane nakude, ezilinganiselwa ku 90, abantu abasuka kude-kude beza eNingizimu Afrika ukuzohlanganyela kwizinkonzo zesikhumbuzo sakhe eNingizimu Afrika.[71][72] Amazwe okubonga uMandela kanye nezithombe nemifanekiso yakhe, kwakugcwele  yonke indawo, ikakhulukazi kwi-social media enjengo-Facebook.[368] Ifa elilinganiselwa ku $4.1 miliyoni, lashiyelwa umkakhe, amanye amalunga omndeni, abasebenzi bakhe, kanye nezikhungo zemfundo.[73]

I-idiyoloji yezePolitiki[hlela | edit source]

UMandela wayengusopolitiki obonelela izinto ngendlela ebambekayo (practical politician), kunokuthi agxile ezintweni ezibonwa ngeso lengqondo kuphela kanye nokulandela amatiyori ezepolitiki (rather than an intellectual scholar or political theorist).[371] Ngokusho kombhali wemilando ngabantu, ibhayografa, uTom Lodge, wathi, kuMandela ipolitiki ibihlala njalo iqondene nezindaba eziphilayo kanye nokwenza kwabantu imilando, kanti futhi wayebona ukuthi kumele abe yisibonelo esihle ngendlela yokuziphatha, kanti okombono we-idiyoloji kwakulandela ngemuva, wayekubona kuyindlela yokufinyelela ezinjongweni ezithile, kunokuba yinhloso ngokwakho ("for Mandela, politics has always been primarily about enacting stories, about making narratives, primarily about morally exemplary conduct, and only secondarily about ideological vision, more about means rather than ends."[372] ). UMandela wayezibona njengomu-Afrika olwela ukukhululeka kwesizwe ngenqubo eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-African nationalist, i-idiyoloji ayebambelele kuyo selokhu ajoyina i-ANC,[373] kanti futhi abuye azibone njenge-democratic socialist.[374] Wayegqugquzelela ukuthi kugcine kunesizwe esingabandlululi ngokwezikhundla nezimo zabantu kanti futhi lapho khona kunokulingana kwawo wonke umuntu ngenqubo eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-classless society,[375] kanti uSampson, umchaza njengomuntu owayephikisana ngokusobala nenqubo yobukhapitali, ubunikazi bomhlaba nezimpahla zezwe bangasese, kanye nokuphikisana namandla osozimali (Sampson describing him as "openly opposed to capitalism, private land-ownership and the power of big money").[376]

UMandela wayefakelwa umbono womfutho yinqubo ye-Marxism, kanti ngesikhathi somzabalazo wayegqugquzelela inqubo ye-scientific socialism.[377] Ngesikhathi equliswa icala lokucikela phansi umbuso le-Treason Trial, wakuphika ukuthi uyikhomanisi,[378] kanti futhi wakugcizelela lokhu nangesikhathi ekhuluma nabacosheli bezindaba amajenalisti.[379] Ibhayografa kaMandela uDavid Jones Smith wachaza ukuthi umandela wayeyisingathile nokuthanda inqubo yobukhomanisi futhi ezibandakanya namakhomanisi ("embraced communism and communists") ekupheleni kweminyaka yoma 1950 kanti ekuqaleni koma 1960,[380] kanti futhi umbhali wemilando uStephen Ellis, wathola ubufakazi bokuthim uMandela wayeyilunga leqembu lamakhomanisi i-South African Communist Party (SACP).[116] Lokhu kwaqiniswa ngemuva kokushona kwakhe, kuqiniswa ngabeqembu le-SACP kanye nabe-ANC. Ngokusho kwe-SACP, wayengelona nje ilunga kuphela, kanti futhi wayekukomidi lesigungu esiphezulu, i-Central Executive Committee.[2]


Ngo 1955, kwiShatha yamalungelo, i-Freedom Charter, uMandela alekelela ekwenzweni kwayo, yayimemezela ukuthi amabhangi, izimauimi zegolide kanye nomhlaba kumele kufakelwe ngaphansi kobunikazi besizwe ngenqubo eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi-nationalisation, ngokukholelwa ukuthi lokhu yinto efanele ukuze kwabiwe umnotho wesizwe ngendlela elinganayo..[381] Ngisho noma uMandela wayenale nkolelo, uMandela waqala inqubo yokuthengiswa kwempahla yombuso, ngenqubo ebizwa i-privatisation ngesikhathi esesikhundleni sobungameli bezwe, kanti lokhu kwakuhambisana nokwenzeka kwamanye amazwe ngalesi sikhathi.[382] Kunombono wokuthi uMandela wayengathanda ukuthi kube nenqubo yomnotho ye-social democratic economy eNingizimu Afrika, kodwa lokhu kwakungakhonakali ngenxa yesimo sengcindezi kwezomnotho kanye nezepolitiki kumkhakha wamazwe aphesheya, ngezikhathi zeminyaka yoma 1990.[382] Lesi sinqumo sabangelwa nawukubona ukuwa kwemibuso yamazwe yenqubo yobusoshalisi kuwo wonke amazwe ayaziwa ngelokuthi ama-socialist states kuzwekazi le-Soviet Union kanye namanye amazwe aseMpuma ayaziwa ngokuthi ama-Eastern Bloc lokhu kuwa kwale mibuso okwenziwa ekuqaleni kweminyaka yoma 1990.[383] Kanti futhi ngakolunye uhlangothi, kwakukhona ukukhula komnotho ngesidumo kwizwe laseShayina elalisebenzissa inqubo yomnotho ye-"socialist market economy", kanti futhi uMandela wayethanda ukucaphuna kakhulu kwinkulumo yobuhlakani ka-Deng Xiaoping's aphorism: eyayithi, akunandaba noma yiyiphi inqubo esetshenziswawayo, inqaba nje uma isebenza kahle inemiphumela, ngesisho esithi, akunandaba noma ikati limnyama noma limhlophe, inqaba nje uma likwazi ukubamba amagundane ("It doesn't matter whether a cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice.)"[74]

Umkhankaso wokucindezela ukukhululwa kumaMandela, owawubanjelwe e-East Berlin, 1986

Esikhathini sempilo yakhe, waqala ukugqugquzelela inqubo yomzabalazo ngokuthula, kodwa kamuva lapho le nqubo ingasebenzi, waqala wagqugquzelela umzabalazo wezikkhali, kanti futhi waqala lo mzabalazo wezikhali, kwase kuthi ekugcineni wasingathi inqubo yokubonisana ngezingxoxo kanye nomoya wokubuyisana.[385] Lapho eqala ukugqugquzelela inqubo yomzabalazo wezikhali, kungoba wayengayiboni enye indlela engaba nempumelelo, ngoba wayebona umbuso wabamhlophe ungaquguki kwinqubo yawo wengcindezelo, kodwa wayehlala ezimisele ukuthi uma ithuba lomzabalazo woxolo liba khona, uyolandlela wone, inqaba nje uma izoholela ekubeni nezingxoxo zandawonye.[386]

UMandela wayethatha nemibono yabanye osongqondongqondo kwezepolitiki, abanye ayethatha izibonelo zabo nguGandhi, uNehru, izishukumi zabamnyama baseMelika, kanye nabelweli benkululeko yabamnyama e-Afrika abafana noKwame Nkrumah, kanti futhi wayethatha le mibono ayisebenzise ngokulandela isimo saseNingizimu Afrika. Kanti futhi wayebuye aphikisane neminye imiqondo, efana nombono wokulwisa abamhlophe ngenxa yokuba bemhlophe (anti-white sentiment) okwakuyinqubo eyayilandelwa ngabanye bama-Afrika ababelwela inkululeko e-Afrika.[387] Kanti futhi wayexuba nemibono evela kweminye imikhakha yezemasiko, isibonelo salokhu, wayecosha nakwimibono ye-Afrikaner nationalism.[388] Ngisho noma wayeke abuye asebenze njengozwi kaliphikiswa, kwezinye izinkulumo zakhe, kodwa wayekholelwa kakhulu kwidimokhrasi kanti futhi ezihlonipha izinqumo ezithathwe yiningi ngisho noma ngaphakathi enhliziyweni yakhe wayengavumelani nazo[389] Umbono wakhe kwezepolitiki wawubonisa ukungqubuzana phakathi kwenqubo yedimokhrasi yenqubo yamaliberali, eyaziwa ngelokuthi yi--liberal democracy kanye nenqubo yakudala kungakabi nobukoloni e-Afrika inqubo yesi-Afrika yokwenza izinqumo ngokuvumelana.[390] Wayekholelwa kakhulu kumbono wokubandakanya wonke umuntu nokusebenzisa amagama athi: ("inclusivity, accountability and freedom of speech") ngoba ekholelwa ukuthi ukubandakanya wonke umuntu isisekelo esiqinile sedimokhrasi,[391] kanti futhi wayeholwa umbono wamalungelo okwemvelo (natural) kanye namalungelo obuntu,[392] kanti futhi wayefuna ukuthi abamhlophe nabamnyama babenamalungelo alinganayo, futhi evikela namalungelo alabo abathandana bengobobulili obufanayo, lokhu okuthiwa ngama-gay rights[75] Ukuthuthuka kwakhe kwezepolitiki kwakuthola umthelela kakhulu kuqeqesho lwakhe kwezomthetho nenkambiso, ikakhulukazi ngethemba lakhe lokuthi yonke into ingenzeka ngaphandle kodlame nokukholelwa ukuthi lezi zinto zingenzeka ngokushintsha imithetho kancane-kancane futhi ihambisane nesikhathi sesimanje ngenqubo eyaziwa ngokuthi yi"legal revolution".[394]

Ubuyena siqu kanye nempilo yakhe yangasese[hlela | edit source]

UMandela wayebonwa njengomholi othandekayo nonedumela nogazi ebantwini ngokubizwa ngokuthi umholi o-charismatic,[396] kanti ibhayografa yakhe, uMary Benson, umchaza njengomuntu owazalelwa ukuba ngumholi weningi labantu, kanti futhi owayengazezinsi ukuba nomhuhane eluntwini ("a born mass leader who could not help magnetizing people").[397] Wayengumuntu othathela isimo sakhe phezulu, kanti futhi impilo yakhe yonke, wayethanda ukugqoka izimpahla zeqophelo, kanti futhi iningi labantu likholelwa ukuthi wayeziphethe ngenhlonipho nesithunzi sobukhosi.[398] Kanti ukuthi wayengumuntu wasebukhosini kwakushiwo yiningi lababemsekela, konke lokhu okwenza ukuthi abenamandla obuholi bedumela ("charismatic power").[399] Ngesikhathi ehlala eJohannesburg ngeminyaka yoma 1950, wayezithatha njengenene lesicukuthwana lom-Afrika ("Afrian gentleman"), wayehlala egqoka izimpahla eziprese ngobunono, eziphatha ngobunono, kanti futhi ekala amagama akhe engakhulumi nje aphahluke laho ekhuluma nabantu, konke lokhu ekwenza ngokuhambisana nesithunzi sesikhundla sakhe.[400] Ngokwenza lokho uLodge uthi uMandela waba ngomunye osopolitiki bokuqala ababenedumela nokudunyiswa ngabathatheli bezindaba, lokhu okwakukhombisa i-Afrika entsha yesimodeni, futhi yenkululeko ".[372] Ngeminyaka yoma 1990 waba ngumuntu owaziwa njengogqoka izimpahla ezikhululekile nezilenga kahle emzimbeni futhi zemibala ekhanyayo, amayembe ayewagqoka agcina ngokwenziwa ngokuthi ama-"Madiba shirts" nathandekayo nakwabanye futhi ayewagqoka njalo.[401]

Umbhali wangokosiko nomthetho webhayografi yakhe u-Anthony Sampson, waphawula wathi, ungumnumzane ukwenza kwakhe okuhambisana nesithunzi sakhe, ozethula kahle kwabezindaba nabezithombe ngokukhulu ukucophelela abantu abakubonayo nabafuna ukucaphuna kukho.[402] Izinkulumo zakhe ayezethulela abantu zazethulwa kahle ngokosiko, emi eqonde nje mpo lapho ezethula.[403] Ngisho noma wayengeyena umuntu wobuciko nobugagu ngokukhuluma, kodwa izinkulumo akhe zazibonisa ukuzimisela nokuzinikela kwakhe "siqu, futhi zinamahlaya nokuhuha abalaleli bazo".[404] Ekuchazeni impiloyakhe, uMandela wachaza ukuthi akayena uMesaya, kodwa ungumuntu nje njengabanye abantu, kodwa ungumuntu oye wazithola esesikhundleni sobuholi ngenxa yesimo esingavamile azithole ekuso."[405]

UMandela wayengumuntu ofuna ukuba nempilo yakhe yangasese, futhi owayengathandi ukubonisa imizwa yakhe, kanti futhi okuthinta yena siqu, wayekudalulela abantu abambalwa nje kuphele.[406] Empilweni yakhe yangasese wayephila impilo yokuzincisha nokuzithiba ezintweni eziningi, wayengafuni ukuphuza utshwala noma ukubhema, kanti futhi ngisho noma enguMongameli, wayevuka azindlalele umbhede wakhe.[407] Waziwa njengomuntu wamahlaya,[408] kanti futhi wayaziwa njengomuntu ongaguquli umqondo kalula, kanti futhi engumuntu oqotho,[409] kanti kwezinye izikhathi ubebonisa ukusheshe athukuthele.[407] Wayengumuntu onobungani, nowemukela abanye abantu, kanti futhi kungumuntu onethezekile uma enabanye abantu engabonisi intukuthelo, ngisho nakwizitha zakhe, wayexoxa nabanye ngokukhululeka.[410] Wayevamise ukuba ngumuntu oziphethe ngokuzithoba, nohlonipha abanye abantu, ngaphandle kokunaka izikhundla zabo, ngisho noma bebadala noma bebancane, noma bengabasebenzi .[411] Wayaziwa njengomuntu owelula ingalo axhumane nabanye abantu ngisho noma bevala kweminye imiphakathi noma imikhakha ehlukene .[412] Eminyakeni yakhe yokugcina, wayebona bonke abantu kukhona ubuhle abanabo kubo, kanti futhi wayeze avikele nabakumapolitiki namaqembu aphikisanayo nabo, ekhuza nabalingani bakhe uma bephatha noma bekhuluma kabi abakwamanye amaqembu ezepolitiki, kanti abalingani bakhe babethe yena uhlushwa ukuthi u themba wonke umuntu kalula.[413] Wakhuliswa emndenini wobuKhresto webandla lamaWeseli i-Methodist Church of Southern Africa kanti futhi washo nokuthi unamethele kuleli bandla impilo yakhe yonke.[414] Ukuhlaziya imibhalo yakhe, kwenze ukuthi abezenkolo abanjengo- Dion Forster bamchaze njengomuntu obeyisazi sezenkolo ngonkulunkulu noma i-Christian humanist, owayencike kakhulu ku-Ubuntu kunokuncika kwi-Christian theology.[415]  Ngokusho kuka-Sampson, uMandela wayengeyena umuntu onokholo lwenkolo oluqinile,[416] kanti uBoemer yena wathi, ukholo lukaMandela lwalungelona olwamagqanqu kangako  ("never robust").[417] Wayethanda ukudla kwesiNdiya,[418] kanti futhi impilo yakhe yonke wayejabulela kakhulu izifundo ze-archaeology.[419]

Imyuziyamu yendlu kaMandela, eSoweto

UMandelwa wayengumuntu othanda abesifazane okubizwa ngokuthi yi-heterosexual,[420] kanti ibhayografa u-Fatima Meer wathi uMandela wayelingeka kakhulu kwabesimame.[421] Enye ibhayografa, u-Martin Meredith, omchaza njengomuntu owayenothando olukhulu ngokwemvelo kwabesimame, ukhombisa ukuthi empilweni yakhe waba nobudlelewane nabesimame abaningi abehlukene.[422] UMandela washada kathathu, waba nezingane eziyithupha, kanti futhi enabazuluku abayishumi nesikhombisa[76][77] kanti futhi nezizukulwana zezizukulwane eziningi.[78] Wayeba nesandla esiqinile ezingane zakkhe, kodwa wayebathanda kakkhulu abazukulu bakhe.[79] Umshado wakhe wokuqala waba no-Evelyn Ntoko Mase ngo-Okthoba ka 1944;[80]  ngo-1957, badivosa ngemuva kweminyaka engu 13 ngenxa yokuthi wayenoxhaxha lwezintombi, kanti futhi ehlala engekho ekhaya, ngoba wayezimisele kakhulu kwirivolushini kanye nokugqugquzela emzabalazweni, kanti futhi nokuthi umkakhe wayeyilunga lebandla elaziwa ngokuthi ofakazi bakaJehova (Jehovah's Witnesses), inkolelo engafuni ukuthi abantu bazibandakanye nezepolitiki.[81] Ekuganeni kwakhe no-Evelyn, baba namadodana amabili, uMadiba "Thembi" Thembekile (1945–1969) kanye no-Makgatho Mandela (1950–2005); indodana yakhe yokuqala yashona engozini yemoto, kwathi indodana yakhe yesibili, yabulawa yisifo se-AIDS. Kulo mendo, baba namadodakazi amabili, anamagama afanayo, uMakaziwe Mandela,(abazalwa ngo 1947 enye ngo 1954), indodakazi youqala yashona inezinyanga eziyishagalolunye, indodakazi yesibili, u-"Maki", yona isaphila.[82] Indodana kaMakgatho, uMandla Mandela, ube yinkosi yomkhandlu waseMvezo ngo 2007.[83]

Unkosikazi wesibili kaMandela, uWinnie Madikizela-Mandela, naye ubuya endaweni yase-Transkei, kodwa noma bobabili bahlangana eJohannesburg, lapho khona ayengunonhlalonhle (social worker) wokuqala womuntu omnyamar.[98] Kulo mendo baba namadodakazi amabili, uZenani (Zeni), owazalwa ngomhla ka 4 Februwari 1959, kanye noZindziswa (Zindzi) Mandela-Hlongwane, owazalwa ngo 1960.[84] UZindzi wayenezinyanga ezingu 18 kuphela ngesihathi ubaba wakhe ethunyelwa ejele lase-Robben Island. Kamuva yena noWinnie baxabana babanezinkinga emndenini, lokhu okwakubonisa nezinxushunxushu ezazikhona ezweni ngaleso sikhathi, bagcina ngokwehlukana (ngo-Epreli 1992) bagcina sebedivosa (ngoMashi 1996), ngokuba nengcindeze kwezepolitiki.[85] UNkosikazi kaMandela wesithathu, kwakungu-Graça Machel (oka Simbine), amshada ngosuku lwesikhumbuzo sokuzalwa kwakhe lapho eqeda iminyaka engu 80 ngonyaka ka 1998.[433]

Ukwamukelwa kanye nomlando awushiya[hlela | edit source]

Izimbali kwi-statue sikaMandela eLondon, e-Parliament Square ngemuva kokushona kwakhe

Ngesikhathi eshona, eNingizimu Afrika nakumazwe angaphandle, uMandela wase ethathwa njengobaba wesizwe,[86] kanye nobaba owasungula inqubo yedimokhrasi,[435] nokubonwa njengomkhululi wesizwe, umsindinsi, efaniswa nalowo wase-Washington kanye no-Lincoln konke lokhu kubhanqwe ndawonye".[87] Ngaphandle kweNingizimu Afrika, wayethathwa  njengophawu olubalulekile kumhlaba wonkana ("global icon"), kanti usolwazi ngezifundo zeNingizimu Afrika, uRita Barnard umchaza njengomunye wabantu abahlonipheke kakhulu kuwo wonke umhlaba esikhathini samanje[437] Omunye wamabhayografa, umthatha njengeqhawe lesidimokhrasi lesikhathi samanje ("a modern democratic hero"),[438] kanti idumela lakkhe lenza ukuthi abantu bamkhonze yena siqu ngokuthiwa yi- cult of personality okwakheka ngokuqondene naye.[439] Igama lakhe livamise ukubandakanywa namagama afana no-Gandhi kanye noMartin Luther King, Jr. njengomunye wezihlabane ezenza isibonelo kwiminyaka yama 20 century, kwabaholi ababelwa nenqubo yobandlululo ngebala, kanye nokulwa nenqubo yobukoloni a.[440] UBoehmer umchaza njengomunye unokuhlonipheka nesithunzi kulesi sikhathi samanje njengalokho okubizwa ngokuthi yi-"a totem of the totemic values of our age: toleration and liberal democracy"),[441] kanye nophawu olubaluleke kakhulu lenqubo yokulwela ubuhlungiswa kwezenhlalisano ( "a universal symbol of social justice)".[442]

Udumo lukaMandela kuwo wonke umhlaba, lwaqala ngesikhathi esjele ngeminyaka yoma 1980, lapho eba yisiboshwa esidume kakhulu kunezinye, kanti futhi ewuphawu lomzabalazo wokulwa nombuso wobandlululo, kanye nophawu oluhlonishwa zigidi-gidi zabantu kuwo wonke umhlaba kubantu abalwela inqubo yokulingana kwabo bonke abantu.[253] Ngonyaka ka 1986, ibhayografa kaMandela uMary Benson, wamchaza njengomuntu oqukethe noyisibonelo sawo wonke umzabalazo wenkululeko eNingizimu Afrika.[443] UMeredith yena ukuthi waba ngophawu oluqinile lomzabalazo wabantu ababelwisana nombuso wobandlululo ngeminyaka yoma 1980, kanti futhi wayesethathwa njengomuntu oyisimanga.[444] USampson yena waphawula ukuthi ngesikhathi sempilo yakhe, lokhu kumbona njengophawu oluyisimanga noluyi-myth empilweni yakhe, kangangokuba abantu basebemthatha njengengilosi".[445] Kungakapheli iminyaka elishumi ngemuva kokuba esukile esikhundleni sokuba nguMongameli, lesi sikhathi sakhe sasithathwa njengesikhathi sokwenzeka kwezimanga ngensebenziswano njengalokho okubizwa ngokuthi yi-"a golden age of hope and harmony",[446] kanti futhi abantu lesi sikhathi basasikhumbula kakhulu nabasibone ukuthi ngaso kwakwenzeka konke okuhle le nkumbulo ebizwa i-nostalgia ngendlela esichazwa ngayot.[447] Kuwo wonke umhlaba, uMandela unikezwe idumela lentshukumo yakhe ekuqedeni umbuso wenqubo yobandlululo ngokwebala, kanye nokwakha umoya wokubuyisasna kwezinhlanga zabamhlophe nabamnyama,[407] nokubonwa njengomuntu onegunya eliphezulu maqondana nempatho, kanti futhi umuntu owayekhathazeka kakhulu ngamaqiniso.[448]

Empilweni  yakhe yokusebenza, uMandela, yayibanga ukuthi kube nemibono ehluka-hlukene, ngaye njengesishukumi kanye nosopolitiki,[439] le mibono ehlukahlukene, yayivela kulabo abasohlangothini lobunxele nabesokudla ngezepolitiki.[449] Abanye ku-ANC babemsola bethu uthengise ngomzabalazo (selling out) ngokuvumelana ngokuthi kube nezingxoxo nohulumeni wobandlululo.[439] Babekhathazeka ngokuthi inhlonipho yakhe siqu, ibiphikisana nemibono eyisisekela sedimokhrasi, abeyiphakamisa nokuyiqhubela phambili.[439] Umbuso wakhe wasolwa ngokuhluleka ukubhekana nobhubhane lwe-HIV/AIDS, kanye futhi nokuthi angabhekani kakhulu ne-model yezomnotho eyayizozuzisa abantu abahluphekile baseNingizimu Afrika.[439] Ngesikhathi seminyaka yoma 1980 esesejele, umbuso wobandlululo nabanye abahambisana nombuso wobandlululo emazweni aphesheya aseNtshonalanga, babembiza ngokuthi uyiphekula-zikhuni noma i-terrorist , ngenxa yokuthatha umzabalazo wezikhali kwezepolitiki ukulwa nombuso wobandlululo .[450] UThatcher wabiza i-ANC njengenhlangano yamaphekula-zikhuni ngo 1987. 1987;[451] ngisho noma kamuva wamemezela kuBotha ukuthi akhulule uMandela.[452] UMandela wabuye wagxekwa ngobungani bakhe nabaholi bezepolitiki abafana no-Castro, Gaddafi noSuharto  – abathathwa njengondlovu kayiphikiswa ama-dictators balawo mazwe, yilabo ababesola kanye kanti futhi akavumanga ukukhondema ukucikelwa phansi kwamalungelo obuntu kulezi zindawo zalaba baholi.[88]

Izindondo zokuhlonishwa, nemihlonisho,kanye namamonyumenti[hlela | edit source]

Ngomhla ka 16 Disemba 2013, ngosuku lokubuyisana i-Day of Reconciliation, kwenziwa i-statue sebronzi esingamamitha angu 9 ubude sikaMandela e-Union Buildings esavulwa nguMongameli Jacob Zuma.[89] Ngo 2004, iJohannesburg, yanikeza uMandela, inkululekko yedolobhakazi i-freedom of the city,[90] kanti indawo ye-Sandton Square shopping centre yathiwa kabusha ngegama lakhe kwathiwa yi-Nelson Mandela Square, ngemuva kokuba kuxhonyelwe khoha i-statue sakhe.[91] Ngo 2008, esinye istatue sikaMandela savulwa e-Drakenstein Correctional Centre, kuqala igama laso okwakuyi-Victor Verster Prison, eduzane ne-Cape Town, sixhonyelwe lapho uMandela akhululwa khona ejele.[92]

Ngo 1993, uMandela wanikezwa indondo yoxolo ye-Nobel Peace Prize ngokuhlanganyela kanye noDe Klerk.[93] Kwathi ngoNovemba 2009, inkundla yenhlangano yezizwe ezihlangane i-United Nations General Assembly yamemezela usuku lokuzalwa kukaMandela, usuku lomhla ka 18 Julayi njenge-Mandela Day", ukubhiyozela indima ayidlala kumzabalazo wokulwa nombuso wobandlululo. Le nkulndla yamemezela kubo bonke abantu bomhlaba ukunikezela ngamaminithi angu 67, ukwenza imisebenzi yesihe ukwenzela abanye abantu, okwakuyisikhumbuzo seminyaka engu 67 uMandela ayisebenzela eyingxenye yomzabalazo nentshukumo.[94]

UMandela wanikezwa nendondo yaseMelika ye-Presidential Medal of Freedom[95] kanye nendondo yase-Canada ye-Order of Canada,[96] kanti futhi waba ngumuntu wokuqala ukwenziwa isakhamuzi sokuhlonishwa se-honorary Canadian citizen.[97] UMandela wanikezwa nendondo ye-Soviet Union's Lenin Peace Prize[98] kanye nokuba ngumemukeli wendondo ye- Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights.[99] Ngo 1990, wanikezwa i-Bharat Ratna Award evela kuhulumeni waseNdiya[100] kanti futhi ngo 1992, wamukeliswa i-Pakistan's Nishan-e-Pakistan.[101] Ngawo lowo nyaka, wanikezwa i-Atatürk Peace Award enikezwa yona yizwe lase-Turkey; waqala wayenqaba, ngoba ekhathazeka ngokucikelwa phansi kwamalungelo obuntu, okwakwenziwa yizwe laseTurkey ngaleso sikkhathi,[102] kodwa kamuva wayemukela le ndondo ngo 1999.[98] U-Queen Elizabeth II wamqoka njenge-Bailiff Grand Cross ye-Order of St. John (ngemuva kwesincomo esenziwa yikomidi le-Honours and Awards Committee) kanti futhi wanikezwa nobulunga be-Order of Merit (a okwakuyisipho senkosi buqu kuye).[103]

Amabhayografi kanye ne-media efundwa yiningi[hlela | edit source]

Ibhayografi yokuqala kaMandela, umbhali wayo kwakungu-Mary Benson, kanti yayigxile kuma-interview aye wawenza noMandela, awenza ngeminyaka yoma 1960s[469] Amanye amabhayografi agunyaziwe, enziwa ngabangani bakaMandela.[470] Eyokuqala yenziwa ngu-Fatima Meer ngesihloko esithi: Higher Than Hope, kanti lena yona yayikhuthazwe nguWinnie, kanti futhi yona yagxila kakhulu kumndeni kaMandela.[471] Eyesibili, yenziwa ngu-Anthony Sampson's Mandela yashicilelwa ngo 1999.[470] Amanye amabhayografi enziwe nguMartin Meredith esihloko sithi: Mandela, eyashicilelwa okokuqala ngo 1997, kanye neka-Tom Lodge nayo esihloko sithi: Mandela, yona eshicilelwe ngo 2006.[470]

Ukusukela ngeminyaka yoma 1980 umfanekiso kaMandela waqala ukuvela kwizinto eziningi, ezifana nezithombe, okupendiwe, imidwebo, kanye nama-statue, nama-mural, izinkinobho ezifakelwa empahleni, ama-t shirt, izinto ezibekwa ngaphandle kwamafriji ukunamathelisa izinto kanye nokunye okuningi,[368] lezi zinto zibizwa ngokuthi ama-"Mandela kitsch".[472] Ngemuva kokushona kwakhe, i-internet yaqala ukwenza ama-memes abonisa imifanekiso kaMandeloa, kanye nezisho ezikhuthazayo ezicashunwe kwizinkulumo zakhe azenza esaphila.[368]

Abaculi abaningi bacule amaculo okumbongoza nokumdumisa uMandela. Elinye lamaculo ngelisihloko sithi:The Special AKA owarekhoda iculo elithi akakhululwe i-"Free Nelson Mandela" ngo 1983, kanti futhi leli culo labuye larekhodwa ngu-Elvis Costello elarekhodwa nguye, futhi elabanedumela kakhulu. UStevie Wonder naye wanikezela ngendondo yakhe ye-Oscar ka 1985 ngeculo elithi:"I Just Called to Say I Love You" elenzela uMandela, kanti umculo wakhe wavalwa eNingizimu Afrika uvalwa ngabokusakaza abe-South African Broadcasting Corporation.[104]

UMandela uvezwe kumasinema nakumathelevishini ngamahlandla amaningi.U-Danny Glover wadlala indima yokulingisa yena ngo 1987 HBO kwi-telefilm Mandela.[105] Ifilimu ka 1997 ethi:Mandela and de Klerk umlingisi omkhulu kuyo kwakungu-Sidney Poitier njengoMandela,[106] kanti u-Dennis Haysbert udlale indima yakhe kwifilimu ethi:Goodbye Bafana (2007).[107] Kwathi ngo 2009 i-BBC yenza i-telefilm Mrs Mandela, umlingisi kaMandela kuyo kwakungu:David Harewood,[108] kanti u-Morgan Freeman walingisa indima yakhe kwifilimu ethi:Invictus (2009).[109] U-Terrence Howard ulingise indima yakhe kwifilimu yango 2011 ethi:Winnie Mandela.[110] Omunye olingise indima yakhe ngu-Idris Elba kwifilimu yango 2013 ethi:Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom.[480]

Amareferense[hlela | edit source]

Amanothi ekugcineni[hlela | edit source]

  1. "Mandela".
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Umsebenzi Online, Volume 12, No. 42".
  3. "Ex-CIA spy admits tip led to Nelson Mandela's long imprisonment".
  4. "Mandela's response to being offered freedom".
  5. Ketchum, Mike.
  6. Christopher S. Wren (8 December 1988).
  7. "1990: Freedom for Nelson Mandela".
  8. Ormond, Roger (12 February 1990).
  9. The text of Mandela's speech can be found at "Nelson Mandela's address to Rally in Cape Town on his Release from Prison".
  10. Sampson 2011, p. 460; Meredith 2010, pp. 448, 452.
  11. Sampson 2011, pp. 462–463; Meredith 2010, pp. 466–467.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Sampson 2011, pp. 463–467; Meredith 2010, pp. 467–471.
  13. Sampson 2011, p. 472; Meredith 2010, pp. 489–491.
  14. Sampson 2011, pp. 468–469; Meredith 2010, pp. 476–480.
  15. Sampson 2011, p. 471.
  16. Sampson 2011, pp. 434–445, 473; Meredith 2010, p. 497.
  17. Cunningham, Matthew (3 June 2004).
  18. Glen Levy (15 November 2010).
  19. "This Day in History: April 27, 1994: South Africa holds first multiracial elections".
  20. "Mandela becomes SA's first black president".
  21. Khumalo, Fred (5 August 2004).
  22. "Mandela rallies Springboks".
  23. Leatt, Annie; Shung-King, Maylene & Monson, Jo. "Healing inequalities: The free health care policy" (PDF).
  24. "Land Redistribution: A Case for Land Reform in South Africa".
  25. "Land Reform Policies in South Africa Compare To Human Rights Internationally" (PDF).
  26. "Faculty of Commerce at the University of Cape Town" (PDF).
  27. Sampson, Anthony (6 July 2003).
  28. Sampson 2011, pp. 510, 565–68; Meredith 2010, p. 573.
  29. Sampson 2011, pp. 510, 565–68; Meredith 2010, p. 573.
  30. Sampson 2011, pp. 560–561.
  31. "Analysis: Lockerbie's long road".
  32. "Nelson Mandela Invitational Tees Off".
  33. "Mandela 'responding well to treatment'".
  34. Tebas, Pablo (13 July 2000).
  35. "XV International AIDS Conference – Daily Coverage".
  36. Weir, Keith (13 April 2003).
  37. Jarrett Murphy (30 January 2003).
  38. Pienaar, John (1 September 2002).
  39. Battersby 2011, p. 593.
  40. "I'll call you".
  41. 41.0 41.1 Keyes, Allison (17 May 2005).
  42. 42.0 42.1 Hennessey, Kathleen (25 June 2013).
  43. Battersby 2011, p. 600; "Mandela joins 'Elders' on turning 89".
  44. 44.0 44.1 "Nelson Mandela Celebrates 90th Birthday by Urging Rich to Help Poor".
  45. Bingham, John (6 May 2008).
  46. "World Cup 'perfect gift for SA'". 11 May 2004 (7 March 2015).
  47. "Blatter presents Mandela with a special FIFA World Cup Trophy".
  48. Battersby 2011, p. 600; Batty, David (11 July 2010).
  49. Aislinn Laing, "Nelson Mandela, South Africa's anti-apartheid icon, dies aged 95", The Telegraph, 6 December 2013.
  50. Polgreen, Lydia (24 May 2013).
  51. David Smith in Johannesburg (3 July 2013).
  52. Moreton, Cole (2 July 2013).
  53. 4 July 2013 at By Henriette Geldenhuys.
  54. Battersby 2011, p. 607; "Nelson Mandela 'breathing on his own'".
  55. Jon Gambrell (11 December 2012).
  56. "Nelson Mandela, 94, responding positively to treatment in hospital | CTV News".
  57. "Nelson Mandela arrives home in ambulance".
  58. "Nelson Mandela hospitalized in serious condition".
  59. "Nelson Mandela's Condition Becomes Critical".
  60. Karimi, Faith; Norgaard, Kim (23 June 2013).
  61. "Nelson Mandela in critical condition".
  62. Associated Press.
  63. AFP 2 (26 June 2013).
  64. "Zuma Cancels Trip Amid Mandela Worry".
  65. "Nelson Mandela released from hospital".
  66. "Mandela discharged from South Africa hospital".
  67. 67.0 67.1 "South Africa's Nelson Mandela dies in Johannesburg".
  68. Polgreen, Lydia (5 December 2013).
  69. Pillay, Verashni (6 December 2013).
  70. Vecchiatto, Paul; Stone, Setumo; Magubane, Khulekani (6 December 2013).
  71. "Speech by Minister of DIRCO, Maite Nkoana-Mashabane on confirmation of foreign Heads of State and Government attending activities relating to Former President Mandela's passing".
  72. Mount, Harry (9 December 2013).
  73. Robyn Dixon (3 February 2014).
  74. Sunter, Clem (6 December 2013).
  75. Cameron, Edwin (17 July 2013).
  76. Geoffrey York (16 April 2013).
  77. Nelson Mandela Foundation.
  78. Jon Jeter (17 June 1999).
  79. Sampson 2011, p. 246; Smith 2010, p. 147; Meredith 2010, p. 481.
  80. Mandela 1994, pp. 144, 148–149; Sampson 2011, p. 36; Smith 2010, pp. 59–62.
  81. Mandela 1994, p. 296; Sampson 2011, p. 110; Smith 2010, pp. 102–104.
  82. "Genealogy".
  83. Andrew Quinn (16 April 2007).
  84. "Winnie Mandela".
  85. "Nelson and Winnie Mandela divorce; Winnie fails to win $5 million settlement".
  86. "Nelson Mandela to spend Christmas in S Africa hospital".
  87. Fairbanks, Eve (26 August 2009).
  88. "Mandela And The Dictators: A Freedom Fighter With A Complicated Past".
  89. "Nelson Mandela statue unveiled in Pretoria by Zuma".
  90. "Madiba conferred freedom of Johannesburg".
  91. "S. Africa renames Sandton Square as Nelson Mandela Square".
  92. Stern, Jennifer (27 August 2008).
  93. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1993".
  94. Battersby 2011, p. 601; "UN gives backing to 'Mandela Day'".
  95. "President Honors Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom".
  96. "Canada presents Nelson Mandela with the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee medal".
  97. "Mandela to be honoured with Canadian citizenship".
  98. 98.0 98.1 "How the awards have just kept flooding in".
  99. "Prizes: And the Winner Is..
  100. "List of all Bharat Ratna award winners".
  101. "Mandela in Pakistan".
  102. "Statement on the Ataturk Award given to Nelson Mandela".
  103. "The Order of Merit".
  104. "Stevie Wonder Music Banned in South Africa".
  105. "IMDB "Mandela" (TV) (1987)".
  106. Keller, Bill.
  107. "The Color of Freedom (2007)".
  108. Dowell, Ben (11 March 2009).
  109. Battersby 2011, p. 601; Keller, Bill (15 August 2008).
  110. Ross, Dalton (6 December 2013).